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tor-tor, a torturer (torqvēre); tū-tor, a guardian (tuēri); vec-tor, (1) a carrier, (2) a passenger (věh-ěre); vic-tor, a conqueror (vincère); ul-tor, an avenger (ulc-isc-i). -ūri sěcūris (f.), an axe (properly for cutting? sēcāre).

909

Compound stem-endings: -rco, -trīci, SS 771, 782; -urno, -erno, -terno, SS 828, 829; -trīno, § 842; -rio, -brio, -ārio, -törio (-sório), SS 940—943.

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-ÖS (-or) Substantives: (a) arbos (f. also arbor), a tree; lėpės (m.), 910

a hare.

912

(6) Neuter: corpus, a body; děcus, a distinction; dēdēcus, a disgrace; frīgus, cold (comp. piyos); lītus, a shore; němus, a grove; pectus, a breast; pěcus, cattle; stercus, dung; tempus, time. -Dðs (-nðr) Neuter: făci-nus, a deed (făcă-re); fēnus (fænus), inte- 911

rest of money (comp. fe-tus, fê-mina); pěnus, a store

(cf. § 398); pig-nus, a pledge (pang-ere). - ús (-ėr) (1) Adjective: větus (větěr, Enn.), old.

(2) Substantives: neuter: ăcus, chaff; foedus, a treaty; glðmus, a ball of thread (comp. globus); hỏlus (õlus), vegetable; lătus, a side; opus, a work; pondus, a weight; raudus, a piece of brass; rūdus, rubble; sécus (only n. acc. sing.), a race or generation; scēlus, a crime; sīdus, a constellation; vellus, a fleece; viscus, the internal organs of the body; ulcus, a sore (comp. ehkos). -nús (-něr) Neuter substantives: fūnus, a funeral; gěnus, a race or 913

kind (comp. gi-gn-ěre); mūnus, a gift; onus, a burden;
vulnus, a wound.
Also Věnus (f.), the goddess of beauty (comp. věnus-

tus). -ěs (-ěr) Cěrēs (f.), goddess of corn, &c. (comp. kpalvelv, cěrus, 914

§ 843); pūbes (adj.), grown up (pūbi-). -IS (-ěr) Substantives: cinis (m.), ashes; căcămis (cf. § 412), a 915

cucumber; pulvis (m. rarely f.), dust. For vomis, see $ 900.

916

2.

-08 (-or) 1. Adjectives: min-or (adj.), less (comp. min-Imus).

Substantives: (a) masculine:

clāmās (cf. Quint. I. 4. 13, also clamor), a shout (clamare); cõiðs (also color), a colour; flös, a flower; honos (also honor), an honour, an official post; lăbos (usually lăbor), toil; lēpās, pleasantness, humour; mös, a custom, a whim; odos (also odor), a scent (comp. 01-ére, © Cew, odwda); păvõs (Næv., usually păvor), dread (påvēre); rõs, dew; rūmor (comp. rumus-culus), a rumour.

Compare also the substantives in § 907. (6) Neuter: Ös, a mouth,

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-108 (-1õr) Adjectives in comparative degree. These are formed from 917

most noun adjectives and many participles. A list of

the principal irregularities will be found in the Appendix. The original s of the suffix is seen only in the neuter singular nom. acc., and in the superlative forms which are derived from it ($ 755).

ācr-ior, sharper (acri-); æqv-lor, fairer (æqvo-); alt-ior, higher (alto-); amant-lor, more loving (amanti-); antiqv-ior, more ancient (antīqvo-); asper-ior, rougher (aspěro-); audāc-ior, bolder (audāci-); běněficent-lor, more benevolent (with participial suffix, from benefico-); citěr-ior, on this side (citra); concord-ior, more harmonious (concordi-); crēbr-ior, more crowded (crebro-); dextěr-ior, on the right side (dextro-); dētěr-ior, worse; dīt-ior, richer (dīti-); dūr-ior, barder (důro-); égent-ior, more needy (egenti-); extěr-ior, outside (extěro-); fēlīc-ior, happier (fēlīci-); fertil-ior, more fertile (fertili-); frūgāl-ior (for positive frugi indecl. is used); imbēcill-ior, weaker imbecillo-); industr-ior, more active (industrio-); infér-ior, lower (infěro-); ingent-ior, huger (ingenti-); intěr-ior, inner (intra); Jūn-ior, younger (jůvěn-); magnific-ent-ior, more highminded (magnifico- with participial suffix); mājor, greater (for măg-ior, comp. mag-nus); měl-ior, better; misèr-ior, more wretched (misèro-); nēqv-ior, naughtier (nēquam); Öc-ior, swifter (comp. Wkús); pējor, worse (for pěd-ior, comp. pessimus); pingv-ior, fatter (pingvi-); plūs (n.), more (for plotos, cf. $ 754); popúlar-ior, more popular (populāri-); postěr-ior, later (postěro-); prior, former (pro? cf. $ 754); prðp-lor, nearer (prope); sălūtār-ior, more healthful (sălūtāri-); sălūbr-ior, more healthy (sălubri-); sătůr-ior (Col.), fatter (sătúro-); sěn-lor, older (sěn-, nom., sénex-); sinistěr-lor, on the left hand (sinistěro-); súpěr-ior, upper (sůpěro-); těnv-ior, thin (tenvi-); větust-ior, older (větusto-); ultěr-ior, further (ultra); and very many others.

