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guaranty, payment; prðb-atio, testing; provoc-atio, a challenge, appeal; půt-atio, pruning; récord-atio, remembrance; recūs-atio, refusal; rěnunti-atio, a public announcement of a result; repræsent-atio, cash payment; respīr-atio, taking breath; restit-utio, restoration; rög-atio, a legislative proposal, a bill; sălūt-atio, greeting; simulatio, pretence; sõl-útio, discharge of debt, &c.; sort-itio, lot-drawing; stīp-atio, crowding ; stipůl-atio, a bargain; supplic-atio, public prayer; tăbůl-atio (Cæs.), a flooring (tăbüla-, a plank); test-atio (testific-atio, Cic.), giving evidence; trāl-atio, transfer; văc-atio, exemption; vēn-atio, hunting; and many others.

(6) From supine stems, with short vowel preceding suffix:

ăd-itio, entry on an inheritance (adī-re); admon-itio, reminding (admonēre); amb-itio, canvassing (ambī-re); appār-Itio, attendance (appārere); cognitio, knowledge, judicial inquiry (cogno-sc-ere); dătio, giving (dă-re); ēditio, publishing (ēdě-re); exhib-itio (Ulp. &c.), maintenance; It-io, going (i-re); mõn-itio, warning (mönēre); pósitio, placing, posture (pon-ère); ră-tio, account, reason (rēri); să-tio, sowing (sè-re-re); sēd-itio, a sedition (sed, ire); sorb-itio, a supping up, a draught (sorbēre); stă-tio, a station, a post (stāre); súpersti-tio, superstition (standing over in awe; super-stāre); vendi-tio, sale (vendère); and others.

(c) Either from consonant stems, or contracted:

ac-tio, action (ăg-ère); adjec-tio, addition (adjic-ěre); adop-tio, adoption (comp. adoptā-re); affec-tio, relation, disposition of mind (afficě-re); auc-tio, a sale (augēre); aversio, turning away (vertère); in law phrase, per aversionem ěměre, to buy as a whole (vertere); cap-tio, a trick, sophism (căpě-re); cau-tio, a caution, a legal security (căvēre); cen-sio, an assessing (censēre); circumscrip-tio, a contour, cheating (circumscrīb-ěre); commis-sio, a contest (committ-ěre); compréhen-sio, laying hold of (compréhend-ère); concep-tio, drafting of law formulæ (concipě-re); conces-sio, grant (concēd-ěre); conclū-sio, shutting in, a peroration (conclūd-ere); consen-sio, agreement (consentire); construc-tio, construction (constru-ěre); con-tio, an assembly, an address to such (convěn-ire); contrac-tio, drawing together (contrăh-ěre); defec-tio, revolt, failure (dēfice-re); devotio, devotion (dēvovēre); dic-tio, saying (dic-ěre); digres-sio, digression (digrěd-1); distinc-tio, distinction (distingv-ěre); emp-tio, purchase (ěm-ěre); fic-tio, fashioning, fiction (fing-ěre); flexio, a turn (Alectère); impres-sio, an impress, attack (imprim-ere); induc-tio, a bringing in, drawing one's pen through (indūc-ěre); inven-tio, discovery (invenīre); lū-sio, playing (lūd-ěre); man-sio, staying, lodgingplace (mănēre); mis-sio, a discharge (mitt-ěre); mõ-tio, moving (móvēre); offen-sio, stumbling, offence (offend-ěre); pas-tio, pasturing (pasc-ěre); pen-sio, payment (pend-ěre); percep-tio, gathering (percipě-re); perpes-sio, endurance (perpět-1); præsump-tio, anticipation (præsūm-ěre); quæs-tio, an inquiry (quær-ěre); réfec-tio (postAug.), restoration, refreshment (réficě-re); scrip-tio, writing (scrībère); sēces-sio, a withdrawal (sēcēd-ěre); sec-tio, cutting, sale of a bankrupt estate (sécāre); ses-sio, a sitting (sědēre); spon-sio, an agreement, a wager (spondēre); tac-tio, touching (tang-ěre); trāvectio, (1) carrying across; (2) riding post (transvěn-ěre); wl-tio, revenge (ulc-īsci); vi-sio, sight (vidēre); and others.

