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tari, put to the test (perīcủlo-); qværstare, seek earnestly (quærere); qvěrstari, complain (qvěri); rogitare, ask eagerly (rögare); sciscitari, inquire (sciscère); venditare, offer for sale (venděre); vocitare, call often (vocare); volitare, Ay about (võlāre). Comp. also crépi. tare, cúbitare, dómitare, exercitare, lătitare, măritare, păvitare, plăcitare, pollicitari, strèpitare, territare, vomitare, in $ 964. -titā (-sitā) i.e. -Ita suffixed to same stem as past participles or 466

ordinary frequentatives.

actitāre, act often (ågěre); cantitare, sing often (căntare); cursitare, run about (cursare); dēfensitare, frequently to defend (defendere); dictitare, say repeatedly (dictare); ductitare, lead (ductare); emptitare (post-Aug.), buy up (ěměre); factătare, do frequently (făcăre); gestitare, be wont to carry (gěstare); hæsitare, hesitate (hærēre); lectitare, read frequently (lėgěre); mansitare, stay (månēre); missătare, send repeatedly (mittère); mussitare, grumble (mussare); pensitare, ponder (pendère); pransitare, lunch (prandēre); responsitare, give frequent opinions (respondēre); scriptitare, write often (scrīběre); unctitare, anoint often (ungvěre); ventitare, come repeatedly (věnīre); victitare, live (vīvěre); vísitare, visit (vidēre, vīsère). So üsitātus (not used in finite verb, except by Gell.), customary (üti).

n

-cinā comp. & 936. Most are formed from stem in -on, and 967

the n is omitted.

halucinari, dream; latrocinari, practise brigandage (latron-); lēnocinari, be a pander (lēnon-); patrocinari, be a patron (patróno-); ratiocinari, calculate (råtión-); sermocinari, converse (sermõn-); vāticīnari, foretell (vāti-).

-olā

Compare the nouns with suffix -ělo, &c. ($S 856-867) 963 -ülā

and the verbs in SS 955–958. -ilā

ēj-ŭlare, wail, cry (eja-); gesti-cůlari, gesticulate (gestu-); grāt-tlari, congratulate (grāto-, pleasing); opi-tŭlari, assist (opi-); pos-tŭlare, demand (comp. poscère); sorbilare, sip (comp. sorbēre); strang-ŭlare, strangle (comp. string-ěre, otpáyyelv); vāpălare, be beaten; viðlare, use force to (vi-); vītúlare, sacrifice, keep holiday; ŭlulare, howl (probably a reduplicated howl). -illā că v-illari, jest, banter (căvilla-); conscrib-illare (Cat.), g69

scribble on (scrīb-ère); focillare (or focilare), cherish (fõco-?); fürc-illāre, prop up (furca-, furcilla-); scint-illare, sparkle (scintilla-); sūg-illare, beat black and blie; tit-illare, tickle; văcMare, waddle, hesitate (vacca-, a cow).

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Formed from, or parallel to, other verbs; most are compounds: 970

anticipare, anticipate (ante, căpě-re); ap- (com-) -pellare, address (pellere); aspernari, scorn, spurn (ab, sperněre); consternare, dismay (consternère); dicare, dedicate (dīcère); ēdůcare, bring up, train (@dūgěre); instigare, goad on (in, stingvěre); lăbare, slip (1ābi); lăvare, wash (låvěre); liqvare, melt (liqvēre or līqvi, be fluid or clear); mandare, commit, entrust (mănu-, dăre); nuncŭpare (nomine căpěre? cf. $ 997); oocŭpare, seize (ob, căpère); pīpare (cf. pīpīre), chirp; plācare, pacify (plăcēre, be pleasing); récủpěrare, recover (re, căpěre); sēdare, settle (sēdēre, sit); suspicari, suspect (suspicăre).

Miscellaneous: chiefly of obscure origin; many have derivative 971 suffixes similar to noun-stems:

ădulari, fawn on; æstimare, esteem; altercari, wrangle; ămare, love; ampliare, enlarge (comp. amplo-); ărare, plough;