913

-ús (-ūr) Substantives: (a) feminine: tellūs, the earth.

(6) Neuter: crūs, a leg; jūs, right (comp. júb-ēre and $ 96. 2); broth (comp. [wuós); pūs, diseased matter; rüs, the country; tüs, frankincense (from Dúos?).

Compound stem-endings: -issümo, $ 758; -usto, -esto, $ 789; -sti, -estāt, SS 808, 811; -uscủlo, § 864.

CHAPTER IX.

VOWEL NOUN-STEMS.

i. Stems ending in -eo.

-eo

919

1. Adjectives:

ădör-eus, of spelt (ådor-); æqušr-eus, watery (æquor-); ær-eus, of bronze (æs-); arbor-eus, of a tree (arbös-); arbút-eus of the arbutus (arbůto-); argent-eus, of silver (argento-); ărundin-eus, of reeds (ărundon-); aur-eus, golden (auro-); cēr-eus, waxen (cēra-); consangvin-eus, of the same blood (com, sangvēn-); corneus, of the cornel tree (corno-); horny (cornu-); corpor-eus, of or having a body (corpos-); fēmin-eus, of a woman (fê-mina-); ferr-eus, of iron (ferro-); flamm-eus, flamy (ilamma-); flor-eus, fowery (filos-); fümìn-eus, of a river (flū-měn-); fulmin-eus of thunder (ful-měn-); füm-eus, smoky (fümo-); grāmin-eus, grassy (grā-měn-); ign-eus, fiery (igni-); lact-eus, milky (lacti-); län-eus, woolly (lāna-); lăpideus, pebbly (lăpid-); lút-eus, muddy (lŭto-); luteus golden yellow (lūto-); niv-eus, snowy (nivi-); oss-eus, bony (ossi-); pic-eus, pitchy (pic-); plumb-eus, leaden (plumbo-); pulvěr-eus, dusty (pulvis-); rðs-eus, rosy (rosa-); sangvin-eus, bloody (sangvěn-); sāx-eus, stony (saxo-); sīděr-eus, starry (sīdůs-); spic-eus, of ears of corn (spica-); trītic-eus, wheaten trītico-); vīpěr-eus of a viper (vīpěra-); virgin-eus, girlish (virgðn-); and others.

Substantives : (a) Masculine: alv-eus, a trough, hollow (alvo-); balt-eus (or -eum), a belt; calc-eus, a shoe (calci- heel); cās-eus, a cheese; clūp

2.

eus, a shield; cull-eus, a bag (from Gr. koleós: comp. cũlus); củn-eus, a wedge, lă gv-eus, a noose; mall-eus, a hammer; mull-eus, a red shoe (mullo- red mullet?); pilleus (also pilleum), a felt cap (comp. Tidos, felt); plåt-eus, a board, shed, &c.; půt-eus, a well; urc-eus, a pitcher.

(6) Feminine : àdor-ea, renown (lit. corn-reward; odor-); ālea, a die; ardea, a heron (comp. épodios); ārea, an open space; baxeæ (pl.), shoes; bractea, a plate of metal; căpr-ea, a roedeer (capro-), fovea, a pitfall; frămea, a spear (Tac. G. 6.); gălea, a helmet (comp. kŭvén); gānea, a restaurant; glārea, gravel; grān-ea, a cornmash (grāno-); laur-ea, a laurel tree or bay (lauro-); lin-ea, a Alaxen thread (lino-); Öcrea, a greave; Plea, an olive (comp. elaia); pålea, straw (comp. Păles); plătěa, a street (from areia, broadway); sðl-ea, a sandal (sólo-, ground); talea, a rod; tinea (tinia, comp. tænia, raivia); a bookworm; trăbea, a state robe; vinea, a vineyard, à shed.

