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2. Substantives:

(a) Masculine: ǎcervus, a heap; alvus (m. f. § 336), the belly; ǎvus, a grandfather; cervus (horned; hence), a stag (comp. Kepaós); clāvus, a nail, helm; clīvus, a slope (comp. in-cli-nare, kλívw); corvus, a raven (comp. cornix, kópaέ); dīvus (diva, also deus, dea), a god, goddess; favus, a honeycomb cell; milvus, a kite; nævus, a mole on the body; nervus, a sinew, a cord (comp. vɛûpov); rīvus, a stream (comp. pev, fut. pevoew); servus (also adj. and serva, f.), a slave (sĕrĕre, join).

Nerva, a family name.

(b) Feminine: calva, a skull, or bald head; căterva, a crowd; clava, a club; gingīva, the gum of the teeth; larva, a mask; Minerva (old Menerva); malva, the mallow (comp. paλáxn, Hesiod); Ŏlīva (also Ŏlea), olive; comp. Matos); silva, a wood (comp. λn); stīva, a plough handle; valva, a folding-door; ulva, sedge; vulva, the womb; ūva, a grape.

(c) Neuter: ævum, an age (comp. alov, § 91); arvum, a field (comp. apów, plough); ervum, bitter vetch (comp. opoßos); ovum, an egg (comp. ov, § 91); urvum, a ploughtail (comp. curvus and § 121. 3).

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(a) from verb stems: ambig-uus, on both sides, ambiguous (amb-ig-ère); assĭd-uus, constant (adsid-ere); cæd-uus (of a wood), for cutting (cæd-ère); congru-us, suitable (congru-ère); contig-uus, touching (conting-ère); contin-uus, continuous (continere); dēcid-uus, falling (decid-ĕre); divid-uus, parted (divid-ère); exig-uus, small, orig. precise (exig-ĕre); ingĕn-uus, free-born (ingign-ĕre); innoc-uus, harmless (in, noc-ēre); mūt-uus, by way of change (mūtā-re); occid-uus, falling: hence, from the sun, western (occid-ère); pasc-uus, (of land) for grazing (pasc-ère); perpèt-uus, uninterrupted (perpětere); præcip-uus, taken in front, i. e. chief (præcip-ère); procid-uus (post-Aug.), falling forward (prōcid-ĕre); promisc-uus (also promiscus), mixed (promiscere); relic-uus (also relicus, § 160. 7), left behind, remaining (relinqv-ère); rěsid-uus, sunk to the bottom like dregs, left unused (resid-ere); rig-uus, irrig-uus, irrigated (rīgā-re); succid-uus (not præ-Aug.), sinking (succĭd-ĕre); văc-uus (§ 94. 2), empty (văcā-re); and others.

(b) from substantives, or of obscure origin: ann-uus, for a year (anno-); ard-uus, lofty (comp. ope-ós); cern-uus, headlong; fătuus, foolish; menstr-uus, monthly (mens-tr-i- from mensi-; cf. § 904); mort-uus, dead (morti-); strēn-uus, active; suus, his own; tuus, your; vid-uus, widowed (comp. di-vid-ĕre; Germ. wittwe, Engl. widow).

762

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(a) Masculine: carduus, a thistle; lituus, an augur's crook; patr-uus, a father's brother (patr-).

(b) Feminine: bēlua, a beast; jān-ua, a gate (jano-); noct-ua, an owl (nocti-); stăt-ua, a statue (stătu-); trua, a spoon.

(c) Neuter: februa (pl.), purgatives (febri-).

-Ï-VO

(For some words where the 1 is apparently radical 763 see § 761).

I. Adjectives:

æst-ivus, of summer (æstu-, heat); adopt-ivus, taken by choice (adoptā-re); căd-ivus (Plin.), falling (căd-ĕre); interněc-ivus, destructive (interněc-a-re); lasc-ivus, playful; noc-ivus (Phædr., Plin., but nocuus, Ov.), hurtful (nŏcēre); rěcid-ivus, restored (rěcid-ĕre); sēment-ivus, for sowing (sementi-); subsec-ivus, cut off, spare (subsěc-are); tempest-ivus, seasonable (tempos-; either the t is due to a false analogy with æstivus, or the word may be shortened for tempestativus); vŎc-ivus (or văc-ivus), early form for vacuus (văcă-re).

2. Substantives: Grādīvus (once Grădivus), a name of Mars; sǎl-iva, spittle (sal, salt).

-t-īvo i.e. -īvo, appended to the stem of the past participle. 764 (Only passivus exhibits the s, and that is not earlier than Appuleius).

