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2. Substantives: (a) masculine or feminine: bõletus (m.), a kind of mushroom (from Bwλirns?); Mõneta, a surname of Juno, in whose temple money was coined: hence mint; rubeta, a toad (said to be from rubo-, bramble).

(b) neuter: (1) ǎcetum, vinegar (ace-sc-ere); tăpetum (cf. § 418), a carpet; tēmetum, intoxicating drink (comp. tēm-ulentus, abs-tēm-ius); trăp-etum (cf. § 418), an olive mill.

(2) Names expressing a place where a plant, &c. grows: (But few of these words are used frequently):

æscul-etum (Hor.), an oak forest (æsculo-); ǎrundin-etum, a reed bed (arundon-); aspr-etum, rough place (aspĕro-, § 347); buxetum (Mart.), box plantation (buxo-); castǎn-etum (Col.), chestnut grove (castanea-); cupress-etum, a cypress grove (cupresso-); dūmetum, a thicket (dūmo-); fim-etum (Plin.), dunghill (fimo-); fruticetum, a shrubbery (frůtěc-); myrt-etum, myrtle grove (myrto-); Ŏliv-etum, an oliveyard (ŏlīva-); pīn-etum, pine grove (pīno-); qverc-etum, oak grove (qverco-); rõs-etum, rose bed (rosa-); saxētum (once Cic.), bed of rocks (saxo-); senti-c-etum (Plaut.), thorn bed (senti-: formed in analogy with fruticetum?); sěpulcr-etum (Catull.), a graveyard (sepulcro-); větěr-etum (Colum.), old fallow land (větůs-); vīn-etum, a vineyard (vīno-); with others used very rarely. So Argiletum, marlbed (argilla-), popularly misunderstood by the Romans.

-Ito

1. Participles from verbs with -i stems (§ 695); e. g. 799
aud-itus, heard (aud-ire); &c.: and adjectives formed
as such:

ǎv-itus, of a grandfather (ăvo-); aur-itus, with ears (auri-); Cerr-ītus (for Cereritus), frenzied by Ceres' influence (Cèrès-); crīnitus, hairy (crini-); fortu-ītus (Hor., Phædr.), fortuitus, (Manil., Petr., Juv.), by chance (forti-, cf. § 405); gratu-itus (Plaut.), gratu-itus (Stat.), without pay (comp. gratia-); măr-itus, married, of marriage (măsi-); mell-itus, honeyed (mell-); patr-itus, of a father (patr-); pell-itus, skin-clad (pelli-); pĕr-itus, skilled (cf. p. 254); sci-tus, clever, knowing (scī-re); turr-itus, turreted (turri-).

2. Substantives: pītu-ita, phlegm (comp. πтúεш, spu-ĕre); scriblita, a cake.

ii. Stems ending in -tu, -ti, -t (-su, -si, -s when presumably arisen from a dental).

-tu (-su) Substantives derived mostly from verbs, and generally 800 denoting an act. (The accusative and ablative cases are

the so-called supines.) See §§ 397-399 and Book II. Chap. XXIV.

