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(b) Feminine: dölabra, a mattock (dola-re); fibra, a fibre (find-ĕre?); illecebra, an allurement (illice-re); latebra, a hiding-place (lǎtēre); libra, a balance; palpebræ (pl., Celsus has sing. once), eyelids (palpā-re, palp-ĭtā-re); sălěbra, a jolting road (sălīre); scătebra (Verg., Plin.), a gushing (scătĕre); těněbræ (pl.), darkness; těrěbra, a borer (těr-ěre); vertebra, a joint (vert-ĕre); umbra, a shadow (comp. imber, öußpos?).

(c) Neuter: candelabrum, a candlestick (candēla-); cĕrĕbrum, the brain (comp. kápa, kead); cribrum, a sieve (cre-, cer-nere, κpíveɩv); dēlūbrum, a shrine (de, lu-ere, to expiate?); flā-bra (pl.), blasts (fla-re); labrum, a basin (lăvāre); labrum, a lip (lambere); membrum, a limb; pollubrum (Fest.), a thing to sprinkle with (por, lǎv-); probrum, a disgrace; vēlābrum, a street in Rome; ventilabrum (Col.), a winnowing-fork (ventilā-re); võlūtā-brum, a wallowing-place (volütā-re).

-c-ĕro) -c-ro

1. Adjectives: lăc-er, torn (comp. λaxis, a rent); lūdĭ- 887 cer, sportive (1ūdo-); măc-er, thin (comp. mac-les); pulcer, handsome; săc-er, devoted to the gods (comp. sancire). Substantives: (a) masculine: canc-er, a crab (comp. Kaρkivos); soc-er, a father-in-law (comp. ékvpós).

2.

(b) Feminine: arcéra (old), a covered carriage (arca-).

(c) Neuter: ambŭlā-crum, a walk, i.e. place for walking (ambula-re); fulcrum, a post at foot of couch (fulcire); involucrum, a wrapper (involv-ĕre); lucrum, gain (lu-ĕre, to pay); sepulcrum, a tomb (sěpèlire); simŭlā-crum, a likeness (simŭlā-re).

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alter, other (ǎli-); ater, black; cetero- (§ 346), other; citer (rare in positive), on this side (cis); dexter, on the right-hand (comp. dé-tos); extero-, outside (ex); neuter, neither (ne, ŭtro-); noster, our (nos); postěro-, after (pos-te); sinister, on the left; tæter, foul; voster (vester), your (vos); uter, whether (quo-, § 121).

Compare also contra, intra, ultra, frustra, § 509, and the adverbs in -ter, § 541. Also ĭtěrum, for the second time.

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(a) Masculine: adminis-ter (also administra, f.), an attendant; ădulter (also adultěra, f.), an adulterer; arbiter (also arbitra, f.), an umpire (ad, § 160. 10, bit-ere); auster, a south-wind (comp. avel, ür-ĕre); citrus, (1) the citrus, (2) the citron; culter, a knife (comp. kóλos, docked; Keipei, curtus); hister, an actor (Etruscan), măgis-ter (also magistra, f.), a master (măgis); minis-ter (also

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ministra, f.), a servant (minus); seqvester, a stakeholder, mediator (sĕcus); útěrus, the womb.

(b) Feminine: cætra, a Spanish shield; colostra (also colostrum), the first milk; excětra, a snake; fěnestra, a window (comp. pav-, paível); littěra, a letter (a painted stroke? from 11-n-ěre, to smear); lutra, an otter; māter-tera, a mother's sister (a second mother, mater-, comp. Itěrum, al-ter); mulc-tra (also mulctrum), a milking-pail (mulgēre); pătĕra, a broad dish (pătēre); scutra, a flat dish; and others in (a).

(c) Neuter: ǎrā-trum, a plough (ǎrā-re); astrum, a star (for aσTρov); călămis-trum, a curling-iron (comp. călămo-, κăλăμíd-, a reed); cănistrum (pl.), a reed basket (from kávaσTρov); căpistrum, a kalter (căpě-re, comp. căpid-); castra (pl.; also, as proper name, castrum), a camp (properly buts? comp. casa, cas-tus); claus-trum (usually pl.), a fastening (claud-ère, § 160. 3); fèretrum, a bier (fer-re, comp. péρтρоv); fulge-trum, a lightning-flash (fulgere); haus-trum (Lucr.), a water-lifter (haurire); ligustrum, privet; lus-trum a purification (lu-ĕre); a beast's den (lūdere?); monstrum, a prodigy (mõnēre, for mõnes-trum, comp. věnustas, &c.); plaus-trum, a cart, from its jingle or rumbling (plaud-ĕre, to clap); ras-trum, a rake (rād-ère); ros-trum, a beak (rōd-ĕre); ru-trum, a shovel (ru-ère); spec-trum (rare), a vision (spěcě-re); talitrum (Suet. Tib. 68), a fillip with the finger?; trans-trum, a cross bench (trans); vērātrum, hellebore; věretrum (věrēri); vītrum, glass.