Compound stem-endings: -ingvo, § 772; -ento, -mento, -lento (-ginta, -gento), SS 791–795; -enti, § 807; -ensi, -iensi, § 815; -undo, -bundo, -cundo, SS 817—820; -iněr, § 905; -nos, -nús, SS 911, 913; -neo, -gneo, -āneo, -ōneo, SS 922, 923; -entia, $ 933; -nio, -mnio, -monio, -cinio, SS 934-936.

CHAPTER VII.

LINGUAL NOUN STEMS. L.

i. Stems ending in -lo.

-10 cðlus (f.), a distaff; dðlus, craft; fălæ (pl.), a scaffold- 855

ing; gělum, frost; malus (adj.), bad; mõla, a mill (molère); pila, a ball; pilus, a hair; sålum, the sea (comp. sål-, cáłos); 8ðlum, the ground; võla, hollow of hand or foot. (For some with diminutive suffix, e.g. templum, see under -ulo.) -O-lo This older form of the vowel before 1 is retained only 856

after e, i, or v (cf. § 213. 2 b). The ð is often the final

stem vowel of the word to which the suffix is added: 1. Adjectives: aureð-lus, golden (aureo-); ēbrio-lus (Plaut.), somewhat drunken (ebrio-); frivolus, trifling (for friqvolus? rubbed or brittle; comp. fric-āre, fri-are); helvo-lus (helveolus), yellowish (helvo-); parvõlus, very small (parvo-).

Substantives (chiefly in Cicero), mostly diminutives of substantives in -o:

2.

(a) Masculine: alveo-lus, a small trough; calceo-lus (rare), a small shoe; cāseo-lus, a small cheese; cũneo-lus, a small wedge; filio-lus, a little son; hărio-lus, a soothsayer; librārio-lus, a bit of a copyist; malleo-lus, a small hammer, a slip for planting; pasceolus, a leathern baz (for páokwdos?); pilleo-lus, a small cap; sīmio-lus, a little ape; servo-lus, a little slave; urceo-lus, a little pitcher.

A (6) Feminine; all (except viola) diminutives of substantives

in -a:

Scaevo-lakon.), Profer

unname/scalva

actuarið-la (or -um?), a small boat; årāneo-la, a small spider; ardeo-la, a heron; āreo-la, a small open place; bestio-la, an insect; clāvo-la, a scion; copio-læ (pl.), a few troops; dēlicio-læ (pl.), a little darling; fascio-la, a small bandage; filio-la, a little daughter; glorio-la, a bit of distinction; hõrio-la, a skiff; laureo-la, a laurel branchlet; luscinio-la, a little nightingale; měmărio-la, a poor memory; nauseo-la, a slight squeamishness; sententio-la, an uphorism; sēpio-la, a little cuttle fish; valvo-læ (pl.), double shells of a pod; victorio-la, a small statue of Victory; vindémio-la, a little vintage; vio-la, a violet (comp. lov); and others.

(c) Neuter: all diminutives of neuter substantives in -o:

atrio-lum, a small entrance-hall; armário-lum, a cabinet; balneo-lum, a small bath; brāchio-lum (Catull.), a slender arm; commentārio-lum, a short essay; dēversorio-lum, a small lodging; dolio-lum, a small cask; flammeo-lum, a small bridal veil ; linteolum, a small cloth; něgotio-lum, a bit of business; otio-lum, a bit of leisure; pěcūlio-lum, a small private property; prædio-lum, a small landed estate; sõlātio-lum (Catull.), a bit of comfort; svāvio-lum (Catull.), a soft kiss; tectório-la (pl.), plaster casts. -úlo 1. Adjectives?:

(a) Diminutival: all (except vetulus) from adjectives with -o stems: ăcûtu-lus, somewhat pointed; albu-lus, whitish; aliqvantu-lus, somewhat; argütu-lus, somewhat subtle; äridu-lus (Catull.), a little dry; barbātu-lus, with a bit of a beard; candidulus, fairly white; contortu-lus, a bit twisted; frigidu-lus, rather cold; hilăru-lus, merry and little; horridu-lus, roughish; lassu-lus (Catull.), a little tired; lentů-lus, rather slow; līmātu-lus, delicately fine; līmu-lus (Plaut.), somewhat askance; longu-lus longish; pætu

857

left-hand).