(c) Neuter : flammeum, a bridal veil (flamma-); hordeum, barley. -āc-eo 1. Adjectives: cret-āceus, of chalk (crēta-); ěděr-āceus, 920

of ivy (ěděra-); farr-āceus, of spelt (farr-); gallin-āceus (gallinacius), of hens (gallina-); herb-āceus, grass coloured (herba-); horde-aceus, of barley (hordeo-); rös-āceus, of roses (rosa-); test-āceus, of pottery (testa-); viol-āceus of violes (viðla-).

Substantives: erin-aceus, a bedgehog (comp. är, xếp Hesych.); must-āceus or must cake (musto-); vīn-āceus,

a raisin stone (vīno-). -ūceo caduceus, herald's staf (comp. knpúkelov); pann-ũceus 921

(pannucius), tattered, wrinkled (panno-). -teo lin-teum, a linen cloth (līno-).

1. Adjectives: åhē-neus (æneus), of bronze (for ahes- 922
neus, from æs-); angvi-neus (rare), snaky (angvi-);
ebur-neus, of ivory (ébor-); popul-neus, of poplar (po-
půlo-); quer-neus, oaken (quercu- $ 110).
2. Substantives: ärān-eus (in Plin. also as adj.), a
spider (comp. ápáxvns); balineum or balneum (cf. also

$ 330), a bath (from Balavelov). -gneo i. e. gin-eo, from root of gignère; unless the g be

softened for c in the first two words, and in the last
be due to a false analogy.
11-gmeus, of ilex (for llic-gneus, from něc-); săligneus
(Col.), of willow (salic-); viti-gineus vine-produced (viti-).

2.

-neo

-än-eo Adjectives:

(a) consent-aneus, suited (consentire); dissentaneus, 923 unsuited (dissentire), extraneus, external (extra); foc-aneus (rustic ap. Col.), of the throat; applied to a choking sprout (fauci-); miscell-aneus (Juv.), miscellaneous (miscello-); pēd-aneus, an inferior judge (věd-); præcīd-aneus (Cato), slaughtered before (præ-cæd-ěre); prælig-āneus (Cato), picked before (prælig-ěre); præsent-aneus (Plin.), operating quickly (præsenti-); succēd-aneus or succīdaneus coming in place of another (succēd-ěre or succīdere); sicc-āneus (Col.), dry (sicco-).

(6) Compounds formed immediately from the simple parts : bipėd-aneus (Col.), two feet in measure (bis pēd-); circumföraneus, round the forum (circum fóro-); collact-aneus, foster (com lacti-); měditerr-aneus, inland (mědio-, terra-); subterraneus, underground (sub terra-); súpervăc-aneus, superfluous (súper văcā-re). t-ān-eo i. e. āneo appended to stem of past participle:

collec-taneus (Plin., Suet.), gathered together (collig-ěre); 924
condi-taneus (Varr.), for preserving (conděre or condīre);
opertaneus (Plin.), concealed (opěrīre); rejec-taneus
(coined by Cic. Fin. 4. 26), belonging to the class of rejected

(rejic-ěre). -Öneo idõněus, fit. -leo 1. Adjectives: cæruleus (cærůlus), dark blue (cælo- 925

cf. § 176).
2. Substantives: (a diminutival suffix).
acu-leus, sting, prickle (ăcu-); <qvů-leus, a colt (ěqvo-);
hinnu-leus a fawn (hinno-); månů-leus, a long sleeve
(månu-); nůc-leus (nůcủleus, Plaut.), a kernel (nůc-);
trochlea, a block of pulleys (from tpoxós, comp. tpoxaría).
See also § 919. 2.

926

ii. Stems ending in -1o. (For stems in -i see Book II. Chap. x.) -io I. Adjectives: chiefly from nouns:

(a) abstēm-ius, abstemious (abs, tēm-; comp. tēm-ålentus, tēm-ētum); āěrius, in the air (aer-); æthěr-ius, in the æther (æthěr-); ål-ius, other; anx-lus, uneasy (ang-ěre?); augůr-ius, of an augur (augůr-); cæs-lus, gray; dúb-ius, doubtful (duo-; the b is perhaps parasitical, cf. $ 76, or du-bi-us is for du-vi-us, two-wayed)

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