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pūpa, a girl; rīpa, a stream bank; scopa (pl.), twigs (see scapus); săpa, must boiled down to a third (comp. ómós); stuppa, tow; talpa (rarely m.), a mole; vappa, flat wine (comp. văp-or, văpidus); vespa, a wasp (comp. opņš).

(c) Neuter: gausăpum, a frieze cloth (cf. § 410); palpum, stroking (only found in acc. and abl.); rapum, a turnip. -pho lympha, water (for výuon ?). -pi

ăpis (f.), a bee (comp. cutis, a gnat); cæpe (n.), an

onion; copis, plentiful (com, öp-?); puppis (f.), a ship's stern; rūpes (f.), a rock (rump-ěre); sæpes (f.), a hedge (comp. onkós, $ 66); stirps- (f.), a stock; turpis, foul; volpes (f.), a fox (comp. αλώπηξ). -p ădeps (m. f.), fat (comp. alega, ointment, cf. § 174. 4);

daps (f.), a banquet (comp. Šátely to devour, darávn, deitvov); ops (f.), help (comp. äp-evos); stips, a small gift in coin.

Compound stem-ending: only půlo, S 860.


ii. Siems ending in -bo, -bi, -b. -bo 1. Adjectives: ăcer-bus, bitter (comp. aceri-); albus, white; 751

balbus, lisping; gibbus, humped (comp. KÚTI-TELV); orbus, bereft (comp. opp-avos); próbus, honest; súper-bus,

baughty (súper). Substantives : (a) Masculine: barbus, a barbel; bulbus, a bulb (Boxßós); cibus, food; columbus (also columba, f.), a pigeon; glóbus, a ball; limbus, a border or fringe; lumbus, a loin; mor-bus, disease (mör-i); nimbus, a rain-cloud (comp. vég-os, nubes); rūbus, a bramble; túbus, a pipe.

Galba (see Suet. Galb. 3 ; some compare Germ. gelb, yellow); scrīb-a, a clerk (scrīb-ére, § 744).

(6) Feminine: barba, a beard; făba, a bean; glāba or glæba, a sod; herba, grass (comp. ferre, popßh, pépelv, and § 134); júba, a mane; obba, a beaker; teba, a hill (old Sabine word); sorbus, a servicetree; túba, a trumpet (comp. tūbus); turba, a crowd (comp. tur-ma).

(c) Neuter: lībum, a cake; plumbum, lead (comp. pólußdos); sēbum, fat; sorbum, a service-berry; tābum, corrupt matter; verbum, a word (comp. Fep-, épeiv, § 91).

-bi corbis (m. f.), a basket; labes (f.), a spot (comp. Außn, 753

outrage); nubes (f.), a cloud (comp. něbŭla, véd-os); orbis (m.), a round; pălumbes (m. f.), à dove (comp. columbus and $ 66); plebs (f.), the common people (comp. plē-nus, pð-păl-us, ToAn-Bús, &c.); pūbes (f.), hair of commencing manhood; scobis (f.), sawdust (scăb-ěre); scrobis (m. f.), a ditch; tābes (f. § 411), decaying matter (comp. -kelv); urbs (f.), a city (comp. orbis).

cælebs (adj.), unmarried.


Compound stem-endings: - bundo, § 818; -bülo, -bili, -tibili, SS 861, 875, 876; -běro, -běri, SS 886, 901; -brio, $ 941.




iii. Stems ending in -mo, -mi, -m. 1. Adjectives:

al-mus, nourishing, kind (ål-ěre); firmus, firm; līmus, sideways, e.g. limis oculis, out of the corners of the eyes (for lic-mus: comp. oblīqvus); õpimus, fat, rich; sīmus, flat-nosed; pătrimus, having father living (patr-); matrīmus, having mother living (matr-).

bimus, two years old; trīmus, quadrīmus are probably compounds of him-, which appears uncontracted in hiem-p-s.

Substantives: (a) Masculine: ăni-mus, soul (comp. äveuos); ar-mus, a shoulder joint (äp-, ápaplokelv); călă-mus, a reed (probably from kálapos); culmus, a stalk, haulm; dūmus, a thicket (for dus-mus; comp. dao-ús); fimus, dung; fű-mus, smoke (cf. $ 99. 6); grūmus, a heap (of dirt, &c.); hāmus, a book; 11-mus, slime (for lit-mus; comp. 19-n-ěre); mimus, an imitator (from piuos?); nummus, a coin (comp. vouós); răcēmus, a bunch of berries (comp. pay-, ); rā-mus, a branch (for rad-mus? comp. rād-ix, padivos); rē-mus, an oar (comp. épetuúv, § 193); scalmus, a thole, is borrowed from σκαλμός.

(6) Feminine: dð-mus, a house (comp. dél-elv, domi-nus); hůmus, the ground (comp. xauai); põmus, a fruit-tree; ulmus, an elm.

