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957

scūrrari, play the buffoon; spěcủlari, spy out (spěcủla, watch tower); spīcare (Plin.), furnish with ears of corn; spūmare, foam ; stillare, drop; stipúlari, make a bargain (from stipúla, a straw? or from diminutive of stips, a coin?); těrěbrare, bore; tricari, play tricks; trůtinari, weigh; turbare, disturb; umbrare, overshadow; undare, swell, wave; and others.

(2) from substantives with -e stems:
glăciare, turn to ice; meridiare (also dep.), take a noon-day meal.
(3) from nouns with -o stems; (a) from substantives :

ăcervare, pile up (acervus); ădultěrare, pollute (adulter); æstivare, pass the summer (æstiva, pl. summer quarters); arbitrari, form a judgment (arbiter, judge); architectari, build (architectus); argümentari, adduce proof (argümentum); armare, arm (arma pl.); auxiliari, help (auxilium); bacchari, celebrate Bacchic rites, revel; bajúlare carry a burden (bajulus, porter); bāsiare, kiss (bāsium); bellāre, war (bellum); cachinnare, laugh (cachinnus); cælare, grave (cælum, a burin); calceare (calciare), shoe (calceus); can. cellare (post-Aug.); lattice, cross through (cancelli, pl.); căpistrare, halter (căpistrum); carbuncălare (Plin.), have a carbuncle (carbunculus); circinari, round (circinus, pair of compasses); circůlari, form a group (circủlus); conciliare, unite (concilium); consiliari, form plans (consilium); conviciari, rail (convicium); colare, filter (colum); crībrare, sift (cribrum); cúmůlare, pile up (cůmůlus); củneare, wedge (cũneus); damnare, condemn (damnum, loss); diglădiari, fight it out (glădius); dominari, rule (dominus); donare, grant, make a grant to (dõnum); emendare, take out faults (mendum); fămůlari, be a servant (fămŭlus); fermentare, cause to ferment (fermentum); flågellare, whip (flågellum); frēnare, bridle (frēnum); frumentari, get corn (frūmentum); fūcare, dye (fücus); fumare, smoke (fümus); fundare, establish (fundus, bottom); gubernare, steer (guberna pl.); jðcari, joke (jocus); júgare, yoke (júgum); júgulare, cut the throat (júgulum); lamentari, lament (lamenta, n. pl.); lăniare, butcher (lanius); lăqveare (not præ-Aug.), snare (lăqveus); lignari, collect wood (lignum); ldcare, place (idcus); lūcrari, make gains (lucrum); lustrare, purify, survey (lustrum); mācărare, steep (măcer); ministrare, attend (minister); modůlari, measure (módúlus); monstrare, show (monstrum); négotiari, do business (něgotium); nodare, knot (nõdus); numerare, count (nůměrus); nuntiare, announce (nuntius); oscủlari, kiss (oscŭlum); õtiari, have leisure (otium); pābúlari, collect fodder (pabulum); palpare, stroke (palpum); pampinare, trim vines (pampinus, a vine tendril); pastinare, dibble (pastinum); popúlare (also -ari), devastate (populus ?); prceliari, battle (proelium); prðcare (rare), demand (prðcus); rădiare, shoot forth rays (rădius); regnare, reign (regnum); rèpudiare, reject (rěpudium); scrūtari, search (exarrine into beaps

;

of old stuff? scrūta pl.); servare, take care of (servus); sībllare, hiss (sībilus); signare, stamp (signum); somniare, dream (somnium); sõnare, sound (sõnus); spătiari, walk about (spătium); spoliare, despoil (spolium); stăbălari, stable, roost (stăbulum); stimŭlare prick (stimulus); stămăchari, be irritated (stomachus); stuprari, debauch (stuprum); svāviare, hiss (svavlum); sulcare, furrow (sulcus); sŭsurrare, whisper (sůsurrus); terminare, set bounds to (terminus); triumphare, triumph (triumphus); tumulare cover with a mound (tảmůlus); vallare, surround with a rampart (vallum); vēlare, veil (vēlum); ventilare, make a small breeze (ventủlus); Vilicare, to be a farm steward (vilicus); vitiare, spoir (vitium); vclgare, publish (volgus); and others.

