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CHAPTER XI.

COMPOSITION.

ition of 979

New words may be formed not merely by the. a derivative suffix, but by the junction of two or more separately intelligible words into one. This is called composition. The distinctive features of two words being compounded are the loss of their separate accents, and the possession of but one set of inflexions.

Any two words in syntactical connexion may, if the meaning be suitable, be the base of a new compound word. So long as the two words each retain their own proper inflexion or use, however frequently they may be used together, they are not a proper compound; e.g. rem gerere, res gestæ, &c.

Such habitual combinations are called spurious compounds, and are often marked by the fixing of a particular order for the words, though such order is not absolutely prescribed by general principles; e.g. pater familias, jus jurandum, respublica, accepti ratio, &c. (cf. § 1042).

Compounds are distinguishable from a mere juxtaposition of go the simple words of which they are or might appear to be composed,

either (a) by the two words not being used together as simple words, e.g. ēdūrus, subsimilis, cisrhēnānus, prošvus, qvinqvevir;

or (6) by one or both not being used at all independently, e.g. dissimilis, vēsanus;

or (c) by one or both losing their proper inflexions or terminations, e.g. arcitenens, malevolus, tridens, caprifīcus;

or (d) by a vowel being changed or omitted owing to the two words being brought under one accent, e.g. Diespiter, duodecim;

or (e) by the meaning of the compound being different or more than the meaning of the two words, e g. supercilium, the eyebrow; but super cilium, above the eyelid; conclāve, a chamber.

The precise form which the compound word assumes is not 981 determined by the previous connexion, but mainly by the class (verb, adjective, substantive, &c.) to which it is to belong; and, subordinately to that, by the same causes (known or unknown) which occasion the selection of particular suffixes of declension or derivation. To us the particular form thus appears to be frequently

a matter of caprice. There is, however, a tendency for the compound word to take a similar form to the second of the component words.

The combination is always a combination of stems or roots, (sometimes clipt); and the resulting compound, even where it exhibits similar inflexional or derivative suffixes to those of one of the simple words, may most truly be supposed not to have retained such suffixes but to have reproduced them; e. g. palmi-pes is a compound from the stems palma-, ped-, and has received the simple inflexions (i.e. nominative suffix) of the second class of nouns, just as the stem ped- itself haş.

But a verb or adjective, compounded with a preposition used absolutely ($ 984), retains the form of the simple stem: a verb compounded of two words in proper syntactical relation with each other takes an a stem.

So far as the inflexional or derivative suffix is concerned, compound words have been already included in the lists in this and the previous book. Here they will be classified and enumerated (or selections made) according to the variety of the elements of which they are composed, and the nature of the connexion.

I.

i. SPURIOUS COMPOUNDS. The following are the combina

982 tions which, from the fixity of their use, appear most nearly to approach proper compounds.

Verbs: (a) animum advertere (or animadvertere), to take notice; fidei committere, to entrust; fideicommissa, trusts; fidejůbēre, to bid a person do a thing on your guaranty; fidejussor, a (person as) security; pessum dăre, to send to the bottom (comp. pessum ire, abire, preměre); vēnum ire, to be sold, vēnum dare, to sell (but vēnīre, vendére as compounds proper); usucapěre, acquire by use.

ilicet, off! at once (ire licet); scilicet, let me tell you (scire licet); videlicet, you may see=1

Ethat is to say (videre licet), where the re has dropt off by its similarity to 11, § 28.

(6) The dissyllabic prepositions appear often to form with verbs only improper compounds; e.g. circum dăre, to throw around, appears to be in meaning a proper compound in the construction, urbem circum dare muro; an improper one in urbi circum dare

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murum.

Similarly běněfacere, måledicěre, satisfacěre, palamfileri.

(c) In Lucretius we have some ordinary compounds treated as if they were separable: ordia prima for primordia (IV. 28), and see & 993.

2.

Nouns:

983 (a) Doubled adjective: altěrůter, one of two; quisquis, whosoever; quotusquisque,

how many.

(Comp. the adverbs: quamquam, utut, although, however.)

tertius decimus, quartus decimus, and other compound numerals. So lex quina vicenaria, law relating to age of twenty-five.

(6) Adjective + substantive: jusjurandum, an oath (lit. a swearing one's right); res gestæ, exploits; res publica, the common weal; ros marinus (ros maris Ov.) rosemary (sea-dew).

(c) Genitive + substantive: accepti (expensi) latio, entering in book as received (expended); agricultura, farming; aquæductus, a water-course; argentifodinæ, silver mines; ludimagister, a schoolmaster; paterfamilias, materfamilias, filiusfamilias, &c. a father, &c. of a household; plēbiscītum, a commons' resolution; senatusconsultum, a senate's decree. So jurisconsultus, one skilled in the law.

(d) Genitive + adjective: e.g. verisimilis, likely (like the truth). (e) Oblique case and verb; e. g. lucrifacere, to make a profit of.

(f) Two parallel substantives: e.g. ususfructus, the use and enjoyment. So perhaps pactum conventum, a bargain and covenant (or a covenanted bargain?).

