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plic-at-ilis (Plin.), that may be folded (plică-re); vers-atilis, revolving, versatile (versa-re); vòl-at-ilis, winged (vŎlā-re).

(2) from nouns:

ǎqv-ātilis, living in water (ăqva-); ferr-ātilis (Plaut.), of slaves often fettered, living in iron (ferro-); flŭvi-ātilis, belonging to a river (fluvio-); piscatum hamatilem et saxatilem (Plaut. Rud. 299), fishing with books and on rocks (hamo-, saxo-); umbr-atilis, in the shade (umbra-).

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ădĭti-alis, on entering office (ăditu-); æqv-ālis, level (æqvo-); ambarv-alis (Fest.), that goes round the fields (amb, arva); ǎnimālis, having life (ǎnima-); ann-alis, for a year, relating to a year (anno-); arv-alis, only of the college called Fratres arvales (arvo-); augur-alis, of augurs (augur-); austr-alis, southern (austro-); bĭpĕd-alis, two feet long (bis, pěd-); brūm-alis, of mid-winter (brůma-); căpit-alis, of the head, deadly (căpăt-); centumvir-alis, of the court of the Hundred men (centum, viro-); comĭti-alis, of the assembly (comitio-); conjectur-alis, conjectural (conjectura-); conjug-alis (Col., Tac.), of marriage (conjug-); conviv-alis, of a dinner party (conviva-); corpor-alis (Sen., Dig.), of the body (corpos-); crin-alis (Verg., Ov.), of the hair (crini-); Dialis of the day-god, i. e. Jupiter (die-); dōt-alis, belonging to a dowry (dōti-); ēsuri-alis (Plaut.), of hunger (esurie-); extempor-alis (Quint., &c.), extemporaneous (ex, tempore); fat-alis, of the fates, destined, fatal (fato-); fer-alis, of the dead; Flōr-alis, of the Flower Goddess (flora-); fluvi-alis (Verg., Col.), of a river (ŭvio-); frugali- (only in comp. and sup.), thrifty (frug-); fulgur-alis (Cic. once), of lightning (fulgŭr-); füri-alis, of the furies, raging (füria-); genĕr-alis, of a class, general (gěnŭs-); gěni-alis, of the Genius, joyful, nuptial (gěnio-); gěnít-alis, of birth or generation (gěníto-); greg-alis, of the herd, common (grèg-); hiěm-alis, of winter (hiěm-); histrion-alis (Tac.), of an actor, stagy (histriōn-); hospit-alis, of a guest or host (hospĕt-); illībĕr-alis, unworthy of a freeman (in, lībĕro-); infiti-alis, consisting of a denial (infitia-); lēg-alis (Quint.), of the law (leg-); judi i-alis, of the courts of justice (judicio-); jug-alis, of a yoke (jŭgo-); jūrīdici-alis, relating to a question of rightful conduct (jus- dic-ère; cf. Corn. I. 14); lībĕr-alis, of a freeman (lībĕro-), libr-ālis (Plin., Col.), of a pound (libra-); lustr-alis, of purification (lustro-); mănu-alis, for the hand (mănu-); mărītalis, of married persons (mărito-); Marti-alis, of Mars (marti-); mātrōn-alis, matronly (matrona-); mōr-alis (first formed by Cic.), of conduct (mōs-); mort-ālis, subject to death, human (morti-); mür

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alis, of walls (mūro-); nāt-ālis, of birth (nāto-); nātūr-alis, natural (nātūra-); nāv-alis, of ships (nāvi-); němŏr-alis, of groves (němos-); niv-alis, of snow (nivi-); nupti-alis, of a wedding (nuptia-); pac-alis (Ov.), of peace (pāci-); părent-alis, of parents (părenti-); (Lucr.) pěnětr-alis, penetrating (pěnětrā-re) innermost (from an assumed pěnětrum?); plur-alis (Quint.), plural (plusi-); plùvi-alis, rainy (pluvia-); princip-alis, of the chief, chief (princěp-); provinci-alis, of a province (provincia-); pute-alis, of a well (puteo-); qvalis, of what kind (quo-); qvinqvenn-alis, happening every five years (quinqve, anno-); rǎtiōn-alis, having or belonging to reason (rătiōn-); rēg-alis, kingly (rēg-); sesqvĭpĕd-alis, a foot and a half in measure (sesquiped-); soci-alis, of companions or allies (socio-); spěcí-alis (Sen., Quint.), special (spècie-); tālis, such (to-, comp. tam, tum); tempor-alis, of time; also post-Aug. temporary (tempos-); theatr-alis, theatrical (theatro-); triumph-alis, triumphal (triumpho-); vectīg-alis, of taxes, tax-paying; ven-alis, for sale (vēno-); virgin-alis, maidenly (virgon-); vit-alis, of life, long-lived (vīta-); võc-alis, voiceful (võc-) and others.

