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(a) With adjectives, exceedingly: edūrus, very hard; efferus, very wild; elixus, sodden (laxo-).

(b) With substantives, off; hence without: effrenare, to unbridle; effrēnus, unbridled (freno-); ēgeli-dus, with the chill off (gelu-, not compound of gelidus); elingvis, tongueless (lingva-); exǎnimis, lifeless (anima-); excors, senseless (cordi-); exhēres, disinherited (hērēd-); exlex, lawless (lēg-); exsangvis, bloodless (sangvěn-); exsomnis, sleepless (somno-); exsors, without lot (sorti-); exspes, hopeless (spe-); exsucus (Quint.), juiceless (suco-). Compare its use with verbs in App. to Syntax.


un-=not: adjectives (and thence derived substantives):

(a) from existing adjectives and participles: ignāvus, inactive; ignarus, ignorant; ignobilis, unrenowned; illěpidus, disagreeable; illībĕralis, ungentlemanly; illicitus, unlawful; illītĕratus, illiterate; illōtus, unwashed; immansvētus, untamed; immātūrus, unripe; immědicabilis, incurable; immemor, unmindful; immemorabilis, indescribable; immĕmõratus, unmentioned; immensus, measureless; imměrens, undeserving, immeritus, undeserved; immiséricors, pitiless; immītis, unmellowed, harsh; immòdērātus, immoderate; immodicus, excessive; immortalis, immortal, immortalitas, immortality; impătiens, impatient; impatientia (post-Aug.), impatience; impĕrītus, unskilled, impĕrītia, unskilfulness; impius, impious; impos, powerless (poti-); inaudītus, unheard; incæduus, uncut; incognitus, unknown; incolumis, unhurt (comp. -cellĕre, strike); incredibilis, incredible; inděcōrus, unbecoming (děcōr-); indēfessus, unwearied; indignus, unworthy; ineptus, without tact; infandus, (cf. 984 c); inhăbilis, unmanageable; inhospitalis, inhospitable; inimicus, unfriendly; Iniqvus, unlevel, unfair (æqvo-); insulsus, insipid (salso-); intempestivus, unseasonable; intestatus, that has made no will; invěrĕcundus, unblushing; irritus, in vain (răto-); and many others.

(b) From substantives: ignominia, disgrace (gnōměn-); imbellis, unwarlike (bello-); imberbis, beardless (barba-); implūmis, featherless (pluma-); inănĭmis, lifeless (anima-); incuria, want of care (cura-); indemnis (post-Aug.), without loss (damno-); inermis, unarmed (armo-); iners, unskilled, sluggish (arti-); infāmis, of ill-report (fama-); informis, formless (forma-); infrēnis, bridleless (frēno-); ingens, not of the class? huge (genti-); inglōrius, without glory (gloria-); inhospitus, inhospitable (hospět-); injúria, wrongful conduct, injūrius (rare), wrongful (jūs-); innůměrus, numberless (nůměro-); inops, helpless (õpi-); insomnis, sleepless (somno-); invius, roadless (via-); and others.



on: insignis, with a stamp on, distinguished (sign-). between: internuntius, a go-between; here perhaps belongs interpres, a broker, interpreter.

not: nefas, wickedness (fas); něgōtium, business (otium); nēmo, none (homon-); nullus, not any (ullo-).


thoroughly: with all kinds of adjectives: perabsurdus, peraccommodatus (per fore accommodatum tibi, C. Fam. 3. 5. 3), pĕrācer, perăcerbus, perăcutus, perădõlescens, peramplus, perangustus, perbonus, percontumax (Ter.), perělěgans, perexignus, perfăcētus, perfăcilis, pergrātus, pergrăvis, perhonōrĭficus, perhumānus, peridoneus, perinsignis, perjucundus, permagnus, permīrus (per mihi mirum visum est, Cic.); permodestus, permultus, peropportunus, perparvus, perpropinquus, perpulcer (Ter.), perrārus, perstudiosus, persubtilis, pertinax (těnax), perurbanus, pervětus, and many others.


through: pervius, with a way through.

(1) very: from adjectives, but few used before Augustan age: præaltus, præcălidus (Tac.), præclārus, prædensus (Plin.), prædives, prædulcis, prædūrus, præfĕrox, præfervidus, præfidens (Cic.), prægělīdus, prægrandis, prægrăvis, prælongus, præproperus (Cic.), over hasty; prærăpidus (Sen., Sil.), prætenuis, prætrepidus, in a great flurry; prævalidus, and others.

(2) before: (a) from adjectives: præcanus (Hor.), prematurely gray; præmātūrus, ripe before the time; prænuntius, foretelling; præpilatus, tipped with a ball in front; præpostĕrus (Cic.), behind before, reversed; præsāgus, foretelling.