adven-tus, an arrival (advěn-īre); æs-tus, heat (comp. aïeiv, to set on fire); ămic-tus, a garment (ămic-ire); anfractus, a circuit, a bend (am, frang-ere); anhēl-itus, panting (anhēlā-re); appărā-tus, equipment (appărā-re); appētī-tus, appetite (appeti-, appet-ĕre); arbitr-atus, judgment, choice (arbitrā-ri); ar-tus, a joint (comp. apei, to fit); aspec-tus, sight (aspice-re); as-tus, cunning (§ 396); auditus, hearing (audī-re); bālā-tus, a bleating (bālā-re); cæs-tus, a gauntlet (cæd-ĕre? hence a strip); can-tus, a song (căn-ĕre); cap-tus, grasp, esp. mental (căpĕ-re); că-sus, an accident (căd-ĕre); cen-sus, a reckoning (censēre); coitus, a connexion (co-ire); cœtus, an assembly (same as last); comĭtā-tus, a train (comĭtā-re); crěpi-tus, a rattling (crepare); crùciā-tus, torturing (crucia-re); decur-sus, a descent, a course (decurr-ère); delec-tus, a selection, levy (dēlig-ĕre); even-tus, an occurrence (even-ire); exerci-tus, an army (exercere); exi-tus, departure (exīre); fastus, pride; fe-tus, bearing, offspring (comp. fe-cundus, fē-mina); flē-tus, weeping (fle-re); fluc-tus, a wave (flugv-, flu-ère); fruc-tus, enjoyment, fruits (frugv-, fru-i); ges-tus, gesture (gĕr-ĕre); gustus, taste (comp. yeveɩv); hǎbi-tus, habit in various senses (habe-re); hälitus, breath (comp. hālā-re); hia-tus, a gape (hiã-re); ic-tus, a blow (īc-ère); instinc-tus, instigation (instingv-ĕre); lessus (old word; only in acc. s.), wailing; luc-tus, grief (lūgēre); luxus, luxury; mercă-tus, trading (mercā-ri); mětus, fear; mō-tus, motion (mõvēre); mūgī-tus, loving (mugi-re); nexus, a bond (nect-ĕre); or-tus, a rising (ŏr-i-ri); par-tus, birth (părě-re); pas-sus, a step (pand-ère, to stretch); plau-sus, a clapping (plaud-ĕre); portus, a harbour; pō-tus, a drinking (comp. po-tā-re); progres-sus, an advance (progrěd-i); quæs-tus, gain (quær-ère); qves-tus, complaint (qvěr-i); ric-tus, mouth-opening (ring-i); ri-sus, laughter (rīdēre); rītus, a rite; sal-tus, a leaping (sălī-re), a mountain pasture (comp. aλ-oos?); sex-us, sex (sec-are?); si-tus, situation (sin-ĕre); spīr-itus, a breath (spīrā-re); strěp-I-tus, a din (strěp-ĕre); sum-p-tus, expense (süm-ĕre); tac-tus, a touch (tang-ĕre); tinnitus, a tinkling (tinni-re); transitus, a passage (transi-re); vestītus, dress (vesti-re); vic-tus, living, food (vigv-, viv-ĕre); vi-sus, sight (vid-ere); vol-tus, expression of countenance, looks, cf. Cic. Leg. 1. 9 (velle, Pr. Ind. võlo); û-sus, use (ūt-i); and many others. frétus (m.), a strait; impetus (m.), an onset (in pětěre); mětus (m.), fear; in which t is apparently radical.

-ul-tu

-ātu

sing-ultus, sobbing; tŭm-ultus, uproar (tŭm-ēre).

From substantives, but formed as if from verbs with -a 801 stems (e.g. consulāre, to be consul), denote (1) the holding office, (2) the office itself, (3) the body of officers.

cælib-atus (Sen. Suet.), celibacy (cælěb-); cib-atus (præ-Cic. and Plin.), food (cibo-); consul-atus, a being consul, the consulship (con

sul-); duc-atus (post-Aug.), leadership (dŭc-); ĕqvit-atus, cavalry (ĕqvět-); júdic-atus (Cic. once), judgeship (jūděc-); măgistr-atus, magistracy (măgistro-); rědít-atus, infantry (pědět-); pontific-atus, the pontificate (pontifěc-); prīm-atus (Varr., Plin.), primacy (prīmo-); princip-atus, chieftainship (princěp-); děcemvir-atus (so triumviratus, &c.), membership of a commission of ten (decemviro-); qvadrimatus (Plin., Col.), age of four years old (qvadrimo-); re-atus (see Quintil. 8. 3. 34), condition of an accused person (reo-); sen-atus, a body of old men (sen-, senex); summ-atus (Lucr.), sovereignty (summo-); tribun-atus, tribunate (tribūno-).

-ti (-si) 1. Adjectives: dīs, rich (contracted from dives); fortis, 802 brave; mītis, mild; necesse (indecl.), necessary (possibly

from ne, cēd-ere); potis, able (comp. róσis, a husband); sons, guilty; tristis, sad.

Cămer-s, a man of Camerinum; Tībur-s, a man of Tibur.