2. Substantives: many of these stems are also used as adjectives, some of which are given above:

(a) Masculine: ann-alis, a history (anno-); căn-alis, a conduit (comp. canna, a reed?); cămĭti-alis, an epileptic (còmĭtio-); cōntůbern-alis, a comrade (com, taberna-); Cūri-alis, a man of the district (curia-); fēti-alis, a priest ambassador; mājālis, a barrowbog; nat-ālis, a birthday; nāt-āles (pl.), lineage (nāto-); rīv-alis, a rival, i.e. a person living on the same stream as another (rivo-); sŎdalis, a mate.

Proper names:

(b) Neuter (cf. § 424): ǎnimal, a breathing thing (anima-); augur-ale, the augurial tent (augur); Baccan-al, a place for rites of Bacchus (as if from Baccano-, Baccho-); bident-al, a place consecrated, because struck by lightning (called from sheep sacrificed, bidenti-?); căpit-al, a capital crime (căpăt-); cervic-al, a bolster (cervix-); cubit-al, an elbow-cushion (cubito-); dent-alia (pl.), plough-irons (denti-); fōc-ale, a neckcloth (fauci-); front-alia (pl.), frontlets (fronti-); genu-ālia (pl. Ov. once), garters (genu-); Lůperc-al, a place sacred to Pan (Luperco-); minut-al, mincemeat (mínůto-); pěnětr-ale, a sanctuary (see above, § 880, 1); pŭte-al, à stone curb round a well (puteo-); qvadrant-al, a firkin (really 5gall.; a measure containing a fourth, quadranti-, of some other measure); rām-alia (pl.), twigs (rāmo-); scût-ale (Liv. once), a leathern thong (scuto-); spons-alia (pl.), a betrothal (sponso-); tor-al, a couch-valance (toro-); tribün-al, a judgment-seat (tribūno-); vectīgal, a tax (cf. § 963).

So also many names of feasts; in the plural neuter (cf. § 425). (The time of the year, when fixed, is here added as well as the name of the god or goddess, which however appears sometimes to be an invention of the Roman etymologers. See Mommsen, Corp. Inscr. Rom. i. pp. 375-410.)

Agonalia, Jan. 9, Mar. 17, Dec. 11 (of sacrifice? ǎgère; comp. dyov?) Angeronalia, Dec. 21 (Angerona); Baccanalia (Bákxos); Carmentalia, Jan. 11 and 15 (Carmentis); Cerialia, Apr. 19 (Cères); Compitalia, feast of the Cross Roads (compito-); Consualia, Aug. 21, and Dec. 15 (Consus, stem conso-); Fēralia (but Fěralia, Ov.) All Saints' Day, Feb. 21. (fer-re, to bring offerings); Floralia, Apr. 21 (Flora); Fontinalia (Fontanalia), Feast of Water Springs (fonti-); Fornacalia, Oven day (Fornax); Furrinalia, Jul. 25 (Furrina); Larentalia (Larentinalia), Dec. 23 (Acca Larentia); Liberalia, Mar. 17 (Liber); Lupercalia, Feb. 15 (Lüpercus); Matralia, Jan. II (Mater Matuta, Mother dawn?); Meditrinalia, Oct. 11 (Varr. L. L. 6. 21); Neptunalia, Jul. 23 (Neptunus); Opalia, Dec. 29 (Ops); Paganalia, Village festivals (pāgāno-); Parentalia, Feb. 13-21, sacred to the dead (parentāre, to sacrifice); Portunalia, Aug. 17 (Portunus); Quirinalia, Feb. 17 (Quirinus); Robigalia, Apr. 25, Mildew day (Rõbugo); Saturnalia, Dec. 17-19 (Saturnus); Terminalia, Feb. 23, Boundary day (Terminus); Vestalia, Jun. 9 (Vesta); Vinalia, Apr. 23, Aug. 19, Wine day; Volcanalia, Aug. 23 Volcanus); Volturnalia, Aug. 27 (Volturnus).

-üli

-ēli

-îli

curu-lis, of a chariot, hence sella curulis, an official chair 881
(curru-); ěd-ulis (usually in n. pl.), eatable (ěd-ĕre);
pěd-ulis (Ulp.), for the feet (pěd-); tribu-lis (subst. m.),
a tribes-man (trību-).

crud-elis, cruel (crudo-, raw); fide-lis, faithful (fide-);
infidelis, unfaithful; patru-elis, of (i. e. descended from)
a father's brother (patruo-).

1. Adjectives: ăn-ilis, of an old woman (ănu-); cīvīlis, 882 of a citizen (civi-); ĕr-ilis, of a master (ero- or hĕro-); exilis (contr. for exigilis), small; făbr-ilis, of a workman (fǎbro-); gent-ilis (adj., only post-Aug.), of a clan (genti-); host-ilis, of an enemy (hosti-); jŭvěn-ilis (also juvěnālis, Verg., Suet.), youthful (júvěn-); puěr-ilis, of a boy (puěro-); scurr-ilis, buffoon-like (scurra-); sen-ilis, of old people (sen-); serv-ilis, slavish (servo-); subtilis (for subtexiiis), suitable for woof (cf. § 113), fine; vir-ilis, of a man (viro-).

2. Substantives: (a) masculine: Ed-ilis, commissioner of Public Buildings (ædi-); Aprilis, the opening month (from the bursting of vegetation, ǎpĕrīre); Qvint-ilis, the fifth month, i.e. July (quinto-); Sextilis, the sixth month, i. e. August (sexto-).

