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V.

See § 397.

making congratulations; hæsītā-bundus (Plin. Ep. once), hesitating;
indigna-bundus, indignant; lăcrimā-bundus, weeping; lurchinā-bun-
dus (only in Cato; cf. Quint. 1. 6. 42), voracious; měditā-bundus
(Just.), in meditation; minītā-bundus, threatening; mīrā-bundus, in
wonder;' noctuā-bundus (Cic. once), by night (noctu-; noctuāre not
found); oscủlā-bundus (Suet.), kissing; pěrègrīnā-bundus (Liv.
once), travelling about; plārā-bundus, bewailing; popůlā-bundus,
wasting; prædā-bundus, pillaging; spěcůlā-bundus, on the watch;
tentā-bundus, making a trial; tuburchinā-bundus (Cato, see above),
gobbling; věněrā-bundus, shewing reverence; versā-bundus, whirl-
ing; vītā-bundus, avoiding; võlūtā-bundus (Cic. fragm.), wal-
lowing
-C-undo Adjectives, probably gerundives from inchoative stems: 820

all have the preceding syllable long (except rubicundus). fa-cundus, eloquent (fa-ri); fê-cundus, fruitful (comp. fê-mina, fe-tus); irā-c-undus, angry irasc-i); jū-cundus, pleasant (pův-āre); růbi-cundus, ruddy (růbēre); věrē-cundus, bashful (věrēri).

Stems in -du, -di, -d. du -di ædes (f.), a hearth? a chamber $ 331(comp.æs-tu-, aidelv); 821

cædes (f.), slaughter; clādes (f.), disaster; fidis (f.), a harpstring; fraus (f.), cheating; frons (f.) a leaf; glans (f.), an acorn (comp. ßádavos and § 765); grandis, large; juglans (f.), a walnut; lendes (f. pl.), nits; pědis (m. f.), a louse; rüdis, (1) rude ; (2) f. a spoon, a foil; sēdes (f.), a seat (sědēre); sordes (f. pl.), dirt; sŭdis (f. § 421), a stake; trūdes (f. pl.), pikes (comp. trūděre?); viri-dis,

green (virēre). sud pěcus (f.), a head of cattle (comp. pěcu-, pěcor-). -ěd (-fa) căpis (f.), a sacrificial bowl (căpăre?); cassis (f.), a bel

met; cuspis (f.), a spear-point; lăpis (m.), a pebble; promulsis (f.), á whet for the appetite (lit. preliminary

draught?) (pro-, mulso-).
-od custos (n.), a guardian.

cuppes (only in nom. sing.), a glutton; hēres (m.), an
heir; merces (f.), wages (comp. merci-).
cor (n.), a heart (comp. kapd-ía); laus (f.), praise; pes
(m.), a foot (comp. troð-, nom. Tous); præs (m.), a bail;
vās (m. f.), a bail.

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palis(8), a

Compound stem-endings: -don, -ūdón, -tüdòn, -odon, -idon, S$ 846—848; -ēdůlo, $ 865; -ndio, $ 933.

mu o

CHAPTER VI.

DENTAL NOUN-STEMS (continued).'

vi. Stems ending in -no.

-20 or-ino (For all words (except numerals) with long vowel pre- 823

ceding -No see SS 830—842.) 1. Adjectives:

(a) bónus, good; concinnus, neat; dignus, worthy; hornus, of this year (ho-ver-, this spring); mag-nus, great (comp. måg-is); nõnus, ninth (for novi-nus? but see $ 754); plā-nus, level (comp. Táš); pěrendi-nus, of a day hence (comp. répar, die-); ver-nus, of spring (vēr-); ûnus, one.

(6) Distributive numerals (rarely used in singular): bī-nus, twofold, two each (bi-); ter-nus or tri-nus (ter, tri-); qvăter-nus (qvăter) and (Varr., Plin.) qvadrīnus (avatvor); qvi-nus (for qvinqvi-nus, qvinc-nus, qvinqve); sē-nus (sex); septē-nus (for septem-nus, septen-nus); octo-nus (octo); novē-nus (for nóvemnus); dēnus (for děcíminus? dec-nus); vice-nus, twenty each (for vicent-nus, viginti); trīcē-nus, thirty each (triginta), &c.; centē-nus, a hundred each (for centum-nus, the vowel being assimilated to what is found in others); důcē-nus, two hundred each (for ducentnus); trěcēnus, three hundred each (trěcent-); qvadringē-nus, four bundred each (qvadringent-), &c. See Appendix.

(c) From names of trees and other materials: ăcer-nus, of maple (ăcer-); ădămanti-nus, hard as diamond (adauavtivos); åmārăcinus, of marjoram (åmārăco-); cěrăsi-nus (Petron.), cherry-coloured (cărăso-); cocci-nus, scarlet (cocco-); colùr-nus, of hazel (for corůli-nus, corůlo-); $bur-nus, of ivory (ébőr-); ferrūgin-us (Lucr. once), bluish-green (ferrūgon-; ferrugineus is more usual); qvernue, oaken (for qverci-nus, qvercu-). See also salig-nus, &c., § 826.

