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pūpa, a girl; rīpa, a stream bank; scope (pl.), twigs (see scapus); săpa, must boiled down to a third (comp. orrós); stuppa, tow; talpa (rarely m.), a mole; vappa, flat wine (comp. văp-or, vǎpidus); vespa, a wasp (comp. opń§).

(c) Neuter: gausǎpum, a frieze cloth (cf. § 410); palpum, stroking (only found in acc. and abl.); rapum, a turnip.

-pho -pi

lympha, water (for vúμßn ?).

ǎpis (f.), a bee (comp. éunis, a gnat); cæpe (n.), an onion; copis, plentiful (com, Ŏp-?); puppis (f.), a ship's stern; rupes (f.), a rock (rump-ère); sæpes (f.), a hedge (comp. onkós, § 66); stirps (f.), a stock; turpis, foul; volpes (f.), a fox (comp. ἀλώπηξ).


ǎdeps (m. f.), fat (comp. äλeupa, ointment, cf. § 174. 4); daps (f.), a banquet (comp. Sáπтew to devour, dañávη, deîñvov); ops (f.), help (comp. äp-evos); stips, a small gift in coin.


Compound stem-ending: only pulo, § 860.


ii. Stems ending in -bo, -bi, -b.

1. Adjectives: acer-bus, bitter (comp. aceri-); albus, white; 71 balbus, lisping; gibbus, humped (comp. Kúπ-тeι); orbus, bereft (comp. ópþ-avós); pròbus, honest; súper-bus, haughty (super).


(a) Masculine: barbus, a barbel; bulbus, a bulb (Boλßós); cibus, food; columbus (also columba, f.), a pigeon; globus, a ball; limbus, a border or fringe; lumbus, a loin; mor-bus, disease (mòr-i); nimbus, a rain-cloud (comp. vép-os, nübes); rūbus, a bramble; tubus, a pipe.

Galba (see Suet. Galb. 3; some compare Germ. gelb, yellow); scrib-a, a clerk (scrīb-ère, § 744).

(b) Feminine: barba, a beard; făba, a bean; gleba or glæba, a sod; herba, grass (comp. ferre, popßý, pépew, and § 134); jùba, a mane; obba, a beaker; teba, a hill (old Sabine word); sorbus, a servicetree; tŭba, a trumpet (comp. tubus); turba, a crowd (comp. tur-ma).

(c) Neuter: libum, a cake; plumbum, lead (comp. μóλußdos); sēbum, fat; sorbum, a service-berry; tābum, corrupt matter; verbum, a word (comp. Fep-, épeîv, § 91).


corbis (m. f.), a basket; lābes (f.), a spot (comp. Außŋ, 752 outrage); nubes (f.), a cloud (comp. něbula, véþ-os); orbis (m.), a round; pălumbes (m. f.), a dove (comp. columbus and § 66); plebs (f.), the common people (comp. ple-nus, pŏ-půl-us, πλŋ-Oús, &c.); pubes (f.), hair of commencing manhood; scobis (f.), sawdust (scăb-ĕre); scrobis (m. f.), a ditch; tābes (f. § 411), decaying matter (comp. Tý-KEL); urbs (f.), a city (comp. orbis).

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Compound stem-endings: -bundo, § 818; -bŭlo, -bili, -tibili, $$ 861, 875, 876; -běro, -běri, §§ 886, 901; -brio, § 941.



iii. Stems ending in -mo, -mi, -m. Adjectives:

al-mus, nourishing, kind (ǎl-ĕre); firmus, firm; līmus, sideways, e. g. limis oculis, out of the corners of the eyes (for lic-mus: comp. obliqvus); õpimus, fat, rich; sīmus, flat-nosed; pătrimus, having father living (patr-); matrīmus, having mother living (matr-).

bimus, two years old; trimus, quadrimus are probably compounds of him-, which appears uncontracted in hiem-p-s.

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(a) Masculine: ăni-mus, soul (comp. äveμos); ar-mus, a shoulder joint (ap-, ȧpapíσkei); călă-mus, a reed (probably from Káλaμos); culmus, a stalk, haulm; dūmus, a thicket (for dus-mus; comp. dao-us); fimus, dung; fù-mus, smoke (cf. § 99. 6); grūmus, a heap (of dirt, &c.); hāmus, a book; l-mus, slime (for lit-mus; comp. -n-ère); mimus, an imitator (from pipos?); nummus, a coin (comp. vouós); răcēmus, a bunch of berries (comp. pay-, pá§); ra-mus, a branch (for rad-mus? comp. rād-ix, padivos); rē-mus, an oar (comp. éρeтμúv, § 193); scalmus, a thole, is borrowed from σκαλμός.

(b) Feminine: do-mus, a house (comp. déμ-elv, dŏmí-nus); humus, the ground (comp. xauaí); põmus, a fruit-tree; ulmus, an elm.

