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ågili-tas, agility (àgili-); ameni-tas, pleasantness (ămono-); antīqvitas, antiquity (antiqvo-); anxie-tas, anxiety (anxio-); Apple-tas (formed by Cic. Fam. 3. 7), Appius-ness (Appio-); asperi-tas, roughness (aspěro-); assidui-tas, constant attention, frequency (assiduo-); atroci-tas, cruelty (atroci-); auctor-i-tas, advice, authority (auctor-); åvidi-tas, greediness (ăvido-); běnigni-tas, kindliness, bounty (běnigno-); cæci-tas, blindness (cæco-); călămitas (călămo-, a stalk? comp. káłapos and culmus), blight, disaster; cāri-tas, dearness (cāro-); cèlebri-tas, celebrity (celebri-); cīvi-tas, citizenship (cīvi-); dignitas, worthiness (digno-); dócili-tas, aptness for being taught (aðcili.); ēbriè-tas, drunkenness (@brio-); făcili-tas, easiness; făcul-tas, doableness, power (făcili-), fămiliāri-tas, intimacy (fämiliari-); hērēditas, inheritance (hērēd-); hones-tas, honourableness (hònős-); hůmāni-tas, fellow-feeling, politeness (hümāno-); immüni-tas, freedom from public charges (immũni-); Jůven-tas, youth (jůvěn-); lévi-tas, lightness (lëvi-); liber-tas, freedom (līběro-); mājes-tas, dignity (majõs-); mõrösi-tas, fretfulness (moroso-); nécessi-tas, necessity (necesse); pauci-tas, fewness (pauco-); pauper-tas, poverty (paupěr-); pie-tas, dutifulness (pio-); postěri-tas, posterity (postěro-); proprie-tas, proper quality, ownership (proprio-); qvāll-tas, quality (qvāli-); sătie-tas, satiety (comp. sătis, sătiāt-); sēcũri-tas, security (sēcũro-); simplici-tas, simplicity (simplici-, nom. simplex); societas, partnership (socio-); tempes-tas, a season, weather (tempos-); vărie-tas, variety (vărio-); über-tas, fertility (über-); věnus-tas, beauty (věnús-); vernīli-tas, slavishness, coarse jesting (vernii-); větus-tas, oid age (vetůs-); üni-tas, unity (ūno-); üniversi-tas, a whole, either of persons (i.e. a corporation) or of things (universo-); võlun-tas, will (for volenti-tas, $ 28); volup-tas, pleasure (volup, $ 516); ütili-tas, usefulness (ütili-); and many others. -es-t-āt ég-es-tas, want (ěg-ēre); pot-estas, power (poti-); pro- 811

bably formed as if from substantives in Ös- or 08- (as

honestas, tempes-tas). -oti dos (f.), a dowry (dă-). -ot něpās (m.), a grandson (comp. å-vey-tós, i.e. common

grandson); săcerdos (m. f.), a priest (săcăro-, da-). -üt

sălūs (f.), safety (for salvo-t-). -tüt Substantives feminine:

jåven-tus, youth (juven-); sěnec-tus, old age (sěn-ec-);

servi-tus, slavery (servo-); vir-tus, manliness (viro-). -ēti 1dcůples, rich (perhaps compound of 18co- and ple-to; cf.

Cic. Rep. 2. 16). For tăpēte (n.), trăpētes (m. pl.) see § 418 and -ēto, $ 798, i b.

812

Iti Quiris, a Roman citizen; Samnīs, a Samnite (Samnio-).

For dīs, mītis, &c. see under-ti ($ 802).

Compound stem-endings: -tắmo, § 757; -tīvo, § 764; -tico, -trīci, SS 769, 782; -tāt, -estāt, -tūt, SS 810, 811; -tüdon, $ 847; -tino, -ter-no, -tino, -trīno, SS 827, 829, 840, 842; -tion (-siõn), $ 854; -tibili (-sibili), $ 877; -tili (-sili), $ 878; -tero, -astěro, -tūro (-sūro), SS 888, 889, 893; -tru, -těri, -estěri, -těr, -tör (-sõr), SS 903-905, 908; -tīcio, - Itio, -ntio, -tārio (-sõrio), SS 931–933, 943.