(8) Adverb+ participle: e.g. grăveðlens, strong-smelling; svaveolens, sweet-smelling.

3. Adverbs: e.g. sæpenumero, often in number; tantummodo, only (lit. so much in measure); hactěnus ($ 509), thus far; &c.

itaqve, therefore; etěnim, in fact, &c. have each but one accent (cf. SS 297, 298): magnopere, greatly; prorsus ($ 512), utterly, &c. have been contracted: siqvidem, nisi, qvăsi (S 524), &c. have had the first vowel modified. So nudius tertius (quartus, &c.), the day (two days) before yesterday, is a contracted sentence (nunc dies tertius est).

ii. COMPOUNDS of prepositions used absolutely, or g84 of inseparable particles. Such compounds are some verbs and some nouns.

Verbs: (a) Very common with all prepositions; e. g. dissolvere, udvenire, &c.

I.

2.

(6) With inseparable particles: amb, dis, por, red (re), sed (se). e. g. ambīre, dissolvěre, porrigere, resolvěre, sevocăre, &c.

[As the differences turn chiefly on the import of the prepositions and particles, instances are reserved for the Appendix to the Syntax.]

(c) Rarely with negatives; viz. in, ne.
ignoscere (for in-gnoscere), not to recognize, to pardon.

nequire, to be unable; nescīre, to be ignorant; nolle (for ne vålère), to be unwilling.

So also with gerundive: infandus, nefandus, unspeakable. For participles see $ 986. Nouns: containing either a verbal or nominal stem.

985 (A) Containing a verbal stem, but not being ordinary derivatives from compound verbs:

advěna, a stranger (advenīre); acclīnis, leaning against (comp. Klívelv); accola, neighbour (colère).

ambāges, roundabout ways (ăg-ěre).

convěnæ (pl.), assembled strollers (convěnīre); conviva, a guest (con, vivěre). in not: inědia, fasting (ed-ěre); innŭbus, unmarried (nub-,

nūběre); inscius, insciens, ignorant (scire).

at: invidus, envious (vid-ēre). indo in, on: incus, an anvil (cūdere); indigěna, a native (gin-,

gignere); indðles, growth, temper (Öle-scere); Industria,

industry (struěre). nec (ne) not: necopīnus, unexpected (opīnāri); něfandus, unspeak

able; nefastus, forbidden?; nefrens, not biting (frendere);

nescius, ignorant (scire). objex, a bolt (jăcě-re). perfūga, a deserter (perfúgě-re).

præcoqvus, præcox, early, ripe, precocious (côqvěre); præscius, foreknowing.

præfica, a woman mourner (făcě-re?); præsul, cf. § 874. profugus, Alying (profugere); providus, foreseeing (vid-ere).

rědivivus, renovated (vivěre); refluus, Aowing back (fluěre); rëfúga (Dig.), a runaway (réfůgě-re).

com

common

súboles (sõbõles), growth, stock (dle-sc-ěre).
transfūga, a deserter (fügě-re).

(B) Containing a nominal stem: amb on both sides; anceps, double-headed, doubtful (căpăt-).

together; with adjective stems, also completely:

(1) From adjectives: cognatus, united by birth; compar, well matched; compascuus, for common pasturage; complūres (pl.), several together; concăvus, hollow; condensus, very dense; condignus, quite worthy.

(2) From substantives: (a) adjectives: cognominis, of like name; commanipularis, in the same company (manipulo-); commünis, having common functions, common; compos, having complete mastery (pöti-); concolor, of the same colour; concors, of the same mind (cordi-); confīnis, having common borders; confrăgosus, broken; consangvineus, of the same blood (sangvěn-); consonus, sounding in unison; consors, having a common lot (sorti-); conterminus, having

unds; copis, having complete resources; copia, plenty (opi-). (6) Substantives: cohēres, a fellow heir (hērēd-); collēga, a fellow by law; collēgium, a body formed under same law; compes, a shackle for the feet (pěd-); compluvium, a cistern to collect rainwater (plŭvia-); condiscipulus, a schoolmate; congerro, a companion in tricks (gerra-); conjux, one united in marriage (yoke fellow, Júgo-); conservus, a fellow slave; consobrīnus, a child of two sisters (sõrõr-); consòcer, a joint father in law; consponsor, a joint surety; contůbernalis, a companion, contubernium, companionship in a shop or hut (tăberna-); convallis, a close valley; cūria, a collection of men (co-, viro-).

So the adverbs: comminus, lit. hands together, at close quarters; ēminus, hands off, i.e. at a distance. de As negative: dēbilis, weak (håbilis);

down, e.g. declivis, sloping downwards (clivo-);
off, e.g. deunx, an ounce of an as, i.e. eleven-twelfths

(uncia-). dis in two, divided, or as negative: (a) from adjectives:

difficilis, difficult; dimidius, half (mědio-); dispar, ill-
matched; dissimilis, unlike.
(6) From substantives: discolor, of various colours
(color-); discors, discordant (cordi-); dissonus, out of
tune (sono-).

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