2. Substantives:

(a) Masculine: ăcinus, a berry; agnus, a lamb; annus, a year; anus, a ring; ăsinus, an ass; căchinnus, a laugh (comp. kaxáčelv); círci-nus, a pair of compasses (circo-); đðminus, a lord (dðmāre); furnus, an oven; ginnus or hinnus, a mule, the mother being an ass

824

(comp. yivvos, ivvos); mannus, a coach borse (Keltic?); pampinus, à vine-shoot; pannus, a piece of cloth (comp. añvos); pänus, (1) thread on the bobbin, (2) a swelling (from uñvos?); pugnus, a fist; ricinus, a sheep tick; sînus (sīnum), a tankard; som-nus, sleep (comp. sõp-or); sõnus, a sound; sturnus, a starling; tabanus, a gadAy; tornus, a lathe (torqvēre, comp. Tópvos).

vertia, a house slave.

(6) Proper names (some are Etruscan): Cinna; Perpenna or Perperna; Porsenna (Verg.), Porsěna (Hor., Mart., Sil.); Saserna; Sisenna; Spuriana; Thalna; Vivenna.

Cf. § 838 6. (c) Feminine: alnus, an alder; cornus, a cornel tree; fraxinus, an ash tree; ornus, a mountain ash; vannus, a winnowing fan.

acna, a plot 120 feet square; antemna, a sailyard; fisci-na, a rush basket (fisco-); fuscina, a three-pronged speur (comp. furca); gěna, a cheek (comp. yévus, a jaw); nundi-næ (pl.), market-day (nono-, die-); pāgina, a leaf of a book, &c. (comp. pangēre); păti-na, a dish (pătēre); penna, a wing (in old Latin pesna or petna; comp. rétegbai); perna, a ham; pinna, a feather; pugna, a battle (comp. pugnus); runcina (generally given as runcīna), a planing instrument (comp. runcāre, pukávn); sanna, a grimace (comp. oavvâs); sarcina, a bundle (sarcīre, to close); sqvatina, a skate-fish (comp. sqvălus, a fish); transenna, a net; ulua, an arm (comp. évn); urna, a pitcher (comp. ürěre, to burn).

(d) Neuter: cornum (more frequently cornu), a horn (comp. képas); fascinum, a charm (comp. Báokavos); lignum, firewood (11g-āre?); pastinum, a two-pronged fork; pěnum ($ 398), a store of provisions, &c.; reg-num, a kingdom (rég-ěre); scamnum, a bench (comp. scab-illum); signum, a seal; stagnum, a pool, pent up water? (comp. oteyəvó-); stannum, an alloy of silver and lead; tignum, a beam. -mino)

This is the suffix which forms participles middle and 825 -mno s

passive in Greek; e.g. τυπτόμενος, τυψ-άμενος, τετυμ

μένος, &c. ær-umna, sorrow (aipouévn, excited mind); al-umnus, a nursling (ăl-ěre); Autumnus, Autumn (the increasing year, auctu-); Clitumnus, a river in Umbria; columna, a column (comp. cul-men, cel-sus); da-mnum, a loss (properly a gift, dă-re; or akin to datrávn); femina, a woman (comp. fe-tus, &c. $ 800); gěminus, twin; lâmina (lamna), a plate of metal; terminus, a bound (comp. répua); Vertumnus, the god of change (vert-ěre).

The same suffix is seen in the 2nd pers. plur. of indicative and subjunctive passive of tenses formed from present stem: e.g. amā

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-ur-no

mini, amabimini, amabāmini, amēmini, amarēmini, § 572; and in an old sing. imperative form; e.g. præfamino, $ 587.

Compare also -měn, $ 850. -gino

Some are probably compounds with stems of gen-, 826 -gnos

gi-gn-ěre; others have a c turned into g by the influence

of the nasal; others are formed on their analogy. ăbie-gnus, of fir (åbiệt-); ăpru-gnus (Plaut., Plin.), of wild boar (ăpro-); běni-gnus, kindly, liberal (well-born? běně-gěn-); fabaginus (Cato), of beans (făba-); Ilig-nus, of holm oak (ilěc-); dleāfinus, of the olive (õlea-); måli-gnus, stingy (måle-gěn-); privi-gnus (subst.), born from one parent only, i.e. à stepson (prīvo-gen-); sălig-nus, of willow (sălic-).