2. Substantives: (a) masculine and feminine: amussis (m.), 203 a carpenter's rule; antes (m. pl.) ranks; ars (f.), art (comp. ar-tus, a joint, ȧp-ap-íσkew); assis, usually as (m.), a penny; axis (m.), an axle-tree; cassis (m. § 432), a mesh of a net; cautēs (f.), a rock; classis (f.), a class, a fleet; cohors or cors (f.), a yard, a company (com, hor-; comp. xóp-ros); cōs (f.), a whetstone (comp. cautes); crātis (f.), a hurdle of wicker; cutis (f.), skin. (comp. scutum, σKŪTOS); dens (m.), a tooth (comp. ỏdovτ-, nom. odovs); ensis (m.), a sword; fons (m.), a spring of water, &c.; fors (f.), chance; frons (f. § 419), the forehead; fustis (m.), a cudgel; gens (f.), a race (gen-, gignere); grātēs (f. pl.), thanks (comp. gra-tus, gratia); hostis (m. f.), a stranger, an enemy; lens (f.), a lentil; lis (for stlis, f.), a strife, a suit; mens (f.), a mind (comp. re-min-isci); mensis (m.), a month (comp. unv, μývn); mes-sis (f.), karvest (mět-ĕre, to mow); mons (m.), a mountain; mors (f.), death (mòr-i); nǎtis (f.) a buttock; neptis (f.), a granddaughter (comp. něp-ōt-); nox (f.), night (comp. vʊêт-, nom. vú§); pars (f.), a part (comр. τор-, еñoрov aor., părě-re); pestis (f.), destruction (comp. perd-ĕre, Téρo-ew); pons (m.), a bridge (comp. pondus); postis (m.), a doorpost; puls (f.), pulse; rătis (f.), a raft (comp. rēmus, an car; ép-érns, a rower); restis (f.), a rope; sementis (f.), seedtime (semen-); sentes (m. pl.), thorns; sitis (f.), thirst; sors (f.), a lot (sĕr-ĕre, to put in rows); sponte (abl. s. f.), with a will; testis (m.) (Comp. TEK-, TÍKTeɩv); (m. f.), a witness (comp. Tek-μnpiov); tussis (f.), a cough; vatēs (m.), a seer; vec-tis (m.), a roller or lever (věh-ere); ves-tis (f.), a dress (comp. év-vúvai, éσ-Oýs); vī‐tis (f.), a vine (vi-ere, to weave).

-ǎt

(b) Neuters: lac (or lact), milk (comp. yaλaкr-); rēte, a net.

ǎnas (f.), a duck (comp. vñoσa).

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-út (-it)

-ěti

-ět

ǎliquot, some; quot, how many; tŏt, so many: all indeclinable adjectives.

caput (n.), a head (comp. кep-aλý).

hěběs, blunt; těrěs, round (tĕr-ere, to wear).

ǎbiēs (f.), a pine; ăriēs (m.), a ram; păriēs (m.), a wall; séges (f.), standing corn; těges (f.), a mat (těg-ĕre).

-ět (-It) al-es, winged (ala-); ăm-es (m.?), a vineprop (comp. 805 ǎp-isci); antistes (m. f.), a priest or priestess (ante, stǎ-); cæl-es (m.), a heaven-dweller (cælo-); cæspes (m.), turf; cocl-es (m.), a blind man (for sco-cul-ět-; comp. okÓ-TOS, Curt., Cors.); comes (m. f.), a companion (com); dīves, rich (comp. divo-); eqv-es (m.), a horseman (eqvo-); gurges (m.), a whirlpool; merges (f.?), a sheaf, also a pitchfork (comp. merge, a two-prong); miles (m. f.), a soldier; pěd-es (m. f.), a man on foot (pěd-); poples (m.), the back of the knee; præst-es (m. f.), protecting (præ, stă-); sătelles (m.f.), an attendant; sospes, saving, safe; stīpes (m.), a stock (comp. stip-ula, a straw); superstes, surviving (super, stă-); tŭdes (Fest.), a hammer (tundere); vēles (m.), a skirmisher (comp. vēl-ox). -m-ět (-mit) fō-mes (m.), tinder (föv-ēre); l-mes (m.), a balk 806 (li-mo-, slanting); palmes (m.), a vine shoot (pal-ma, a branch); tar-mes (m.), a woodworm (comp. těr-ebra, Teρ-ŋdwv); termes (m.), a cutting; trames (m.), a path (tra-ns).

-en-ti 1. Participles present active of verbs:

ǎma-ns, loving (ămā-); audi-ens, bearing (audī−); căpiens, taking (cape-re); gign-ens, begetting (gi-gn-ĕre); mon-ens, advising (mon-ēre); oblivisc-ens, forgetting (oblivisci); reg-ens, ruling (rěg-ĕre); tribu-ens, assigning (tribu-ĕre); and so from all verbs.