(6) From adjectives with -o stems:

æmůlari, rival; æqvare, level; aliēnare, alienate; alternare, do 958 by turns; antiquare, reject a bill; ápricari, bask in the sun; aspěrare, roughen (asper); averruncare, avert; cæcare, blind; căvare, make bollow; clārare, make illustrious; commodare, make serviceable ; continuare, join; coruscare, quiver; crispāre, curl; cunctāri, delay; curvare, bend; curtare, dock; densare, thicken; dēprāvare, distort (prāvo-); dēsõlare, render desolate (sõlo-); dignari, think worthy ; dīlātare, spread (lāto-); dūrare, harden; explānāre, make plain; fêcundare (Verg.), make fruitful; festīnare, hasten; firmare, strength en; foedare, dirty; funestare, fill with death; fuscare, darken ; gěmi. nare, double; grātāri, show pleasure; hībernare, winter; hilărare, cheer; honestare, compliment; ignorare, ignore (ignarus); incestare, defile; infestare, attack; infirmare, weaken; inqviētare, disquiet; intègrare, renew (integer); Itěrare, repeat (comp. iterum, adv.); lăcărare, tear (lăcer); lætāri, rejoice ; lætificare, make glad; lassāre, weary; laxare, loosen; līběrare, free (līber); māturare, ripen ; mědicari, (also -are) heal; mendīcari, beg ; mirari, wonder at; misérari, deplore (miser, wretched); mütilare, lop; mütuari, borrow; novare, renew; nūdare, make bare; oblīquare, turn aside; obscūrare, darken; öpinari, to think (comp. nec opinus); orbare, bereave; pācificare, pacify; pandare, bend, curve; pěrègrinari, travel; perpètuare (rare), perpetuate; piare, appease ; pigrare (Lucr.), pigrari (Cic.), to be lazy (piger); prīvare, deprive (privus, single); probare, test, show to be good; profānare, profane; prospěrare, make prosperous ; pròpinquare, approach; publicare, make public; quadruplari, be an informer (lit. get fourfold penalty); reciprocare, move to and fro; rusticari, live in the country; rútilare, make or be red; săcrare, consecrate (săcer); sānare, beal; sătărare, glut (sătur); sauciare, wound; sécundare, favour; sérēnare, clear up; assěvērare, assert strongly; persěvērare, persist; siccare, dry; sociare, ally; sõlidare, make solid; sollicitare, harass; spissare, make thick; sůpěrare, overcome ; sůpinare, bend upwards; tardare, delay; trangvillare, calm; trèpi

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900

dare, hurry; truncare, lop; văcuare, empty; văgari, stroll about; văriare, diversify; vastare, lay waste; věrecundari, feel bashful; ūmectare, moisten; and others.

(4) From substantives with -u stems:

æstuare, be bot, surge; arcuare, bend like a bow; fluctuare (also depon.), undulate, waver; sinuare, curve; tìmultuare (also depon.), make a bustle.

(5) From nouns with -1 stems:

antestari (for ante-testari), call witnesses preliminarily (testi-); calcare, trample (calx, heel); cělěbrare, frequent (cělěber); cělěrare, hasten (celer); compărare, match (par: besides the compound of parare); concordare, agree (concors); dītare, enrich (dīs); dotare, dower (dos); důplicare, double (duplex); exstirpare, root out (stirps); fraudare, cheat (fraus); fréqventare, resort to (fréqvens); grăvare, burden (grăvis); něbětare, blunt (hëbes); interpolare, furbish up (interpolis); 1ěvare, lighten (1ěvis); mémorare, relate (měmor); mercari

, traffic (merx); pācare, appease (pax); părentare, sacrifice in honour of a parent? (părens); piscari, fish (piscis); præcipitare, hurl down (præceps); prðpāgare, propagate (propāges); quirītare, cry in fear (declare oneself a citizen? Quiris); rèpræsentare, exhibit, pay at once (præsens); sēdare, settle (sēdes); simålare, pretend (similis); suffocare, choke, hold under throat (fauces pl.); supplicare, supplicate (supplex); těnuare, make thin (tènuis); testari, call witnesses (testis); tristari (Sen.), be sad; contristare, sadden (tristis); turpare, be foul (turpis); viridare, make or be green (viridis); and some others.