(b) Neuter: ancîle, an oval shield (for ancidile; am, cædĕre); bov-ile or bubile, an ox-stall (bŎv-, § 76); căpr-ile, a goat-stall (căpro-); cùb-ile, a bed (cùbāre); èqv-ile, a horse-stable (ĕqvo-); fen-ilia (pl.), baylofts (fēno-); hast-ile, a spear shaft, spear (hasta-); incile, a cut, i.e. a ditch (for incīdile, incid-ĕre); mant-ilia (pl., also mantēlia), napkins (mănu-?); mon-ile, a necklace; ov-ile, a sheepfold (ŏvi-); Păr-ilia (pl.), feast of Pales (Pali- cf. § 176, 7); sed-ile, a seat (sed-ēre, sēdi-); suovetaur-iiia (pl.), a swine-sheepand-bull sacrifice (su-, Ŏvi-, tauro-).

Compound stem-endings: -lico, § 771; -ŭlento, § 793; -ultu, § 800;-lenti §, 807; -lōsɔ, -īcŭlōso, § 814; -ileno, -lino, §§ 837, 841; -lagon, § 845; -ullŭlo, -ellŭlo, -illŭlo, -allo, -aullo, -ɔllo, -ullo, -ello, -illo, §§ 865-869; -lio, alio, -ēlio, -illio, § 937-939, 949.

-ro

CHAPTER VIII.

LINGUAL NOUN STEMS (Continued).

iii. Stems ending in -ro.

Preceded by r. (Stems with other letters, whether radi- 883′′ cal or suffixal, preceding r will be found below.)

(a) Masculine: barrus, an elephant; carrus, a waggon; cirrus, a curl; scurra, a buffoon.

(b) Feminine: ǎcerra, an incense box; cerrus, the Turkey oak; gerræ (pl.), trifles (comp. yéppov, a wickerwork); marra, a weeding book; parra, a barn ow!?; săburra, sand as ballast (comp. sabulum?); serra, a saw; terra, the earth (torrēre); văcerra, a log; viverra, a ferret.

-ǎro

(c) Neuter: ferrum, iron; porrum, a leek (comp. πрáσov).

hăra, a pigsty; hilărus (cf. § 429), cheerful; samara, 884
elm seed; spărus, a hunting spear; suppărum, a linen
under-garment, a topsail; and (perhaps with ǎ) varus,
a pimple.

-Ŏro

-ürɔ

-ěro

ancòra, an anchor (comp. äykūpa); fõrus, a hole, a gang-
way; forum, a market-place; lora, thin wine; mora (also
rěmòra, Plaut.), delay; tõrus, a couch, muscle of arm, &c.

cămŭrus (adj.), curved-in; sătŭr (adj.), sated; sătŭra, a
medley, hence, a satire; purpúra, purple (for πopþúpa).
1. Adjectives:

æger, sick; asper, rough; crépěro- (§ 346), dark (comp. Kvédas); fěrus, savage (cf. § 99); infer (so Cato, but usually in pl.), below (comp. infra); integer, untouched, whole (in, tang-ĕre); mērus, pure, unmixed; miser, wretched; niger, black; nūpěrum (acc. m., Plaut.), recent (cf. § 540); piger, lazy (comp. piget); pro-pěrus, hasty; prosperus, favourable (pro, spes-?); süper (so Cato, but usually in pl.), above (sup-er); těner, tender, soft (holdable? ten-ere); văfer, sly.

2. Substantives:

(a) Masculine: ǎger, a field (comp. dypós); căper, a goat (comp. κánρоs, wild boar); ĕrus, a master; gener, a son-in-law (comp. yau-B-pós); numerus, a number (comp. vép-euv, to distribute); puer, a boy; ŭmerus (hŭmerus), a shoulder (comp. ☎μ-os).

(b) Feminine: Juniperus, a juniper tree.

cămera, a vault (from kaμápa?); capra, a she-goat; cùmera, a chest; ĕdera (hěděra), ivy; ěra, a mistress; opera, work, attention, a workman (opi-); phaleræ, horse-trappings (from páλapa); puera (rare and early), a girl; sěra, a bolt; tessera, a die, or square tablet (comp. Téoσapes, four); vespera, evening (comp. éσπéρa); vipera, a viper (for vivi-păra?).

(c) Neuter: flagrum, a whip; jügerum (cf. § 458), two-thirds of an acre; scalprum, a chisel (scalp-ère); serum, whey (comp. ópós and § 190).

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creber, close (comp. cre-sc-ère, cělěbri-); gibber, humped (gibbo-); glaber, smooth, hairless (comp. yλúpew, to peel); liber, free (comp. lib-et); rüber, red; scăber, rough, scurvy (comp. scăb-ies).

2. Substantives:

(a) Masculine: coluber (also colubra, f.), a snake; fåber, a smith; fiber, a beaver; Liber, a name of Bacchus; liber, the inner bark, a book (for fli-ber; comp. Pλolós, bark? or comp. glåber, yλápew); Mulciber, Vulcan.

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