-80

813

iii. Stems ending in -so, -si (for -to, -ti).

See under -to, SS 787, 788. oso For -onso ($ 191.'2), and this again perhaps for conti-o;

CoImp: γερουσία for γεροντία. The - probably caused

or assisted the assibilation (§ 143). Adjectives (said to be 500 in number) expressing fitness:

actu-osus, full of motion (actu-); æstu-osus, burning hot (æstu-): ambiti-osus, ambitious (ambitu-); ănțm-osus, spirited (ănimo-); ann-osus, full of years, aged (anno-); àqv-osus, watery (ňqva-); călămit-osus, disastrous (for călămitāt-osus); call-osus, hard-skinned (callo-); capti-osus, ensnaring, captious (captu- or caption-); căriosus, decayed (cărie-); clāmosus, screaming (for clāmās-osus); copiosus, rich (còpia-); crimin-osus, reproachful (criměn-); dồl-osus, crafty (dolo-); ēbri-osus, a drunkard (@brio-); fām-osus, notorious for good or ill (fāma-); form-osus, shapely (forma); frăg-osus, broken (for frăgos-osus); fructu-osus, fruitful (fructu-); frůtic-osus, full of shrubs (frūtěc-) ; gěněr-osus, shewing breed, well-born (gěnůs-); grāti-osus, influential (grātia-); herb-osus (poet.), grassy (herba-); ingěni-osus, clever (ingěnio-); invidi-osus, exposed to odium (invidia-); joc-osus, sportive (joco-); luxúri-ogus, luxurious (luxúria-); mendosus, faulty (men-da-); morb-osus, diseased (morbo-); mõr-osus, wayward, cross (mõs-, a whim); niv-osus, snowy (nivi-); nõd-osus, knotty (nodo-); odi-osus, troublesome (odio-); offici-osus, dutiful, obliging (officío-); ðněr-osus, burdensome (onės-); õti-osus, at leisure (otio-); pěcũni-osus, moneyed (pěcũnia-); pěrīcul-osus, dangerous (pěricŭlo-); pernici-osus, destructive (pernicie-); pisc-osus (rare, Ov., Verg.), full of fish (pisci-); quæstu-osus, gainful (qvæstu-); religi-osus, scrupulous (for religion-osus); silv-7sus, wooded (silva-); sqvām-osus, scaly (sqvāma-); strig-osus, thin (? striga-, a swathe); stúdi-osus, zealous (stúdio-); suspīci-osus, suspicious (for suspicionosus); sumptu-osus, costly (sumptu-); vent-osus, windy (vento-); vent osus, potbellied (ventri-); verb-osus, wordy (verbo-); verminosus (Plin.), full of worms (verměn-); vin-osus, wine loving (vino-); viti-osus, faulty (vitio-); and many others.

I.

-C-oso belli-cosus, war-loving (bello-, comp, bellicus, adj.); 814

těněbri-cosus (Cic., also tenebrosus, Verg., Ov.), dark

(těněbra-, but Cic. in poetic translation has tenebricus). -1-oso formidd-losus, fearful (formidon-, the 1 being either

dropped or changed into 1). -Ic-ul-őso febr-icŭlosus (Catull.), feverish (febri-, febricula-); mět

icŭlosus (Plaut.), in fear (mětu-); sit-iculosus (Hor.),

parched (siti-); somn-iculosus, drowsy (somno-). -u-080 Probably formed on a false analogy with quæstu-osus, &c.:

monstr-uosus, prodigious (monstro-); montu-osus, mountainous (monti-, but cf. § 405); voluptu-ošus (Plin. Ep.),

pleasurable (voluptāt-). -i-oso Probably formed on a false analogy with odiosus, &c.:

cūr-iosus, careful (cūra-); lăbor-iocus, laborious (lăbos-);

lusc-It-1-osus (or lusc-losus), purblind (lusco-). -en-si Adjectives (some used as substantives) formed from names 815

of places:

From appellatives: atri-ensis (m. sc. servus), house steward (atrio-); castr-ensis, of the camp (castro-); circ-ensis, of the circus (circo-); fôr-ensis, of the forum (föro-); frétense (sc. mare), the straits' of Sicily (frěto-); Lătěr-ensis, properly of the bodyguard (lătůs-); Portu-ensis (Cod. Theod.), of ihe Port, viz. Ostia (portu-); prāt-ensis, of the meadows (prāto-).