1 Comp. the lines made by Hadrian on his death-bed (Hist. Aug. Hadr. 25):

Animula vagula blandula,
hospes comesque corporis,
quæ nunc abibis in loca,
pallidula rigida nudula,
nec, ut soles, dabis jocos?

2.

lus, with a slight squint; pallidu-lus, growing pale; paucu-lus, very few; primu-lus (Plaut.), first; qvadrīmu-lus (Plaut.), little fouryears-old; quant-ulus, how small?; růbicund-ulus, rather red; scītulus (Plaut.), stylish; sīmu-lus (Lucr.), fattish-nosed; sordidu-lus, dirtyish; tābidu-lus, slowly consuming; tantu-lus, so little; ūvidu-lus (Catull.), somewhat wet; věnustu-lus, charmingly pretty; vět-ulus, little and old (for vetěr-ulus); and others.

(6) Not (apparently) diminutival; chiefly from verbs: em-ulus, emulous; amp-lus, large (on both sides, around; amb-, cf. $ 70); bibulus, thirsty (bib-ěre); būb-ulus, of oxen (bỏv-, § 76); cær-ulus, dark blue (comp. cæs-10-); crēd-ulus, credulous (crēd-ère); ēdentulus (Plaut.), toothless (é denti-); garru-lus, prattling (garrire); påtu-lus, wide-spreading (pătēre); pend-ulus, hanging (pendēre); quěr-ulus, complaining (quěr-i); sēdulus (cf. $ 990); sing-dlus, one each, single; strāg-ulus, for covering (strāgi-, cf. $ 784); strīdu-lus, whistling (strīdēre); trěm-ulus, quivering (trèměre). Substantives: (a) diminutival:

858 Masculine: mostly from stems in -o: adolescentu-lus, a young man (adolescenti-); amīcu-lus, a darling friend; ănimu-lus, darling ; annu-lus, a ring; calcu-lus, a pebble (calci-, chalk); circu-lus, a circle; columbú-lus, a little dove; eqvu-lus (ěcủleus), a colt; focu-lus, a chafing dish (fðco-, hearth); fðrů-11 (pl.), pigeon holes (förus, a row); glòbu-lus, a little ball; hortu-lus, a small garden; Jocu-lus, a little joke; lectu- us, a couch; locu-lus, a compartment; modu-lus, a small measure; nëpõtu-lus (Plaut.), a little grandson (něpot-); nīdu-lus, a little nest; nummu-li (pl.), small coins;

porcu-lus, a young pig; puěru-lus, a little boy; rāmu-lus, a sprig; rēg-ulus, a chieftain (rēg-); saccu-lus, a small bag; scrūpu-lus, a small stone, a difficulty; ventu-lus, a breeze; vicu-lus, a hamlet.

vernula, a little slave (verna-).

Proper names: Lentulus (see § 857 a); Próculus (prðcus, a suitor); Rēgulus (vid. supr.). Also Barbula (barba, a beard).