ănima, breath (see animus); brū-ma, winter solstice (for brèvima, sc. dies); coma, hair of head (borrowed from kóun); damma, a hind; -ma, fame (fā-ri); Alam-ma, flame (for flag-ma; comp. flagrāre); forma, shape; gem-ma, a bud (for gen-ma; comp. gěn-Itůs): gluma, a husk (glūb-ěre); gro-ma, a surveyor's rod (from youwv); lăcri-ma, a tear (comp. dakpu-); lā-ma, a slough (for lac-ma; comp.

lăcus); lī-ma, a file; mamma, a teat; nor-ma, a standard (perhaps from yvwpquń); pal-ma, the palm of hand (comp. maláun); par-ma, a light shield; plūma, a feather; rīma, a chink (comp. ric-tus); Ro-ma, stream-city? (comp. ru-o, rīv-us, peüua: so Cors., Curt.); rūma, a breast; spū-ma, foam (spu-ere); squâma, a scale of a fish, &c.; strūma, a tumour; tama (Lucil.), a swelling in the leg (tůmēre ?); trā-ma, a web; tur-ma, a troop (comp. tur-ba); victima, a victim (victo-).

(c) Neuter: arma (pl.), arms (ap-, see above); põmum, an apple, fruit; võlema or volæma (pl.), a kind of pears. -åmo or -Imo. On the vowel preceding m see § 224. It may often 754

be that this vowel belongs to the stem, not to the suffix. (a) Superlatives: extrē-mus, outmost (for extra-imus); i-mus, inmost, at the bottom (for in-imus); inf-imus, lowest (inf-ěr, $ 885); min-imus, least (comp. min-Ōs-); plūr-imus (old ploirumus, § 264), most (for plo-ios-imus, plūr-imus; with plo-comp. plē-rique, mol-ús, Tide-iwv); postrē-mus, hindmost, last (for postera-imus); post-ūmus, esp. last born, usually, one born after his father's deaih (post; but the t may be part of the suffix; cf. § 535); pri-mus (for pris-mus, for pri-os-imus; comp. prior, pris-tinus, and $ 193. 2; or directly from pri-, a locative form seen in prī-die; or for pro-imus, comp. Tipútepos, pôros); prox-imus, nearest (pròque for prope? comp, namque and nempe, $ 517); sum-mus, upmost (for sub-mus; comp. sub, sup-er); suprē-mus, highest (for supra-imus). In Petron. $ 75, ipsimus, ipsima for master, mistress (ipso-). So also the adv. demum (downmost), at length (de).

(6) Ordinal numbers: děcimus, tenth (for decim-imus); septimus, seventh (for septim-Imus); quòt-umus, how manyth (quot; formed by Plautus in imitation of septimus); no-nus is perhaps for novimimus, contracted nõmus, by assimilation of m to the initial n. -iss-ůmo or -iss-imo, for -ios-umo; i.e. úmo, suffixed to the stem of 755

the comparative. For the omission or absorption of the o see SS 214, 242.

For the formation of the comparative & 917. The double s is due partly to the desire to indicate the length of the syllable (which moreover is accented), partly perhaps to preserve the sound of s sharp, instead of s flat or eventually r (cf. SS 187, 191. 5. 6). For the ordinary explanation see the Preface.

alt-iss-ůmus, highest (alto-, altios-); antīqv-iss-imus, most ancient (antiqvo-, antiqviõs-); audāc-iss-imus, boldest (audāci-, audāciðs-); běně-ficent-iss-imus, most benevolent (benefico-, beneficentios-, as if from a participial form); dign-iss-imus, worthiest (digno-, digniõs-); dūr-iss-Imus, hardest (dūro-, durios-); fēlīc-issimus, happiest (fēlīcifelīcios-); fertil-188-imus, most fertile (fertili-, fertilios-); frugālissimus, thriftiest (frügālios-, as if from frugālis, for which frügi, $ 1108, is used); imbēcill-188-imus, weakest (imbēcillo- and imbēcilli-, im

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bēcilliós-); ips-issumus (Plaut.), the very man (ipso-); max-imus, greatest (for mags-imus from magis för magios-); Öc-iss-imus, swiftest (ocios, comp. akús); neqv-iss-imus, absolutely good for nothing (neqvios- from nēqvam); sēvēr-iss-imus, strictest (sëvēro-, severiõs-); verběräbil-issimus (Plaut.), most thrashable (verberābili-); and many others. See Appendix. 1-ómo ?

These suffixes are formed in the case of a few superla- 756 r-imo

tives, where the final consonant of the simple adjective is 1 or r. Probably they are the result of a strong contraction, caused by the desire to avoid s following 1 or r (cf. $ 193. 5. c). The double 1 or r may be the result of assimilation ($ 176. 5), or evidence of the length of the syllable (see last section). Possibly the apparent analogy of altus, altissimus, &c. may have led to acer, acerrimus, &c.

făcill-imus, easiest (făcili-, facilios-). So also difficil-limus; grăcil-limus, thinnest (grăcili-); humil-limus, lowliest (hůmill-); simil-limus, likest (simili-) and dissimillimus.