ǎnima, breath (see animus); bru-ma, winter solstice (for brěvima, sc. dies); còmà, hair of head (borrowed from κóμŋ); damma, a hind; fa-ma, fame (fā-ri); flam-ma, flame (for flag-ma; comp. flagrāre); forma, shape; gem-ma, a bud (for gen-ma; comp. gen-Itus): gluma, a husk (glüb-ère); grō-ma, a surveyor's rod (from yvwμwv); lăcri-ma, a tear (comp. dakpv-); lã-ma, a slough (for lac-ma; comp.


lăcus); li-ma, a file; mamma, a teat; nor-ma, a standard (perhaps from yvwpiμn); pal-ma, the palm of hand (comp. пaλáμŋ); par-ma, a light shield; plūma, a feather; rīma, a chink (comp. ric-tus); Rō-ma, stream-city? (comp. ru-o, rīv-us, peûμa: so Cors., Curt.); ruma, a breast; spu-ma, foam (spu-ere); squama, a scale of a fish, &c.; struma, a tumour; tama (Lucil.), a swelling in the leg (tümēre?); tra-ma, a web; tur-ma, a troop (comp. tur-ba); victima, a victim (victo-).

(c) Neuter: arma (pl.), arms (ap-, see above); pōmum, an apple, fruit; võlema or volæma (pl.), a kind of pears.

-ǎmo or -imo. On the vowel preceding m see § 224.

It may often 754 be that this vowel belongs to the stem, not to the suffix. (a) Superlatives: extrē-mus, outmost (for extra-imus); i-mus, inmost, at the bottom (for in-imus); inf-imus, lowest (inf-ěr, § 885); min-imus, least (comp. min-ōs-); plūr-ĭmus (old ploirumus, § 264), most (for plo-ios-imus, plür-imus; with plo- comp. plē-rique, toλ-ÚS, πλe-íwv); postrē-mus, hindmost, last (for postera-imus); post-ūmus, esp. last born, usually, one born after his father's death (post; but the t may be part of the suffix; cf. § 535); pri-mus (for pris-mus, for pri-os-imus; comp. prior, pris-tinus, and § 193. 2; or directly from pri-, a locative form seen in prī-die; or for pro-imus, comp. πруτероя, πртos); prox-imus, nearest (proque for prope? comp. namque and nempe, § 517); sum-mus, upmost (for sub-mus; comp. sub, sup-er); suprē-mus, highest (for supra-imus). In Petron. § 75, ipsimus, ipsima for master, mistress (ipso-). So also the adv. demum (downmost), at length (de).

(b) Ordinal numbers: děcĭmus, tenth (for decim-imus); septimus, seventh (for septim-imus); quot-umus, how manyth (quot; formed by Plautus in imitation of septimus); no-nus is perhaps for novimĭmus, contracted nõmus, by assimilation of m to the initial n. -iss-ŭmo or -iss-imo, for -iōs-umo; i. e. ŭmo, suffixed to the stem of 755 the comparative. For the omission or absorption of the ō see §§ 214, 242. For the formation of the comparative § 917. The double s is due partly to the desire to indicate the length of the syllable (which moreover is accented), partly perhaps to preserve the sound of s sharp, instead of s flat or eventually r (cf. §§ 187, 191. 5. 6). For the ordinary explanation see the Preface.

alt-iss-umus, highest (alto-, altiōs-); antīqv-iss-imus, most ancient (antiqvo-, antiqviōs-); audāc-iss-imus, boldest (audāci-, audāciōs-); běně-ficent-iss-imus, most benevolent (benefico-, beneficentiōs-, as if from a participial form); dign-iss-imus, worthiest (digno-, digniōs-); dür-iss-imus, hardest (dûro-, duriōs-); fēlīc-issimus, happiest (felici-, felīciōs-) ; fertil-iss-imus, most fertile (fertili-, fertiliōs-); frugālissimus, thriftiest (frūgāliōs-, as if from frugālis, for which frügi, § 1108, is used); imbecill-iss-imus, weakest (imbecillo- and imbecilli-, im

bēcilliōs-); ips-issumus (Plaut.), the very man (ipso-); max-ĭmus, greatest (for mags-imus from magis for magiōs-); ōc-iss-imus, swiftest (ōciōs-, comp. @kús); neqv-iss-imus, absolutely good for nothing (neqvios- from nēqvam); sēvēr-iss-imus, strictest (sevēro-, severiōs-); verbĕrābil-issimus (Plaut.), most thrashable (verberābili-); and many others. See Appendix.