-as-t-ĕro) Antoniaster (cf. Prisc. 3. 40), a little Antony (Antōnio-); 88) -as-t-ro Ŏleaster, wild olive (õlea-); părăsītaster (Ter. once), a bit of a parasite (parasīto-); pin-aster, a wild pine (pīno-); siliqvastrum, pepperwort (siliqva, a pod); surd-aster (Cic. once), rather deaf (surdo-).

-dro

-iro

-āro

-auro

căliendrum, a woman's head-dress; quadra, a square (§ 158).

pirus (f.), a pear tree; pirum, a pear; vir, a man; sătĭra,

see satura.

(1) Adjectives: amarus, bitter (comp. wuós, raw); 890
ǎvarus, greedy (ǎvēre); cārus, dear; clarus, renowned;
gnārus, knowing (gno-sc-ère); rārus, rare; vārus, crooked.
(2) Substantives: āra, an altar (§ 183 a); tiāra, a tur-
ban (Persian word?); vāra, a forked pole.

aura, a breeze (comp. aev); aurum, gold; laurus (f.), 891
a laurel (cf. § 398); scaurus, with swollen ankles.

-ōro

(1) Adjectives: all formed from substantives in -ōs or -ōr. căn-or-us, tuneful (cănĀr-); hòn-or-us (post-Aug.), bonourable (honor-); Ŏd-ōr-us, possessing scent (ŏd-ōs-); son-ōr-us, loud sounding (sõnōr-); sõp-or-us, sleep bringing (sŎpōr-).

(2) Substantives: aur-ōra, the dawn (comp. avws, Aeol. and aupiov); flora, goddess of flowers (flōs-); hōra, an hour (pa, a season); lōrum, a thong; mōrus (f.), a mulberry tree (comp. μopéa, μúpov); ōra, a coast, region; prōra, the prow (πр@pa, the look-out, πpo-opa).

-üro 1. Adjectives: dūrus, hard; obscurus, dusky (comp 892 σKÓTOS); purus, pure (comp. pů-tus).

2.

Substantives: cura, care (căv-, căvēre); figüra, form, fashion (fingère); mūrus (morus), a wall, esp. of a city; Subūra, a district in Rome between Esquiline and Viminal (the abbreviation for it was, according to Quint. I. 724, Svc., but this was probably from the pagus Sucusanus included in it); sura, the calf of the leg.

-t-úro 1. Adjectives; i.e. the future participle active.

-8-üro

ămāturus, about to love (amā-re); dă-turus, about to give (dă-re); fù-turus, about to be (fu-, § 719); mori-tūrus, about to die (mòri); Ŏri-turus, about to arise (orīri); ōsurus, about to hate (ŏd-); pas-súrus, about to suffer (păt-i); pō-turus, about to drink (cf. pō-tus); rectūrus, about to rule (règ-ĕre); and many others. See Book II. Chap. XXIV. XXX.

māturus, ripe.

2. Substantives: all feminine, with similar formation to that of the future participle. These words denote the employment or result, and may be compared with the names of agents in -tor.

ǎper-tura (Vitr., Ulp.), an opening (ăpĕrīre); armă-tura, equipment (arma-re); cæla-tura (Quint. &c.), carving (cæla-re); cæ-sura (Plin.), a cutting (cæd-ère); cap-tura (Plin., Suet. &c.), a capture, gain (cape-re); cen-sura, the censorship (censōr-); coc-tura (Plin., Col. &c.), cooking (coqv-ĕre); commis-sura, a joining (committ-ĕre); composi-tura (Cato, Lucr.), a fastening (compon-ĕre); conjec-tura, a guess (conjicě-re); consi-tura, a planting (consĕrère); cul-tura, cultivation (col-ĕre); dicta-tura, the dictatorship (dictator-); fe-tura, breeding (comp. fē-tus, fe-cundus); fis-sura (Plin., Col.), a cleft (find-ère); flex-ura, a turning (flect-ère); gěni-tura (Suet., Plin.), birth, nativity (gi-gn-ere); jac-tura, a throwing over, `loss (jăcĕ-re); junc-tura, a joining (Jung-ĕre); littéra-tura, writing, acquaintance with letters (littera-); li-tura, a blotting (lin-ĕre); men-sura, a measure (mētīri); merca-tura, trade (merca-ri); mis-tura (Lucr.