auscultare, listen (comp. auris, ear); autůmare, affirm; bālare, bleat; beare, bless; bētare (bītare), go (comp. Baivelv); blåtěrare, bluster (comp. bălătro, a jester); boare, cry alqud (comp. Boav); căcare; călare, summon (comp. kalriv); călīgare, be in darkness; castrare, geld; cēlare, conceal; clāmare, shout; clīnare, bend; com-, ex-pilare, plunder; cõnari, endeavour; contaminare, stain (comp. contāg-ion-); crèmare, burn; creare, create; desiderare, desire; dissipare, dissipate; dólare, hew; fågrare, blaze (comp. flāre, Pléyelv); formidare, dread; frāgrare, emit a smell; friare, rub (comp. fricare); frustrari, cheat (frustra); hälare, breathe; hēluari, gormandize (comp. hēluon-); hiare, gape; incohare, commence; indāgare, trace out (indāg-on-); inqvinare, defile (comp. cæno-, mud); instaurare, renew (comp. instar); invitare, invite; irrītare, irritate; jentare, breakfast; jů. vare, assist; lătrare, bark; lībare, pour out, take (comp. lībum, a cake); ligare, bind; litare, make a favourable sacrifice; luctāri, struggle; lúcúbrare, work by lamplight; luxare, dislocate (comp. doćós, slanting); mānare, flow; měditari, meditate; meare, go to and fro; migrare, depart; mūginari, dally; narrare, relate; něgare, deny (nec); opšõnari, purchase provisions (óxwveiv); optare, choose; optūrare, stop up; ornare, equip; oscitare, gape; pālari, wander; părare, prepare; patrare, perform; peccare, sin; pěnětrare, penetrate (comp. pěnus, store); plorare, cry out; præstõlari, wait for; promulgare, announce, publish; prðpīnare, drink healths (Tapomivelv); rigare, water; rogare, ask; runcare, hoe; screare (Plaut.), hawk, hem; sõlari, console; spīrare, breathe (spīra-, wreath?); stīpare, crowd; südare, sweat; suffrāgari, use a potsherd? vote (suffrāgium); suppeditare, supply; tāxare, estimate; těměrare, defile (comp. těměre); títůbare, totter; tělěrare, endure (tůli, tollere); trúcidare, butcher; văcare, be empty; vēnari, hunt; vibrare, shake; vitůpěrare, blame; vītare, avoid; volare, Aly; vörare, devour; ürīnari, dive.

972

ii. Verbs with -u stems:

ăcuěre, sharpen (acus, needle); mětuěre, fear (mětus); minuěre, lessen (minus, less); stătuěre, determine (stătus, position). The verbs exuere, put off; imbuěre, dip in; induěre, put on, are apparently derived directly from the prepositions ex, in (acquiring a parasitical b from its following u), and indo, the old form of in. Other verbs with -u stems of obscure origin are named in § 684.

973

üi. Verbs with e stems:
Three only have more than one syllable before the -e;

viz.: misăreri, to have pity; oportere, to behove; pænitere, to repent. (1) From adjectives with -o stems:

ægrere, be sick; albere, be white; calvere, be bald; cănere, be hoary; clarere, be bright; claudere, be lame; densēre, be thick, thicken; flaccēre, be flabby; slāvere, be yellow; pigrere, be lazy; salvere, be safe (? see in Book II. Chap. xxx.).

(2) From substantives with -o stems:

callere, to have a thick skin, be experienced (callum); mūcere, be mouldy (mucus).

(3) From nouns with =i stems:

frondere, have boughs (frons); lactere, have milk (lac); sordere, be dirty (sordes pl.); tābere, waste away (tabes, also tabum).

(4) From nouns with consonant stems:
fiðrere, be in flower (ilos); lūcere, be light (lux).

For other verbs with -e stems see Book II. Chap. XXIII. and XXX. Many appear to be formed directly from roots.

974

iv. Verbs with -i stems:
(1) From substantives with stems in -a or -o:

bullire (also bullare), bubble (bulla); condire, pickle, preserve (condus, storekeeper); métiri, measure (mēta, goul); pūnire, punish (poena); servire, be a slave, serve (servus).

(2) From adjectives with -o stems:

blai iri, coax; ineptire, be insănire, be insane; largi give bountifully; lascīvire, be playful; lippire, have sore eyes; præsăgire, foretell; savire, be savage; săperbire, be haughty.

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(3) From nouns with -u stems, the u being absorbed: gestire, exult (gestus, a gesture); singultire, hiccup, sob. (4) From nouns with -i stems:

audire, hear (auris, ear; for the interchange of r and d cf. § 160. 10); dementire, be out of one's mind (mens); dentire, cut teeth (dens); effütire, pour out (fütis, water-vessel, according to Varr.); ērūdire, instruct (růdis, a foil? or rūdis, rough); febrire, have a fever (febris); finire, put an end to (finis); grandire, make great (grandis); hostire, hit? (hostis?); inanire, empty (inānis); insignire, mark (insignis); irrētire, ensnare (rēte); lēnire, soften (lēnis); mentiri, tell lies (lit. invent? mens, mind); mõliri, exert oneself (mõles); mollire, soften (mollis); mūnire, fortify (moenia, pl.); partire (usually partiri), part, share (pars); potiri, be master of (potis); rāvire, make oneself hoarse (rāvis); sstire, thirst (sỉtis); sortiri, cast lots (sors); stăbilire, establish (stăbilis); tussire, cough (tussis); vestire, clothe (vestis).

(5) From nouns with consonant stems:

custodire, keep (custos); expědire, free one's foot (pěs); fulgărire (also fulgurare), lighten (fulgur).