(6) From nouns with consonant stems:

aggěrare, pile up (agger); åriệtare, butt (aries); auctionari, hold an auction (auctio); auctorare, guaranty, bire out (auctor); aucũpari, chase after (auceps); augúrari, augur (augur); auspicari, take amens (auspex); căcūminare, point (căcumen); cognominare, surname (cognomen); colorare, colour (color); contionari, harangue (contio); criminari, bring a charge (crīmen); crůc-i-are, torture (crux, a cross); decorare, decorate (děcus); discriminare, distinguish (discrimen); èqvitare, ride a horse (ěqves); examinare, weigh (exāmen, tongue of balance); exhērēdare, disinherit (exhēres); exulare, be an exile (exul); exūběrare, overflow (über, abundant); fēněrare (also dep.), lend money (fēnus, interest); ferrūminare, solder (ferrūmen); frúticare (also dep.), sprout (frutex); fulgurare, lighten (fulgur); fulminare, hurl thunderbolts (fulmen); füněrare, inter (fünus); fürari, thieve (fur); gěněrare, beget (gěnus); germinare (Plin.), bud (germen); giðměrare, gather into a ball (glömus); glutinare, glue (gluten); hiểmare, spend winter (hiems); honorare, honour (honor); hospitari, be a guest (hospes); Imăginari, picture to oneself

901

(imāgo); interpretari, interpret (interpres); jūdicare, judge (judex); jūrare, swear lit. affirm right (jūs); låbörare, labour (lăbor); lăpi. dare, stone (lăpis); laudare, praise (laus); lēgare, appoint formally (lex); mancipare, sell (manceps); marginare, furnish with a rim (margo); mīlstare, serve as a soldier (miles); moděrare, regulate (as if from a stem modůs-; comp. modes-tus); můněrare, reward (munus); murmărare, murmur (murmur); nominare, name (nomen); nūtrīcare, suckle (nutrix); odorare, give a smell, odorari, scent out (odor); Õminari, forbode (omen); Oněrare, burden (onus); opěrari, work (õpus); örare, speak (os, mouth); ordinare, set in order (ordo); paupěrare, make poor (pauper); pignėrare, pledge (pignus); ponděrare, weigh (pondus); précari, pray (prex); pulvěrare, bestrew with dust (pulvis); récordari, call to mind (cor n.); refrīgěrare, make cool again (frīgus); remigare, row (rēměx); rõborare, strengthen (robur); rörare, drop, bedew (ros); rūminare (also, dep.), chew the cud (rūmen); sălūtare, greet (sălūs); scělărare, pollute (scélus); sēgregare, separate (segrex); sēminare, sow (sēmen); spērare, hope (spes $ 340 n.); stercorare, dung (stercus); tempărare, proportion, forbear (tempus); vădari, bind over by bail (vas); văpõrare, steam (văpor); vēlitari, skirmish (vēles); věněrari, worship (regard as charming ? věnus); verběrare, beat (verběra pl.); verminare, to have worms (vermina pl.); vigilare, watch (vigil); ulcărare, ulcer (ulcus); vulnerare, wound (vulnus).

-icā albicare, be white (albêre); candịcare (Plin.), be whitish 562

(candere); claudicare, be lame (clauděre); fòdicare, dig frequently (føděre); prævāricari. act in collusion (vāro-,

crooked); vellicare, pluck (vellère). Comp. $ 768. -t-igā castīgare chastise (casto.); fastīgare, bring to a point ; 963

fătīgare, tire (comp. affătim); vestīgare, track. (With

this suffix comp. vectigal). -tā (-sā)

. As if from same stem as past participles : usually express- 964

ing repeated action, or attempt. In a few cases the simple verb does not exist, or has a different form of past participle. (None are from participles in -āto : compare $ 965.)