Feminine: mostly from stems in -a: ætātu-la, youth (ætāt-); åmīcu-la, a darling mistress; ànimu-la, dear life; aqvu-la, a little water; arcu-la, a casket; capsu-la, a bandbox; căsă-la, a small cottage; caupõnu-la, a small tavern;" causu-la, a petty lawsuit ; cēnu-la, a light dinner; cervīcu-la, a small neck (cervic-); clausu-la, a conclusion (as if from clausa-); conciliatric-ula, a soft matchmaker (conciliatric-); făc-ula, a little torch (făc-); falcu-la, a small billbook (falci); flammu-la, a little flame; formu-la, a (short) legal form; glandu-læ (pl.), glands (glandi-, acorn); guttu-la, á little drop; herbu-la, a little herb; lăcrimu-la, a tiny tear; lecticu-la, a small sedan; mensu-la, a small table; mercēd-ula, small wages (merced-); měrětric-ula, a girl prostitute (meretric-); núc-ula, a

small nut (nůc-); nutric-ula, a nurse (nutric-); pallu-la, a little cloak; plăgu-la, a bed curtain (plăga-, a net); portu-la, a small gate; pūpu-la, the pupil of the eye image on retina? pũpa-, a girl); quadrigu-læ (pl.), a little four-horse team; rādīc-ula, a small root (rādīc-); rīpu-la, a little bank; rðtu-la, a little wheel; sarcinu-la, à little bundle; scătu-la, a square dish (scūt-; comp. scutra, scutella, and for ŭ scètica); serru-la, a small saw; sextu-la, the sixth of an uncia; sportu-la, a little basket; togu-la, a little gown; tonstric-ula, a small hairdresser; villu-la, a little country-house; virgu-la, a small rod; võcu-la, a weak voice; and others.

Neuter: căpitu-lum, a small head (căpăt-); crustu-lum, pastry; oppidu-lum, a small town; posticu-lum, a small back building ; prātu-lum, a small meadow; rāpu-lum, a little turnip; saxulum, a small rock; scriptulum (scripulum, scrupulum, scriplum), z4 oz. (a transl. of ypáupa?); spīcu-lum, a sharp point (spico-, a point; comp. spīca); scutu-lum, a small shield.

(6) No: (apparently) diminutival, or not diminutives of exist- 859 ing nouns:

Masculine: æsculus, the Italian oak; angulus, a corner (comp. ảykúhos, uncus, ungvis, &c.); bājulus, a porter; botulus, a sausage; căpulus, (1) a hilt, (2) a coffin (căpě-re); cătülus, a whelp; cămulus, a heap (comp. kvelv, kūma); fåmulus (also adj. in Aug. and postAug. poetry), a servant; figulus, a potter (fing-ere); gěrulus, a porter (gěr-ěre); légulus, a picker (lėg-ere); ocủlus, an eye (§ 107); õpůlus, a kind of maple; pessúlus, a bolt (from trágoalos?); populus, a people (comp. plē-nus, adnoos, tódus, &c.); populus (f.), a poplar; scopulus, a rock (from Kómedos?); situlus (also situla), a bucket; stimulus, a prick (comp. otlyuń, § 129. c); tỉtŭlus, a title; túmulus, a hill (tům-ēre); tŭtůlus, a conical head-dress; vidulus, a portmanteau; vitulus, a calf ($ 91).

assecla, a follower (ad sěqv-i); rab-ula, a brawling pettifogger (răbire).

Proper names : Bibulus ($ 8576); Catŭlus (vid, supr.); Pigulus (vid. supr.); Sícủlus, a Sicilian ; Tappulus; Trěmůlus (S 857 b); Vitulus (vid. supr.). Also Decula ; Scăpula (vid. infr.).

Feminine: assula, a splinter; căcula (m.), a servant; copula, a tie (com, ăp-isci); èpålæ (pl.), a banquet; fèrŭla, (1) fennel giant, (2) a rod; fistula, a pipe; gúla, the throat (from the sound); infula, a band or fillet; insula, an island, a separate block of buildings; Inula, elecampane; mătula, a pot; mentula, i.q. pēnis; měrula, a blackbird; năbăla, a cloud (comp. nubes, védos); pænula, a cloak; păpula, a pimple; pergula, a stall or booth; pustula, pūsula, a bliss ter; radula (Col.), a scraper (rād-ěre); rēgula, a rule (rég-ěre); scandula, a wooden shingle; scăpulæ (pl.), the shoulder-blades; spěcula, a watchtower (spěcé-ra); stipúla, a stalk; tēgúla, a tile (těg-ěre);

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