(b) From substantives: præceps, headlong (for præcăpits); prænomen, the commencing name (nōměn-); præsæpe, an enclosure (sæpi-); præsignis, distinguished (signo-); prævius, on the way in front (via-).


forwards: prōcērus, tall; proclivis, sloping forwards; procurvus, curved forwards; profundus, pouring forth? deep; progèner, a grandson-in-law (son-in-law further off?) (but cf. § 990); prolixus, stretched out (laxo-); promulsis, a preliminary mead-drinking, the first course (mulso-); prōmutuus, lent in advance; propălam (adv.), publicly, open in front? propătulus, open in front; prōtēlum, a team (lengthened web?); protervus, forward in manner, saucy; protěnus or protinus (adv.), forthwith.


back: rebellis, insurgent (bello-); reclīnis, leaning back; recurvus, curved back (curvo-); rěduncus, booked back (unco-); remora, delay (mòra-); répandus, turned backwards (pando-); rěsimus, turned up (simo-); rěsõnus, resounding (sono-); rèsupīnus, lying on one's back (supino).

sub (a) slightly: from adjectives: subabsurdus, subagrestis, subalbidus (post-Aug.), săbămārus, subcandidus, subcrispus, subcrūdus, subdifficilis, subdulcis (Plin.), subdūrus, subflāvus (Suet.), subfuscus, subgrandis, subhorridus, subimpudens,

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subinānis, sublīvidus (Cels.), submŏlestus, submōrōsus, subniger, subnubilus, subobscurus, subpallidus (Cels.), subpar, subrancidus, subraucus, subrīdiculus, subruber, subrubicundus (post-Aug.), subrūfus, subrusticus, subrutilus (Plin.), subsimilis (Ĉels.), subtristis, subturpiculus, subturpis, and some others.

(b) beneath: subcăvus, bollow underneath; sublāmīna (Cato), an underplate.


(c) inferior: subcenturio, an under-centurion; subcustos, under-keeper; subpromus, an under-butler; subvădes (old word), under-sureties. So Plautus coins Sub-Ballio from the name of

a man.



above, exceedingly: superficies, the surface (facie-); supervǎcāneus, supervacuus, superfluous.

bad: vecors, foolish (cordi-); vēgrandis, small; vēmens (věhĕmens), violent (menti-); vēpallidus (Hor.), very pale; vēsānus, not sane.

iii. Compounds of words in regular syntactical re- 937 lation to each other.

(A) Attribute+substantive: (a) numeral + substantive:

bicessis, a twenty-as (bi-, decussi-, or viginti, assi-); bicolor, of two colours; bicornis, with two horns (cornu-); bicorpor (rare), with two bodies; bidens, with two teeth (denti-); biduus, for two days (die-); biennis, lasting for two years; hence biennium (anno-); biforis, with two doors (fori-); biformis, with two shapes (forma-); bifrons, with two fronts (fronti-); bifurcus, with two forks (furca-); bīga, a two-yoke chariot (jugo-); bigĕner, from two stocks (genus-); bijugis, yoked two together (júgo-); bilibris, weighing two pounds (libra-); bilingvis, with two tongues (lingva-); bimăris, on two seas (mări-); bimestris, for two months (mens-); bimus, two years old (hiem-); bipalmis, two spans in measure (palma-); bipedālis, two foot in measure (pěd-); bipennis, a two-edged axe (penna-); bipes, with two feet; birēmis, with two oars (rēmo-); bisulcus, forked (sulco-); bivius, with two roads (via-); and others with bi-.

centămănus, hundred-handed (manu-); centumviralis, of the hundred men (viro-); centuplex, hundred-fold; centuria, a company of a hundred (centu-, viro-); centussis, of a hundred asses (assi-).

děcempěda, a ten foot rod (pěd-); děcennis, for ten years (anno-); décussis, (1) a cross, (2) a ten-as piece (assi-).

ducenti (pl.), two hundred (centum); ducēni, ducenties, &c.; dúplex, with two folds (comp. plicare); dupondius, two pound piece or sum (pondo-); duumvir, duovir, apparently formed forgetfully from some such expression as duumvirúm collegium.

nundina (pl.), the ninth day, i.e. market day (novem, die-). primævus, in early age (ævo-); primigenius, of the first stock (genus-); primipilus, a captain of the first pike (pilo-).

qvadragēnārius, consisting of forty (see § 942); qvadragēni, forty each; qvadragesimus, fortieth; qvadrangulus, four-cornered (angulo-); qvadrigæ (pl., also qvadrīga sing.), a four-horse chariot (júgo-); qvadrijŭgus (qvadrijugis), four-yoked; qvadrimestris, four months (mens-); qvadrimus, qvadrimulus, four years old (hiem-); qvadringeni (pl.), four hundred each; qvadringenti, four hundred (centum, cf. § 794); qvadrupedans, going on four feet (pěd-); qvadruplex, fourfold (plic-, cf. qvadruplus, § 860); and others similar to the compounds with bi-.

