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mamma, a breast; mě-mor, mindful; på-påver (n.), a poppy; pǎ-pilla (diminutive of an assumed papa), a teat; pi-pire, to chirp; po-půlus, a people; avi-sqviliæ, refuse (comp. Ko-σKUλ-μária, and for the omission of s § 193); su-surrus, a whisper (comp. σūpíše v); titillare, to tickle; ti-tübāre, to stumble.

For the use of reduplication to form the present stem of verbs see § 628; and to form the perfect stem, § 665 sqq.

ii. Internal change is frequently found accompanying the addi- 742 tion of suffixes, or composition, but is then due mainly to the consequent shifting of the accent, or to the influence of neighbouring consonants. The usual changes have been set forth in Book I. There appear to be but few instances in Latin, in which there is clear evidence of internal change being employed as the main element in the formation of a word. Compare however, e. g. toga with těg-ĕre; sēd-es with sed-ere; fides with fidère; proc-us with precari (S$ 233. 1, 234. 5, &c.); duc-ere with duc- (dux); dicere with maledicus, &c.; vōc-, nom. vox, with vocare. For the change of vowel in forming the perfect tense see § 668.

But if, as is probable, the primary form of roots admits of short vowels only, then all instances of (apparent) roots with long vowels fall under this head (unless the long vowel is a compensation for omitted consonants); e. g. lux, pax, &c., scribere, ludere, &c.

iii. Suffixes are of three kinds: (1) Suffixes of inflexion, (2) stem- 743 suffixes (included under inflexions in Book II.), (3) derivative suffixes.

(1) Suffixes of inflexion are those which are employed to form the several cases and numbers of nouns, and the persons, moods, tenses, voice, &c. of verbs.

(2) Stem-suffixes are those which form the distinguishing marks of the several declensions of nouns, and the several conjugations (or classes) of verbs. In nouns of the first class they are a, e, o; in nouns of the second class u, i or e; in verbs a, u, e, i. A large class of nouns, and the most primitive verbs, have no stem-suffix.

The application of the stem-suffixes in Latin nouns coincides to a large extent with the distinction of gender: in verbs it coincides, at least as regards the a and e stems, to a noticeable degree with the distinction of transitive and intransitive action. The absence of a stem-suffix in many nouns is the result of the shifting of the accent, and consequent slurring of the end of the word, the consonant stem being thus reduced by one syllable from what was, or would otherwise have been, their full form (with a stem-suffix); e.g. præceps for præcipits, &c. In other nouns of the same class (consonant stems) there appears to be no clear ground for assuming the previous existence of a stem-suffix. (A similar loss or weaken

ing of the stem-suffix is held by Corssen1 to have occurred in the consonant verbs, regis, regit, regere, &c., being properly divided regi-s, regï-t, rege-re, &c. for earlier raga-sa, raga-ta, &c.)

Many noun-stems and many verb-stems are apparently formed directly from the root by the addition of these stem-suffixes. In some a reduplication or an internal change, especially of the vowel, occurs also. The formation of one word, compound or simple, from another is often effected by the substitution of the stem-suffix appropriate to one part of speech for that appropriate to another.

Words of simple form which contain no known derivative suffix are presumably formed in this way directly from the root. Instances may be collected from the lists given in this book.

The following are examples of the formation of nouns from 744 roots or from other words by the addition or substitution of no other than a stem-suffix. The majority of verbs are so formed (see Chap. x.).

A advěna, a stranger (adveni-re); conviva, a guest (conviv-ēre); funda, a sling (fund-ĕre); mõla, a mill (mõl-ère); scrība, a clerk (scrīb-ĕre); toga, a cloak (těg-ĕre); trăha, a sledge (trăh-ĕre).

O. ahenobarbus, bronze-beard (barba-); condus, a store-keeper (cond-ĕre); coqvus, a cook (cöqv-ĕre); fīdus, trusty (fid-ĕre, fide-s); Jugum, a yoke (comp. Jungère); mergus, a diver (merg-ère); nescius, ignorant (nesci-re); profügus, deserting (prōfügě-re); prōmus, a butler (prōm-ěrě); rõgus, a funeral pile (rěg-ĕre, comp. erigere, to erect); sonus, a sound (son-ĕre and sõnāre).

U. ǎcus, a needle (ǎc-, comp. ǎc-u-ère); currus, a chariot (curr-ĕre); domus, a house (comp. Séμ-eɩv, to build, đŏmāre, to tame).

I (or E). abnormis, abnormal (norma-); bilingvis, two-tongued (lingva); nubes, a cloud (nub-ĕre, to cover, comp. vép-os); rūpes, a rock (rump-ere, to break); sēdes, a seat (sed-ēre); věhes, a cartload (věh-ĕre).

Consonant. dux, a leader (duc- comp. duc-ère); incus, an anvil (incüd-ĕre); obex, a bolt (obicě-re); plānipes, flatfooted (pěd-).

(3) Derivative suffixes are those additions (not being recognisable roots) which are interposed between the root and the stemsuffix; or, when there is no stem-suffix, between the root and the suffix of inflexion. If they are themselves recognisable as roots, the formation of the word belongs to the sphere of

(iv) Composition (which is treated of in Chapter XI.).

Interjections, some of which are words, some mere natural sounds, will be enumerated in the last Chapter.