adjūtare, help (adjåvare); adventare, come continually (advěnīre); ægrotare, to be sick (comp. ægro-); affectare, aim at (afficěre); amplexari, embrace (amplecti); aptāre, fit (comp. ăpi-sc-1); argūtari, prate (arguěre); artare, compress (arcēre); assentari, Aatter, (comp. assentire); cantare, sing (căněre); captare, catch at (căpěre); certare, strive (cerněre); cossare, loiter (cēdère); cỉtare, rouse (ciēre); coeptare, begin (coepère); commentari, debate (comminisci); conflictare, fight (conflīgère); consultare, deliberate (consúlère); crèpitare,

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rattle (crèpāre); cúbitare, lie frequently (cũbare); cursare, run about (currère); dătare, give repeatedly (dăre); defensare, defend (defendère); delectare, delight (delicěre, præ-Cic.); dictare, say frequently (dīcére); dissertare, discuss (dissěrěre); domitare, tame (aðmare); dormītare, be sleepy (dormire); dũctare, lead about (dūcère); exercitare, exercise (exercēre); fùgitare, flee habitually (fügěre); gestare, wear (gěrěre); grassari, attack (comp. grădi); gustāre, taste (comp. yeúelv); håbitare, dwell in (hăbēre);, hortāri, exhort (cf. p. 237); itare, go frequently (ire); jactāre, toss, boast (jăcère); lactare, wheedle (lăcăre, only in compounds); lapsare, stumble (labi); lătītare, lie hid (lătöre); mactare, slaughter (comp. mactus, as if from măgère); měrìtare, use to earn (měrēre); mersare (mertare, old, according to Quint.), dip (mergěre); mötare, move about (mövēre); mussare, mutter (comp. müttire, uúčelv); mūtare, change (comp. movēre); nătare, swim (nāre, $ 644); nictare, wink (comp. conīvēre); nixari, strive (nīti); notare, note (noscěre; comp. cognitus); nutare, nod (nuere, only in compounds); occultare, conceal (occůlère); offensare, strike often; ostentare, show off (ostēnděre); păvitare, shake with fear (păvēre); pensare, weigh (pendère); plăcitare (Plaut. once), use to please (plăcēre); pollicitāri, make overtures (pollicēri); portare, carry (comp. Top-Evelv); põtare, drink (potus); prensare, grasp (prendere); pressare, press (prěměre); pulsare (pultare, old, according to Quintil.), beat (pellère); půtare, prune, settle, think (půtus); qvassare, shake (qvătěre); raptare, snatch (răpère); reptare, creep often (rēpère); responsare, answer (respondére); restitare, stay behind (restare); ructare, belch (as if from a verb rugěre; comp. ructus); saltare, dance (sălīre); scitari, inquire (scire); sectari, follow (sèqvi, secûtum); spectare, look (spěcère); strèpitare, rustle (strěpère); temptare, attempt; territare, frighten (terrēre); tortare, torture (torqvēre); tractare, handle (trăhěre); tūtari, protect (tuēri); versare, turn about (vertěre); vexare, harass (věhěre, vectum); võlūtare, roll (volvěre); vomitare, vomit aften (vòměre). -Itā. Usually suffixed to the last consonant of the present stem 965

of another verb; sometimes the I may be part of the

stem, not of the suffix. ăgitare, shake (ågěre); cēnstare, dine often (cēnare); clāmitare, shout repeatedly (clāmare); cogitare, think (cõgěre); dēbilitare, weaken (dēbili-, adj.); dúbitare, doubt (důbio-); febr-ic-itare, be ill of a fever (febri, comp. febrīcūlosus, $ 814); lāgitare, demand; fŭstare, float (filu-ěre); niětare (præ-Cic.), yawn frequently (hjāre); imitari, imitate; impéritare, command (impěrāre); minitari, threaten repeatedly (mināri); mobilitare, make moveable (mobile); nègitare, deny repeatedly (něgāre); nobilitare, make famous (nobili-); nõminitare (Lucr.), name (nominare); noscitare, recognize (noscère); palpitare, throb (palpāre); păritare (Plaut.), make preparations (părare); pericli

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