ācer-rimus, sharpest (acri-, acrios- for ācērios-); asper-rimus, roughest (aspěro-, aspěrios-); cěler-rimus, quickest (cëjëri-, cělěrios-); crēber-rimus, most crowded (crebro-, crebrios-for creberios-); dēterrõmus, worst (deterios-, no positive); sălüber-rimus, most healthful (salubri-, salubrios.); văter-rimus, o dest (veteriós- from větăs-). So also māturrimus (oftener maturissimus), miser-rimus, pulcer-rimus, těnerrimus, tæterrimus, văferrimus, and the adverb nūper-rime, all from o stems; pauperrimus, überrimus, from consonant stems. -t-ŭmo) -t-imo /

(a) ædi-túmus, a sacristan (ædi-); fīni-timus, on the 757 borders (līni-); lēg-i-timus, lawful (lēg-); mări-timus,

by the sea (mări-). (6) Superlatives:

ci-timus, nearest here (ci-s; comp. ob-s, ul-s); dex-timus, on the extreme right (comp. dex-ter, deţiá, degetepós); ex-timus, outmost (ex); in-timus, inmost (in); op-timus, best (lit. overmost, upmost? ob-s; comp. éirí); pes-simus, worst (lit. bottom-most? pěd-; or from the stem of pessum?); sinis-timus, on the extreme left (only used with auspicium; comp. sinis-ter); ul-timus, furthest, last (ul-s).

sollistimum, only found with tripudium, is by some translated perfect, and derived from sollus (Oscan for totus), i.e. sõlus.

(c) Ordinal numbers from 20th to goth inclusive. The initial t of the suffix forms with the final t of the stem of the cardinal ss, of which one s was omitted; and in post-Augustan times the pre


ceding n was omitted (see § 168). Both the c and e of the ordinal are earlier sounds than the g and i of the cardinal. (Cf. S$ 104, 234).

8 vīcens-ūmus, vicēsimus, vīgēsimus (all found), twentieth (for vicenti-túmus; comp. viginti, vicies, and § 28. 2); tricens-umus, &c. thirtieth (triginta); quadrāgés-imus, fortie:h (quadrāgintā). So also qvinqvāgēsimus, sexāgēsimus, septuāgēsimus, octogēsimus, nõnāgēsimus, and perhaps centes-imus, hundredth, for centum-timus, centuntimus, cententimus (comp. e.g. regendum for regundum). -ēs-umo Ordinal numbers from 200th upwards to ioooth inclu- 758

sive. The first part of this suffix is due to the mistaken notion that in the lower numbers ēs was part of the suffix, instead of (as it really was) the representative of the last part of the cardinal. It is possible that centēsimus, which no doubt formed the immediate pattern for the higher numbers, may itself be a product of this false analogy.

ducent-ēs-imus, two hundredth (ducentī-); trecentēsimus, three hundredth (trecenti); qvadringent-ēsimus, four hundredih (quadringenti). So also qvinqvägēsimus, sexcentēsimus, septingentēsimus, octingentesimus, nongentēsimus, mill-ésimus, thousandih (mille), and (in Lucr.) multēsimus, many-th (multo-).

fames, hunger (cf. $ 99). Comp. also cůcůmis, comis, 759
rumis, vermis, &c. § 412.
hiemps, winter (cf. § 134, and for the p § 70).



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Compound stem-endings: -mento, -mět, SS 792, 806; -mino, -měn, $$ 825, 850; -mnio, $ 934; -monio, $ 935.

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iv. Stems ending in -vo, -uo, -vi. -vo is found after vowels, or 1 or r; -uo after other consonants 760 (p, b; C, 8; t, d, n; also tr).

1. Adjectives:

arvus (rare), ploughed (comp. år-āre); căvus, hollow 761 (comp. cælum, koîños); calvus, bald; cur-vus, curved (comp. cir-cus, kUp-tós, kuh-Nós); fāvus, golden in colour; fulvus, tawny (comp. fulgere); furvus, brown; gilvus, dun; gnā-vus, knowing (comp. gno-scere); helvus, yellow (comp. xlón, xw-pós); lævus, on lefthand (comp. dalós); nóvus, new (comp. veós); parvus, small (comp. par-cus, taūpos); prāvus, wrong; prī-vus, single, one's own (lit. standing forward; comp. prī-mus, $ 754); prótervus, frolicsome; rāvus, gray, hoarse; sävus, raging; salvus, safe (comp. oủlos, Ölos, sālus); scævus, on the left hand (comp. okalós); torvus, grim; vīvus, living (cf. § 129 c).

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