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and post-Aug.), a mixture (miscēre); nā-tura, nature (na-sc-i); poli-tura (Plin.), a polishing (poli-re); polluc-tura (Plaut. once), a feast (pollucere); præfec-tura, the office or territory of a præfectus (præfice-re); præ-tura, the prætorship (prætōr-); pres-sura (Col., Plin.), pressure (prèm-ere); qvæs-tura, the questorship (quæstor-); rédemp-tura, an undertaking, a contract (rědim-ĕre); scalp-tura (Plin., Vitr.), a graving (scalp-ere); scis-sura (Suet., Plin.), a rent (scind-ere); scrip-tura, a writing, a tax on registered use of public pastures (scrib-ère); sec-tura (Varr., Plin.), cutting (sĕcāre); sẽpultura, a burial (sěpělīre); stă-tura, stature (stāre); struc-tura, a building (strugv-, stru-ěre); tempĕrā-tura (Varr. and post-Aug.), due proportion (tempera-re); tex-tura, a web (tex-ĕre); ton-sura, a shaving (tondere); vec-tura, conveyance (věh-ĕre); vēnā-tura (Plaut. once), hunting (vēnā-ri); ver-sura, a change, esp. fresh borrowing (vert-ĕre); unc-tura (Cic. once), an anointing (ung-ère); vol-sura (Varr. once), a plucking (vell-ère); ūsura, use, esp. of money (ut-i); and others.

-ēro 1. Adjectives: austērus, astringent, severe; plērus (Cato), 894 most, usually plur. with -que attached, pleri-que; also in sing. pleraque, plerumque (comp. plūs, plē-nus); prōcērus, tall; sērus, late; sěvērus, strict (? seves-=σéßas); sincērus, uninjured; vērus, true.

2. Substantives: cēra, яvax (comp. κŋpós); gǎlērus, a skin cap (comp. gălea).

-iro

-ru

-ri

1. Adjectives: dirus, terrible; mirus, wonderful.

2. Substantives: dira, curses, thought as supernatural beings; ira, anger; lira, a furrow; spira, a coil (comp. σπεῖρα).

iv. Stems ending in -ru, -ri, -r.

895

currus (m.), a chariot (comp. curr-ère); laurus (f.), 896 a bay-tree; nurus (f.), a daughter-in-law (comp. vvós for ovvoós, Curt.); socrus (f.), a stepmother (comp. socĕro-); věru (m.), a spit.

auris (f.), an ear (comp. audi-re, and § 160. 10); būris 897 (m.), plough-tail (from Bo-, ovpá?); extorris (adj.),

exiled (ex, terra?); foris (f.), a door; hilaris (adj.), see hilǎrus; măre (n.), the sea; naris (f.), a nostril (comp. naso-); torris (m.), a brand (comp. torrere); turris (f.), a tower; verres (m.), a boar-pig.

-r

-ǎr

-Ŏr

-ŭr

far (n., stem farr-), corn; für (m.), a thief (comp. þúp); Lar (m.), a household god; pār (stem păr-), equal, a mate (cf. § 454); ver (n.), spring (comp. čap).

Substantives: all neuter: baccar, a plant with an aroma-
tic root (from Sáκkapis); jubar, bright light; instar,
likeness. See also § 454.

Substantives: neuter (on these see § 454): æqvör, a level 898
surface (æqvo-); ěbur, ivory; femur, a thigh; jecur, the
liver (comp. map); marmor, marble; robur, heart of oak.
Perhaps also memor (adj.), mindful, belongs here (§ 429).
1. Adjective: cicur, tame.

2. Substantives: (a) masculine: augur, a diviner (probably compound for åvi-ger); furfur, bran (perhaps redupl. from same root as in fricăre, to rub); Lěmŭres (pl.), ghosts; turtur, a turtle-dove; vultur, a vulture.

(b) Neuter: fulgur, a flash of lightning (fulgere); guttur (rarely m.), the throat; murmur, a murmuring noise (redupl.); sulfur, sulphur.

899

-ĕri celer, swift; putris (§ 430), rotten (pūt-ērẹ); vepres 900 (m. pl.), thorns.

-ĕr

1. Adjectives: pauper, poor (pauco- and părě-re?).

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(a) Masculine: ǎcipenser, a sturgeon; agger, a pile (ad, gĕr-ĕre); anser, a gander (comp. xýv, Germ. Gans); asser, a beam, post; carcer, a prison, barrier; Cělères (pl.), Knights; later, a brick; passer, a sparrow; procères (pl.), nobles; vesper, evening (cf. § 885. 2. b); vōmer (stem originally vomis-), a ploughshare.

(b) Feminine: låver, a water-plant; mulier, a woman.

(c) Neuter: ǎcer, the maple; cădâver, a corpse; cicer, chickpea; Iter, a journey (I-, īre, to go); păpāver, a poppy; piper, pepper (comp. TÉTEρi); siler, brookwillow; siser, skirwort (comp. oíoapov).

-b-ĕri -b-ri

(See § 430). I. Adjectives: cělěber, numerous, thronged 901 in honour (comp. crebro-); December, tenth; fēne-bris, of interest (fenos-); funebris, funereal (fünŭs-); lugu-bris, mournful (lügere; the second u being due to assimilation partly to the first ù, and partly to b); mulie-bris, womanly (můliĕr-); Novem-ber, ninth; Octo-ber, eighth; sălû-ber, healthy (sălût-); Septem-ber, seventh. (December, &c. are only used of the month.)

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