(6) Of obscure origin:

åmicire, clothe; ăpěrire, open (see pério, Book II. Chap. xxx.); dormire, sleep; farcire, stuff (comp. ppay-, bpáo celv); fastidire, loathe ; fèrire, strike; fulcire, prop up; glútire, swallow (from the sound); haurire, draw; impětrire (comp. impetrare), obtain, esp. favourable omens; īre, go; nūtrire, nourish; ordiri, commence (comp. ord-on-); öriri, arise (comp. õp-voue); păvire, strike (comp. maíelv); põlire, polish; rèdimire, bind; sălire, leap (comp. al-Neoða); sancīre, sanction; sărire, hoe; sentire, feel; sěpělire, bury; sõpire, put to sleep (comp. somnus); sufire, fumigate (cf. $ 99); věnire, come; vincire, bind.

(7) Verbs expressive of sounds1:

barrire (Fest.), roar of elephant (barrus, elephant); blātire, babble; crocire, croak (comp. Kpočelv); fritinnire (Varr.), twitter; gannire, yelp; garrire, chatter; gingrire (Fest.), scrcam like geese; glöcire, cluck; grunnire, grunt; hinnire, neigh; hirrire (Fest.), snarl; mūgire, low (comp. uurão bai); muttire, mutter; pīpīre (Col., also pipare, Varr., pīpiare or pīpulare, Catull.), pip, chirp; rugire (Spart.), roar; tinnire, jingle; văgire, wail. -ūtī balbūtire, stammer (balbo-); cæcutire, be blind (cæco-) ; 975

frigūtire (fringuttire), twitter, stutter. 1 Many others, with various stems, will be found in extracts from later writers in Reifferscheid's Suctonius, pp. 247-254, 308—312.

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-Éri Usually expressing desire; formed as if from the supine: 976

cēnātărire (Mart.), be eager for dinner (cenāre); emptůrire (Varr.), wish to purchase (ěměre); ēsărire, be hungry (ēdēre); håbiturire (?) desire to have (håbēre); mictůrire (mingěre); moriturire (quoted from Cic.), wish to die (mòri); nuptărire (Mart.), desire to marry (nūběre); pětīturire (Cic.), wish to be a candidate (pětěre); proscripturire (Cic. Att. 9. 10. § 6), be eager for a pro

scription (proscribere); Sullaturire (Cic. Att. 9. 10. § 6), play the part of Sulla. -üri ligurrire, lick; prūrire, itch; scalpūrire (Plaut. Aul. 464. 977

Wagn.), scratch (scalp-ěre); scăturire, bubble, gush forth (scătere).

anew

V. -BC Inchoative verbs. The following are formed directly 978

from noun stems. (For other verbs with inchoative

suffix see SS 634—638, 676—680.) arbor-esc-ěre (Plin.), grow into a tree (arbos-); dīte-sc-ere (Lucr., Hor.), grow rich (līti-); dulce-sc-ěre (Cic., Plin.), grow sweet (dulci-); fermente-sc-ere, ferment (fermento-; cf. fermentare); flammescere (Lucr.), flame (flamma-); gemma-sc-ěre, bud; gemm-esc-ere (? Plin.), become a jewel (gemma-); grande-sc-ěre (Lucr.), grow big (grandi-); grăve-sc-ěre, grow heavy (grăvi-); herbe-sc-ěre (Cic., in part. pres. only), grow grassy (herba-); igněsc-ěre, burst into flame, kindle (igni-); intégrascěre (Ter.), break out

(integro-; comp. integrare, renew); jůvěn-esc-ěre, grow young (jůvěn-); lăpid-esc-ěre (Plin.), turn to stone (lăpid-); lassesc-ěre (Plin.), become weary (lasso-); mīte-sc-ěre, grow mild, mellow (miti-); molle-sc-ěre, grow soft (molli-); obbrūte-sc-ere, grow brutish (brūto-); pingve-sc-ěre, grow fat (pingvi-); plūme-sc-ěre (Plin.), become fledged (plūma-; comp. plūmātus); puera-sc-ěre (Suet., repuěrascěre, Cic.), become a boy (puěro-, as if from a verb puerāre); radic-esc-ěre (Sen.), put forth roots (rādīc-); rāre-sc-ěre, grow thin (rāro-); repulle-sc-ére (Col.), sprout forth (pullo-); röresc-ěre (Ov.), dissolve with dew (ros-); rūfe-sc-ěre (Plin.), become red (rūfo-); silve-sc-ěre, become woody (silva-); spisse-sc-ěre, become thick (spisso-); stěrile-sc-ére (Plin.), become barren (stěrili-); těněre-sc-ěre (Cels., Plin.; těněrascere, Lucr.), grow tender (těněro-); viv-esc-ěre (Lucr.), grow lively (vīvo-); ūve-sc-ere, grow moist (comp. ūvidus). -88 (-ssi) e. g. arcesso, &c. See § 625.

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