1. Adjectives:

(a) General: ac-t-ivus, active, practical (ǎgere); adoptivus, adoptive (comp. adoptare, frequentative in form); cap-t-ivus, captured (cape-re); collec-tivus (post-Aug.), collected (collig-ère); condi-tivus, stored (cond-ĕre); fes-tivus, gay, handsome (festo-); fügi-t-ivus, run-away (fuge-re); fur-t-ivus, stolen (comp. fūrā-ri); insi-t-ivus, grafted (insĕrère); instaura-t-ivus (Cic.), renewed (instaurare); lucra-t-ivus, counted as gain (lucrā-r-); na-t-ivus, born, self-grown (na-sc-i-); præroga-t-ivus, first-asked (prærog-are); să-t-ivus, for sowing (se-rere); stå-t-ivus, stationary (stare); sec-t-ivus (Col., Plin.), split (sěcare); subdi-t-ivus, supposititious (sub-dĕre); vō-t-ivus, vowed (vō-vere); and others little used.

(b) Technical terms in rhetoric, grammar, &c.: defini-tivus, explanatory (definire); demonstrā-tivus, laudatory (demonstra-re); hortā-tivus, bortatory (horta-ri); laudā-tivus, laudatory (laudā-re); rătiōcinā-tivus, of reasoning (rătiōcinā-ri); translā-tivus, transferred (translato-); and others. Similarly in grammar (in Quintilian),

ablativus, accusativus, dătivus, nōminātivus, possessivus, rēlātivus; and others in later writers.

-vi

2.

Substantives: dōnativum (post-Aug.), a largess (dōnā-re).

ǎvis (f.), a bird; brevis, short (comp. Bpaxús, § 129); 765 civis (m.), a citizen (comp. qvi-es, kei-μal, Curt.); clāvis (f.), a key (comp. claudĕre, kλeís, kλŋîs); grăvis, heavy (comp. Bapús, as glans with Báλavos); levis, light (comp. éλaxús, § 129); nävis (f.), a ship (comp. vaûs); niv- (nom. nix., f.; cf. § 129. 2c); snow (comp. vp-eтós); pelvis (f.), a basin; rāvis (f.), hoarseness (comp. rau-cus); sva-vis, sweet (comp. svād-us, d‐ús).

-ui

grus (f.), a crane (comp. yépavos); lues (f.), pestilence (comp. ouos); strues (f.), a heap (comp. stru-ere, ster-nère); sus (m. f.), a pig (comp. vs); tenuis, thin (comp. tendère, těn-er, tavaús).

V. Stems ending in -fo.

offa, a morsel; rūfus, red; scrofa, a sow; tōfus, tufa stone.

766

-CO

CHAPTER IV.

GUTTURAL NOUN-STEMS.

i. Stems ending1 in -co, -qvo; -cu, -ci, -qvi; -c, -qv.

I. Stems ending in -co, -qvo.

I. Adjectives:

æqvus, level; averruncus, averting; cæcus, blind; cascus, 767 old; coruscus, flashing; flaccus, flabby; fuscus, dark coloured; luscus, one-eyed; mancus, maimed; parcus, thrifty; paucus, few (comp. Tau-рos); Plancus (plano-?); priscus, ancient (prius); raucus (for ravicus), hoarse (ravi-); reciprocus, backwards and forwards (rěco, pro-co, derivatives of re and pro; Key, Essays, p. 74 sq.); siccus,

1 On suffixes with -c see Key, Philol. Soc. Trans. for 1856,

dry (for siti-cus from sitis, thirst?); spurcus, dirty; truncus, lopped; vescus, small.

2. Substantives:

(a) Masculine: ăbăcus, a table or board; arcus (arqvus), a bow (see $395); circus, a ring (κpíkos, Hom.); cocus (coqvus), a cook; ĕcus (eqvus), a horse (comp. iππоя, § 118); fiscus, a basket; floccus, a flock of wool; focus, a hearth; fūcus (1), seaweed (comp. pûkos, Hom.); (2) a drone; hircus, a goat; jocus, a joke; juncus, a bulrush; juven-cus, a bullock (jůvěn-); lăcus, a pool (cf. §§ 395, 776); locus, a place; lücus, a grove; maccus, a clown (comp. μakкoâv, to moan); Marcus, hammer? a Roman prænomen; mucus, snot (comp. mungère); pīcus, a woodpecker; porcus, a pig; procus, a suitor (comp. prěca-ri); saccus, a bag (comp. σáκкos); soccus, a slipper; sucus, juice (comp. oπós, § 107); sulcus, a furrow (comp. oλkós, KEL); truncus, a lopt stem (see above); vīcus, a street (comp. oikos); vopiscus (see Plin. 7. 10, § 8).

Roman family names: Murcus; Sěněca (sěněc‐, old); Tucca.

(b) Feminine: ficus, a fig-tree; ruscus (or ruscum, n.?) butcher's broom.