From proper names (which are given in brackets in the nom. case):

Alli.ensis (Allia); Ambraci-ensis (Ambracia); Arīmimenses (Ariminum); Bononi-ensis (Bononia); Cann-ensis (Cannæ); Circei-ensis (Circeii); Corfini-ensis (Corfinium); Cur-ensis (Cures); Herculanensis (Herculaneum); Hispal-ensis (Hispális or Hispal); Hispāniensis (Hispānia); Narbon-ensis (Narbo); Osc-ensis (Osca in Spain); Osti-ensis (Ostia); Sicili-ensis (Sicilia); Veli-ensis (Velia, (1) part of Palatine; (2) town in Lucania); Volsini-ensis (Volsinii); Utic-ensis (Utica); and others. l-en-si Probably from false analogy (with words in preceding

section). They are rarely used. Athēn-lensis (Athenæ); Carthāgin-iensis (Carthāgo); Corinthlenses (Corinthus); Croton-lensis (Croto); Latīn-iensis (Latinus ?); Rhod-iensis (Rhodus).

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Compound stem-ending : és-imo, $ 758. See also $ 918.

016

iv. Stems ending in -do. -do

1. Adjectives:

(a) From verbs with -e stems, the final e being changed to i. (The verb has been added in the following list only when not simple in form or evident in meaning.)

ăci-dus, sour; albi-dus, white; algi-dus, cold (rare, except as name of mɔuntain near Rome); ārl-dus, dry; åvi-dus, greedy; călidus or caldus (cf. Quint. 1. 6. 19), hot; calli-dus, crafty; candi-dus, white; ēvāni-dus, vanishing (évāne-sc-ěre); fervi-dus, glowing ; flacci-dus, faccid; flori-dus, Aowery; foeti-dus, stinking; frīgi-dus, cold; fulgi-dus, glistening; grăvi-dus, heavy with child (grăve-sc-ěre); horri-dus, bristling, fearful; langvi-dus, languid; liqvi-dus ($ 243), clear; līvi-dus, blue, envious; lūci-dus, bright; mădi-dus, wet; marci-dus, fading; mūci-dus, mouldy; niti-dus, shining; õli-dus, stinking; palli-dus, pale; påvi-dus, frightened; plăci-dus, pleased, calm (plăcēre, to be pleasing); pūti-dus, rotten; putrự-dus, rotten; ranci-dus, rancid (no verb, but present participle in Lucr.); rigi-dus, stiff ; růbi-dus (rūbidus, Plaut. twice), red; sordi-dus, filthy; sqválldus, squalid; stăpi-dus, amazed; tābi-dus, decaying; těpi-dus, warm; timi-dus, timid; torpi-dus, benumbed; torri-dus, burning; tůmi-dus, s-welling; turgi-dus inflated; väli-dus, strong; ūmi-dus, damp; ūvidus or ūdus, wet (ūve-sc-ere).

(6) From verbs with -i or consonant stems:

củpi-dus, desirous (cůpě-re); flui-dus, liquid (Alu-ěre); răpi-dus, hurried (răpě-re); vīvi-dus, lively (viv-ěre).