1-umo These suffixes are formed in the case of a few superla- 756 r-umo tives, where the final consonant of the simple adjective is 1 or r. Probably they are the result of a strong contraction, caused by the desire to avoid s following 1 or r (cf. § 193. 5. c). The double 1 or r may be the result of assimilation (§ 176. 5), or evidence of the length of the syllable (see last section). Possibly the apparent analogy of altus, altissimus, &c. may have led to acer, acerrimus, &c.

făcill-imus, easiest (făcili-, faciliōs-). So also difficil-limus; grăcil-limus, thinnest (grăcili-); humil-limus, lowliest (humili-); simil-limus, likest (simili-) and dissimillimus.

acer-rimus, sharpest (acri-, acrios- for acĕrios-); asper-rimus, roughest (aspero-, aspèriōs-); cěler-rimus, quickest (célèri-, cèlèriōs-); crēber-rimus, most crowded (crebro-, crebriōs- for creberiōs-); dēterrimus, worst (deteriōs-, no positive); sălüber-rimus, most healthful (salubri-, salubriōs-); věter-rimus, oldest (veteriōs- from větŭs-). So also maturrimus (oftener maturissimus), miser-rimus, pulcer-rimus, tenerrimus, tæterrimus, våferrimus, and the adverb nuper-rime, all from o stems; pauperrimus, überrimus, from consonant stems.

-t-ŭmo) -t-imo

(a) ædi-tumus, a sacristan (ædi-); fini-timus, on the 757
borders (ini-); lēg-i-timus, lawful (lēg-); mări-timus,
by the sea (mări-).

(b) Superlatives:

ci-timus, nearest here (ci-s; comp. ob-s, ul-s); dex-timus, on the extreme right (comp. dex-ter, deέiá, deέitepós); ex-timus, outmost (ex); in-timus, inmost (in); op-timus, best (lit. overmost, upmost? ob-s; comp. éπí); pes-simus, worst (lit. bottom-most? pěd-; or from the stem of pessum?); sinis-timus, on the extreme left (only used with auspicium; comp. sinis-ter); ul-timus, furthest, last (ul-s).

sollistimum, only found with tripudium, is by some translated perfect, and derived from sollus (Oscan for totus), i.e. sõlus.

(c) Ordinal numbers from 20th to 90th inclusive. The initial t of the suffix forms with the final t of the stem of the cardinal ss, of which one s was omitted; and in post-Augustan times the pre

ceding n was omitted (see § 168). Both the c and e of the ordinal are earlier sounds than the g and i of the cardinal. (Cf. §§ 104, 234).

vīcens-ŭmus, vīcēsīmus, vīgēsīmus (all found), twentieth (for vīcenti-tumus; comp. viginti, vicies, and § 28. 2); tricens-umus, &c. thirtieth (triginta); quadrāgēs-imus, fortieth (quadrāgintā). So also qvinqvāgēsimus, sexāgēsimus, septuāgēsimus, octōgēsimus, nōnāgēsimus, and perhaps centes-imus, hundredth, for centum-tĭmus, centuntimus, cententimus (comp. e. g. regendum for regundum). -ēs-umo Ordinal numbers from 200th upwards to 1000th inclu- 758 sive. The first part of this suffix is due to the mistaken notion that in the lower numbers es was part of the suffix, instead of (as it really was) the representative of the last part of the cardinal. It is possible that centēsimus, which no doubt formed the immediate pattern for the higher numbers, may itself be a product of this false analogy.

ducent-ēs-imus, two hundredth (ducenti-); trecentēsimus, three hundredth (trecenti); qvadringent-ēsimus, four hundredth (quadringenti). So also qvinqvāgēsimus, sexcentēsimus, septingentēsimus, octingentesimus, nongentēsimus, mill-ēsimus, thousandıh (mille), and (in Lucr.) multēsimus, many-th (multo-).



fames, hunger (cf. § 99). Comp. also cucumis, cōmis, 759 rumis, vermis, &c. § 412.

hiemps, winter (cf. § 134, and for the p § 70).

Compound stem-endings: -mento, -mět, §§ 792, 806; -mino, -měn, §§ 825, 850; -mnio, § 934; -mōnio, § 935.

iv. Stems ending in -vo, -uo, -vi.

-vo is found after vowels, or 1 or r; -uo after other consonants 760 (p, b; c, g; t, d, n; also tr).

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arvus (rare), ploughed (comp. ǎr-āre); căvus, hollow 761 (comp. cælum, koîλos); calvus, bald; cur-vus, curved (comp. cir-cus, KUP-TÓS, KUλ-λós); flavus, golden in colour; fulvus, tawny (comp. fulgere); furvus, brown; gilvus, dun; gnā-vus, knowing (comp. gno-scère); helvus, yellow (comp. xλó-n, xλw-pós); lævus, on lefthand (comp. Xalós); növus, new (comp. veós); parvus, small (comp. par-cus, πаûрos); prāvus, wrong; prī-vus, single, one's own (lit. standing forward; comp. pri-mus, § 754); protervus, frolicsome; rāvus, gray, boarse; sævus, raging; salvus, safe (comp. ovλos, öλos, gōlus); scaevus, on the left hand (comp. σkaιós); torvus, grim; Vīvus, living (cf. § 129 c).

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