ǎqva, water; arca, a chest (comp. arcēre, dρкeîv); bacca, a berry; bracca (pl.), breeches; bucca, a cheek; esca, food (ed-, èdère, esse, to eat); furca, a fork; jŭvenca, a heifer (see above); labrusca, a wild vine; marisca, a kind of fig; mica, a grain; mollusca, a soft nut (molli-); musca, a fly (comp. μvîa for μvoía?); orca, a whale, a tun; Parce (pl.), Fates (from par-ti-, the apportioners? comp. poipal, pépos: or eulogistic from parc-ère, to spare?); porca, (1) a furrow; (2) a farrow, i. e. a sow (cf. Key, Essays, p. 95); posca, an acid drink; rica, a woman's veil; sīca, a dagger; spīca, an ear of corn; ; trīce (pl.), trifles; vacca, a cow.

(c) Neuter: molluscum, a fungus (molli-); naucum (?), a trifle (?); tesca (tesqva, pl.), waste places; viscum, mistletoe (comp. ιξός).

I-co

i.e. (usually) -co, suffixed to vowel stems.

1. Adjectives: Afri-cus, of the Afri (Afro-); belli-cus, 768 of war (bello-); cīvi-cus, of a citizen (cīvi-); classi-cus, of a class, Esp. the fleet (classi-); Crēti-cus, of Crete (Crēta-); domini-cus, of a master (domino-); fullōn-icus, of a fuller (fullōn-); Germāni-cus, of Germans (Germano-); lubricus, slippery; mangōn-icus (Plin., Suet.), of a dealer (mangōn-); mědi-cus, of healing (mědě–, mědēri); modi-cus, moderate (modo-); publi-cus, public (populo-, cf. § 69); sonti-cus, dangerous (sonti-, guilty); tětri-cus, rough (comp. tætro-?); uni-cus, single (ūno-); urbi-cus, of the city (urbi-).

Also common in Greek words; e.g. cōmicus, grammăticus, poēticus, &c.

2. Substantives:

(a) Masculine: vili-cus (vilica), a farm steward (villa-).

(b) Feminine: ǎlica (halica), spelt; brassica, cabbage; fabri-ca, a manufacture (fabro-); fōricæ (pl.), see Juv. 3. 38; fùlica (fulix), a coot; măni-cæ (pl.), gloves, handcuffs (mănu-); pěd-ica, a snare (pěd-, foot); ridica, a vineprop; siliqva, a pod; sublica, a pile for a bridge, &c.; túnica, a shirt; vòmi‐ca, a running abscess (vòměre, cf. § 698).

(c) toxicum, poison, orig. for smearing arrows (ró§OV).

-ti-co

i. e. -co added to real or presumed adjectives in -to.

I. Adjectives: dŏmesticus, of home (domo-; comp. modestus, § 789; agrestis, § 808); Ligus-ticus, of the Ligurians (Ligus-); rus-ticus, of the country (rüs-).

2. Substantives: can-ticum, a song (can-to-, cănĕre); mantica, a bag; pertica, a pole; scutica, a whip (comp. scutum, a leathern shield); trī-ticum (threshed) wheat, corn (trī-to-, těrère).

769

-āti-co 1. Adjectives: ăquaticus, living in or near water (ăqua-); 770 erraticus, wandering (errāre); fanaticus, inspired (fāno-); lymphaticus, of the frenzied (lymphato-, lympha-); silvaticus, of a wood (silva-); vēnaticus, for hunting (vēnāri-); umbraticus, of the shade (umbra-); võlaticus, winged (võlā-re, to fly).

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2. Substantives: viaticum, journey-supplies (via-; comp. viātor).

2.

1. Adjectives: fămē-licus, starving (fămē-); hiu-lcus, 771
gaping (hia-re; cf. § 204. 2 e); pětu-lcus, frolicsome
(pět-ère, cf. § 657, and comp. pětůl-ans).

Substantives: bubul-cus, an ox-tender, i.e. a ploughman (bov- whence bubulus, cf. § 76. 2); sub-ulcus, a swineherd (sufor sov-? or perhaps the word is simply formed in imitation of bubulcus); rēmulcum (only in abl. s.), a towrope (probably from Greek; comp. pvμovλkeîv, Polyb.).

-ri-co

-r-co S

-in-qvo -iqvo

-āco

vitricus, a stepfather; noverca, a stepmother (novo-; comp. νέος, νεαρός).

Adjectives: ant-iqvus, ancient (for antingvus? from 772 ante, but cf. § 774); long-inqvus, distant (longo-); propinqvus, near (prope).

(In obliqvus the q is radical; comp. lic-Inus, λéx-pios). měr-acus, pure (of wine without water; měro-); Ŏp- 773 acus, shady; clo-aca, a sewer (cluere old = purgare: comp. κλύζειν).

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