(c) From substantives or of obscure derivation:

absur-dus, tuneless (ab, sur-, comp. su-sur-rus, oup-íselv: and for the meaning Cicero's expression .vox absona et absurda,' Or. 3. 11); bardus, stupid (comp. Bpaðús); claudus, lame; crū-dus, raw (crus-, hard? comp. crus-ta, kpúo-rallos. kpú-os); fīdus, faithful (comp. fid-es, perfid-us); fodus, foul (comp. foetēre, foeti-dus); fordus (cf. § 134), pregnant; fümi-dus, smoky (fümo-); gěli-dus, icy (gělu-); herbi-dus, grassy (herba-); hispidus, shaggy (comp, hir-tus, hirsūtus); lèpidus, charming (from presumed lépāre; comp. lpās-); limpi-dus (Catull., Col.), clear (lympha? comp. Náuttelv); lūridus, ghastly yellow (comp. lûrõr, Lucr.); morbi-dus, diseased (morbo-); nūdus, naked; răbi-dus, mad (răbie-); sõli-dus, firm (solo-, ground); stöli-dus, stockish, stupid (comp. stolón-, a useless sucker); svādus, persuasive (svādēre); sūci-dus, juicy (sūco-); sūdus, dry (se, udo-?); sur-dus, deaf; tardus, slow; trèpidus, scared, flurried (comp. trěmere); turbi-dus, disturbed (turba-); văpi-dus, flat, spoiled (văpõs-, from a presumed văpāre).

2. Substantives: (a) Masculine: cădus, a cask; gurdus, a dolt (Spanish word

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acc. to Quint. 1. 5. 57); hædus, a goat; lūdus, a game; modus, a measure; nīdus, a nest; nõdus, a knot; turdus, a fieldfare; věrēdus (Mart.), a bunter (horse).

(6) Feminine: ălauda, a lark (Keltic); aplūda, chaff; bascauda, a basket; cassida (usually cassis), a helmet; cauda, a tail; cicāda, a grasshopper; crèpida, a sandal (from kpntid-); merda, dung; præda, booty; ræda, a four-wheeled carriage (Keltic; cf. Quint. I. 5. 57); tæda, a torch.

(C) Neuter: essědum, a gig (Keltic); lāridum (lardum), bacon; oppidum, a town (comp. &Trimedov?); põdum, a shepherd's crook; vădum, a shoal, ford. -un-do or -en-do 1. Verbal adjectives:

(a) As gerundive: for use see Book IV. Chap. xiv. and 817

Appendix to Syntax. On their formation see $$ 617,618. åma-ndus, to love or to be loved (åmāre); audi-endus (audire); capi-endus (căpere); gign-endus (gi-gn-ere); miðn-endus (monēre); nasc-endus (nasci); rég-endus (régère); tribu-endus (tribu-ěre); and so from all transitive verbs (§ 1186).

(6) As present participle (without an object accusative) or ordinary adjective:

blandus, soothing (comp. dāre); infandus, nějandus, unspeakable (fāri); mundus, clean; öri-undus, arising (örī-ri); pandus, crooked; Tðt-undus, round (comp. rốt-āre); sécundus, following, hence second (sèqvi); volv-endus, rolling (volvěre).

(2) Substantives:

(a) Masculine: fundus, a landed estate, the bottom; also an authoriser; mundus, ornaments, also the universe (as transl. of kóojos).

(6) Feminine: funda, a sling (fund-ěre?); Kålendæ (pl.), the first of the month (summoning day? comp. călāre, kåleiv); menda, a fault; mērenda, dinner; sponda, a bedstead; turunda, a paste-ball; suggrunda, the eaves; unda, water.

or -Ib-undo" } Adjectives, originally gerundives:

frem-ěbundus, muttering (frěm-ěre); fúr-ibundus, raging (fur-ěre); lasciv-ibundus (Plaut. Stich. 288), playful (lascīvi-re); lūd-Ibundus, sporting (lūd-ěre); mör-ibundus, dying (mòri, mórīri); půdi-bundus, bashful (půdēre); qvěr-ibundus, plaintive (quěri); rīdi-bundus, laughing (rīdēre); trěm-ěbundus, trembling (trěm-ěre). -āb-undo From verbs with -a stems. Many of these forms are 819

found only in Livy and post-Augustan historians. comissã-bundus, revelling; contiānā-bundus, haranguing; cunctā. bundus, hesitating; dēlīběra-bundus, deliberating; dēprécā-bundus, deprecatingly; errā-bundus, wandering about; grātålā-bundus,

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