For terrigena, &c. see § 995; for magnus, dignus, § 823. -tino Adjectives: anno-tinus, a year old? (anno-); cras-tinus, 827

of to-morrow (cras); diů-tinus, long continued (diu); horno-tinus, of this year (horno-); pris-tinus, of former times (prius; comp. magis for magius); sēro-tinus (Plin., Col.), late (sēro-).

diur-nus, by day (dius-, dies-, § 341 n., comp. nūdius; or 828

for diov-ěrinus ?); diut-urnus (in Ovid always dióturnus), for long (comp. diút-ius); laburnum, broad-leaved trefoil; noctu-rnus, by night (noctu-); sāt-urnus (Saeturnus), god of produce? (săto-, sě-rère); tăciturnus, silent (tăcito-); vīburnum, the wayfaring tree.

căverna, a cave (căvo-); cisterna, a reservoir (cista-);

fusterna, the knotty part of a fir-tree (fusti-, a club); guberna (pl.); rudders (comp. Kußepvâv); bīb-ernus, in winter (hiểm-, cf. § 86. 5); hodiernus, of to-day (ho-, dius, or die-); infernus, below (infěro-); lăcerna, a cloak; Lăverna, goddess of gain; lăcerna, a lamp. (comp. lūci-, lūcēre); súper-nus, above (sắpěro); tăb-erna, a booth (from tăb-ŭla, a plank?). See also § 823 č. -ter-no i.e. -no suffixed to stems in -těro or -tri, or to adverbs 829 in -ter.

In some the t perhaps is radical. 2e-ternus, for ever (ævo-, comp. æ-tat-); al-ter-nus, alternate, every other (al-tero); ex-ternus, outside (ex-tero-); frāternus, of a brother (frāter-, comp. Opátep-); hes-ternus, of yesterday (comp. hěri, xo és); in-ter-nus, inside (in-ter); lanterna (lāterna), a lantern; māter-nus, of a mother (mater-); nassiterna, a watering pot (said to be from naso-, terno-, with three noses); păternus, of a father (păter-); sempiternus, everlasting (comp. semp-er, $ 540); věter-nus, lethargy (větůs-).

-er-no

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ano I. Adjectives:

830 (a) with ā as stem vowel: cānus, boary; sā-nus, sound

(comp. Gios); vẫ-nus, empty (comp. văc-uus). (6) from appellatives:

ăpi-anus, of bees; name of Muscatel grape (ăpi-); arc-anus, secret (comp. arca-, arcēre); Camp-anus, of the plain, a Campanian (Campo-); castell-anus, of a fortress (castello-); decumanus, of the tenth (e.g. a tithe farmer; a soldier of the tenth legion, &c.; děctma-); font-anus, of the spring (fonti-); germanus, of the full blood; hüm-anus, of man (homon-); insål-anus (Cic. once), of an island (insúla-); Lătěr-anus, a family name (lătěr-?); měrīdi-anus, of midday, southern (meridie-); mont-anus, of the mountains (monti-); mund-anus, of the universe (mundo-); nõn-anus (Tac.), of the ninth legion (nona-); oppid-anus, of the town (oppido-); pāganus, of a village (pāgo-); prīdi-anus, of the day before (prīdie-); prim-anus, of the first legion (prima-); public-anus, of the public revenue (publico-); púte-anus (Plin., Col.), of a well (püteo-); qvotīdi-anus, daily (quotidie-); rustic-anus, of the country (rustico-); urb-ānus, of the city (urbi-) ;. větěr-anus, old, veteran (větůs-); vic-anas, of a bamlet (vico-).

(c) from proper names of places:

Afric-anus, of the province among the Afri (Afri-ca); Alb-anus (Alba); Allīf-anus (Allifæ); Atell-ānus (Atella); Coriol-anus (Corioli); Cūm-anus (Cumæ); Fregell-anus (Fregellæ); Fund-anus (Fundi); Gallic-anus, of the province among the Gauls (Gallica-); Lăbicanus (Labicum); Pæst-anus (Pæstum); Půteðl-anus (Puteoli); Rom-anus (Roma); Syracus-anus (Sýrācūsæ); Thēb-anus (Thebe); Tuscul-anus (Tusculum); and others.

(d) from proper names of persons:
Cinn-anus (Cinna); Sull-anus (Sulla).
(e) Compounds formed immediately from a preposition and its

case:

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antělūc-anus, before daylight (ante lucem); antemeridi-anus, in the forenoon (ante meridiem);

antesign-anus, in front of the standards (ante signa); circumpăd-anus, round the Po (circum Padum); cisrhēn-anus, on this side of the Rhine (cis Rhenum); poměrīdi-anus, in the afternoon (post meridiem); subsign-anus, of the reserve (sub signis); suburb-anus, near the city (sub urbem); transmont-anus, beyond the mountains (trans montes); transpåd-ānus; transrhēnanus.

Substantives: (a) ānus (see § 824); Diana, the goddess of 831 the day (die-); Jānus (for Dianus), the god of the day, fānum, a

2.

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