2. Adjectives, originally present participles, or formed as such:

absens, absent (abes-se); abundans, abundant (abunda-re, to overflow); arrogans, arrogant (arrògā-re, to claim); clēmens, merciful; congru-ens, suitable (congru-ère, to agree); contin-ens, contiguous (continere); dilig-ens, accurate (dilig-ère, to love); elegans, neat; ēlòqv-ens, eloquent (ēloqvi-); ēvid-ens, evident (ex vid-ēre); freqvens, crowded; impud-ens, shameless (in pud-ēre); innoc-ens, harmless (in noc-ēre); insòl-ens, excessive, haughty (in sõl-ēre, to be wont); insons, guiltless (in sons); líb-ens, willing (līb-ēre); lic-ens, presumptuous (lic-ere); pot-ens, powerful (pot-esse); prægnans, pregnant (lit. before bearing? præ, gen-); præsens, present (præ esse); præstans, excellent (præ-stare); prúd-ens, prudent (pro videre, to foresee); recens, fresh; repens, sudden; săp-iens, wise (săpĕ-re, to

807

have taste); splend-ens, glittering (splendere); stellans, starry (stella-); vǎlens, powerful (vălēre).

3. Substantives, originally participles, &c.:

ădulesc-ens (m.), a young man (adulesc-ère, to grow); ǎnimans, an animal (ănima-, breath); cli-ens (m. also clienta f.), a client (clu-ere, to hear); consentís (m. pl.), epithet of the twelve chief deities, the Colleagues (com esse); dext-ans (m.), five-sixths (lit. a sixth off, de-sexto-); dodrans (m.), three-fourths, lit. a fourth off (deqvadro-); infans, an infant (in, fa-ri); occid-ens (sc. sol), the west (occid-ere, to fall); oriens, the east (ŏrīri, to rise); părens (m. f.), a parent (părě-re); rudens (m.), a cable; serpens (m. f.), a snake (serpĕre, to crawl); sextans, a sixth (sexto-); torrens, a boiling rushing stream (torre-re, to burn); tri-ens (m.), a trithing, i.e. a third (tri-). 1-en-ti pesti-l-ens, pestilential (pesti-); pět-ül-ans, saucy (comp. petul-cus from pět-ere).

-s-ti

-āti

agre-stis, of the fields (agro-); cæle-stis, heavenly (cælo-). 8n8
Comp. also dŏm-esti-cus, § 769, silv-est-ris, § 904, ĕg-
est-ās, põt-est-as, § 811.

Adjectives expressing origin.

cūj-ās, of what country (cujo-); infernas, of the lower country (inferno-); infim-ātis, one of the lowest rank (infimo-); nostrās, a countryman of ours (nostro-); optim-ās (§ 418), one of the best party (optimo-); pěn-ates (m. pl.), household gods (pěno-, store); summ-ates (m. pl.), men of the highest ranks (summo-); supernas, of the upper country (superno-).

Similarly from Italian towns: Antiās, a man of Antium (Antium); Ardeas (Ardea); Arpīnas (Arpīnum); Atīnas (Atīna); Căpēnas (Căpēna); Căsīnas (Căsīnum); Fĕrentīnas (Ferentīnum); Fidēnas (Fidenæ but Fidēna, Verg.); Frusinas (Frùsino); Lārīnas (Larinum); Rǎvennas (Ravenna); Sarsinas (Sarsina); Urbīnas (Urbīnum).

-āt

-t-ät

damnas (cf. § 445), condemned (damnā-re); sǎti-ās, a glut (sǎtiä-re).

809

So usually, not tati-; cf. § 445. For the preceding short 810 vowel, e.g. Itas, see § 213. 6; Iětas, § 213. 5. c and 42; for its omission § 245. Abstract substantives, derived chiefly from adjectives (from 500 to 600 in number, according to L. Meyer): all feminine.

ǎcerbi-tas, tartness (acerbo-); ædili-tas, adileship (ædili-); æqvali-tas, equality (æqvali-); æqvi-tas, fairness (æqvo-); æs-tas, summer (for æsti-tas, æstu-); æ-tas, age (ævo-, § 94); æterni-tas, eternity (æterno-); affini-tas, relationship by marriage (affini-);

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