qvincunx, five-twelfths (uncia-); qvincuplex, five-fold (plic-āre); qvinqvefolium, cinquefoil (folio-); qvinqvennalis, happening every five years (anno-); quinqvennis, five years old (anno-); qvinqvevir, one of five commissioners (cf. duumvir); and some others.

qvotidianus, daily (qvoti, die).

sembella, a half-pound (sēmi, libella-, Varr. L.L. 5. 174); semjădăpertus, half-opened; semiambustus, half-burnt; semjănĭmus (semjănimis); half-alive (ănĭma-); semibarbarus, half-barbarous; semibos, half an ox; semicaper, half a goat; semicirculus (Cels.), a half-circle; semicoctus, half-cooked; semideus, a demigod; semjermus (semjermis), half-armed (armo-); sēmifer, half-beast; semiGermanus, half-German; semihians, half-open; semihomo, half a man; semihora, a half-hour; semilixa, half-suttler; semimas, half a male; seminec- (no nom.), half-dead; seminūdus, half-naked; semipedalis, a half-foot in measure; semipes, a half-foot; semiplēnus, half-full; semirutus, half-pulled down; semisenex, an oldish man; semisomnus, half-asleep; semjustus, half-burnt; semivir, half a man; semivīvus, half-alive; semuncia, a half-ounce; sestertius, containing two and (the third) a half (semis tertius).

septemgeminus, sevenfold; septentrio, the constellation of the seven stars? i.e. Great Bear (cf. § 852); septimontium, the group of seven hills (monti-); septuennis, seven years old (anno); septunx, seven-twelfths (uncia-).

sescuncia, one and a half ounces; sesqvihora, one hour and a half; sesqvilibra, a pound and a half; sesqvimensis, one month and a half; sesqvimodius, a peck and a half; sesqvioctavus, of a thing containing a whole and an eighth; sesqvipedalis, a foot and a half in measure; sesqvipes, a foot and a half; sesqviplaga (Tac.), a stroke and

a half; sesqviplex, once and a half (cf. plic-ăre); sesqvitertius, containing four-thirds.

sevir (sexvir), one of six commissioners; sexangulus, hexagonal; sexcenti, six hundred (centum); sexcentoplagus (Plaut.), a six-hundred-stripe man; sextadecimarius, of the sixteenth legion (sextadecima).

teruncius, a three-ounce, i.e. 1 of an as (uncia-); tressis, a threeas (tri-, assi-); triceps, with three heads (caput-); tricuspis, with three points (cuspid-); tridens, with three teeth (denti-); trifaux, baving three throats (fauci-); trifīlis (Mart.), with three threads (filo-); trigēminus, tergeminus, born three at a birth; trigemmis, with three buds (gemma-); trilingvis, triple-tongued (lingva-); trilix, triple-twilled (comp. lic-ium); trinoctium, a space of three nights (nocti-); triplex, threefold; tripudium, a thrice stamping (tri-, pěd-?); triqvetrus, three-cornered (comp. qvat-tuor, qvadra); triumviri or tresviri (also triumvir, sing. Suet.), a board of three; and others similar to the compounds with bi-.

unǎnimus, of one mind (ǎnimo-); unicaulis (Plin.), with one stalk (caulis-); unicolor, self-coloured (colōr-); unimănus, one-handed (mănu-); universus, all together (in one row, versu-?).

(b) Ordinary adjective+substantive:

æqvilibris, of equal balance (libra-); æqvævus, contemporary (ævo-); Ahenobarbus, Bronzebeard, name of family in Domitian clan; ǎhēnipes, bronzefoot (pěd-); æqvănĭmitas (Ter.), equanimity (animo-); æqvinoctium, a time when nights are equal to days (nocti-); àliqvis, some (lit. an other one); angusticlavius (Suet.), with a narrow border (clavo-).

celĕripes (Cic.), swift-footed; flexipes, with curling foot (flexo-); plānipes, with flat foot (plāno-); solidipes, solid-hoofed (of horses); tardipes, slow-footed.

falsipǎrens (Catull.), having a false father (falso-, parenti-); flexănĭmus, causing a bent soul, i.e. soul swaying (flexo-); grandævus, of great age (grandi-, ævo-); grandiscapius (Sen.), big-stemmed (grandi-, scapo-); laticlavius, with a broad border; longævus, longlived; magnanimus, high-souled (animo-); mediastinus, a mid-city dweller (mědio-, aσTv-); mediterraneus, midland (terra-); misĕri– cors, pitiful (misero-, cord-); multicăvus, with many hollows (căvo-); multiformis, with many shapes (forma-); multiforus (Ov.), manyholed (foro-); multigenus (with -o stem, Lucr.); multigener (? no nom. is found of this consonant stem: Plaut.), of many sorts (gěnŭs-); multijugus, many-teamed (jugo-); multimodus, in many ways (modo-); multiplex, manifold (plic-are); miséricors, tenderhearted (misero-, cordi-).


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