1 Aussprache, II. 50, foll. ed. 2.



DERIVATIVE suffixes may originally have been words, but are 745 now merely sounds or combinations of sounds which have no separate use or separate meaning, but modify the meaning of the word to which they are suffixed. The same suffix does not usually express precisely the same modifications, and different suffixes often seem to have the same effect: compare -tüdön, -tia, -tāt, &c. Frequently indeed the use of a suffix may have proceeded from a fancied or imperfectly apprehended analogy; and the ending of a word, which is partly composed of stem-consonants or stem-vowels, and partly of a suffix, has been apparently taken for an entire suffix, and as such applied to other stems. Compare montānus, § 830, montuosus, §814. Sometimes the sense of the suffix has been obscured, and a further suffix is added to realize what the former suffix once expressed; e.g. puella is diminutive of puera, but afterwards supplanted puera as the ordinary term for a girl, and thus puellula was formed for a little or very young girl.

A light vowel, o, u, ě, more frequently 1, is often found between 746 the last consonant of the stem and the suffix. Its origin is not clear. Sometimes it appears to be part of the suffix; e.g. -ěc (-ic) in senex, pûmex, &c.; more frequently it appears to be the stemsuffix weakened; e. g. candidus from cande- (see the words given in § 816), altitudo from alto-; sometimes it appears to owe its birth to analogy with other words; sometimes to a desire to ease the pronunciation, or avoid the destructive effect of contiguous consonants; or even to render possible the use of the word in verse. It is indeed possible that it may be an expression of the slight sound occasioned by opening the organs, in order fully to articulate the final consonant (cf. § 9).

It has most frequently been treated in the following lists as the weakened stem-suffix; but its occurrence in words formed from consonant stems is by no means unusual, and seems to conflict with this theory of its origin. If these consonant stems are the stunted remnants of forms which originally were vowel stems, this weakened vowel may be the relic of the fuller form. (So in French the

final t of the Latin 3rd pers. sing. is preserved only before a vowel; e. g. a-t-il, and its meaning lost to the popular consciousness). If otherwise, one of the other explanations must be resorted to.

The long vowel, found not uncommonly in the same part of 747 a derivative, is sometimes part of the suffix; e.g. dum-ētum for dum-ec-tum; sometimes due to contraction of the stem-suffix with a short initial vowel of the suffix; e. g. the suffix -Ino appended to the stems Roma-, divo-, tribu-, mari-, ĕge- gives Romānus, divīnus, tribūnus, marīnus, egēnus: the suffix -i appended to ancora-, tribu-, fide-, civi- gives ancorālis, tribulis, fidēlis, civilis. Sometimes it is due to following a false analogy; e.g. mont-ānus, anser-inus, &c., virgin-ālis, rēg-ālis, &c.1

In other respects the ordinary laws of consonant and vowel changes (given in Book I.) are observed.

In the following lists many words, which so far as our know- 748 ledge goes are primitive, are given along with the derivatives, partly because of the difficulty and consequently arbitrary nature of an attempt to separate them, partly because, as was said above, the ending of a primitive word appears sometimes to have been supposed to be a suffix, and consequently to have been applied as a suffix in the formation of other words. The word-endings therefore, under which the Latin words are here arranged, are not Lecessarily, though they are usually (except as regards a long initial vowel, cf. § 747), suffixes.


These suffixes are sometimes simple, i. e. consisting of a single vowel, or a single consonant with a vowel; sometimes compound, i.e. consisting of two consonants with one or two vowels. pound suffixes are usually the result of adding a suffix to a stem which is itself a derivative; but sometimes the suffix, though originally compound, has come to be treated as if it were a simple suffix; e.g. -unculo: sometimes it may be really a word which has ceased to be used separately, and only appears now to be suffixal; e.g. -ginta, § 794, and perhaps -gno, -mōnio, -cinio, &c.

The primary arrangement of noun-endings is according to the 749 consonant or vowel which immediately precedes either the stemsuffix, or, in consonant nouns, the suffix of inflexions. Subordinately to this, first come all word-endings which have the stem-suffix of nouns of the first class (o being used, for convenience sake, as inclusive of a); secondly, word-endings of the second class. The simplest endings, among which are those beginning with short vowels, are put first; then such compound endings as have a conso

1 Key, Lat. Gr. §§ 227. 232.

nant before the same short vowel; then simple endings with long vowels; lastly, compound endings with the same long vowel. The order of the consonants and vowels is the same as in Books I. and II.: the order of the words is alphabetical.

The lists are intended to be fairly complete, except in those classes of derivatives which contain too numerous instances to be conveniently or usefully given. Of these a full and typical selection is given. But the lists do not as a rule, though they do sometimes, contain,

(1) Words found only in writers later than Suetonius.

(2) Words only quoted by Nonius or Festus, or other grammarians, and some others of early or rare use.

(3) Words (especially technical or scientific words), found only and seldom in Cato, Varro, Vitruvius, Celsus, Pliny the elder, Columella, Petronius. Many such are however given.

(4) Compounds with prepositions, if the simple form is also found.

(5) Words borrowed from the Greek.




i. Stems ending in -po, -pl, -p.

1. Adjectives: crispus, curling; lippus, blear-eyed; obstipus, 750 bent.

[blocks in formation]

(a) Masculine: capus, a capon; cippus, a post or upright block; lupus, a wolf (comp. λúkos, § 66); napus, a turnip; pūpus, a boy; rumpus (Varr.), a vine branch; scapus, a stem (comp. scōpæ, scipio, σк1π-троv); scirpus, a rush; scrūpus, a rough stone (scrupulus more common); stloppus, a slap; struppus, a cord (from στpódos?); verpus, a circumcised man.

popa, a sacrificing priest (i. e. cöqva, cf. § 118).

(b) Feminine: alăpa, a slap; cōpa, a barmaid (comp. caupo, κάπηλos); culpa, a fault; cupa, a tub; lappa, a bur; mappa, a napkin; něpa, a scorpion (African word?); pulpa, fleshy substance;

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