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(a) With adjectives, exceedingly: edurus, very bard;

effèrus, very wild; ēlixus, sodden (laxo-). (6) With substantives, off; hence=without: effrēnare, to unbridle; effrēnus, unbridled (freno-); ēgěli-dus, with the chill off (gelu-, not compound of gelidus); elingvis, tongueless (lingva-); exănimis, lifeless (anima-); excors, senseless (cordi-); exhēres, disinherited (hērēd-); exlex, lawless (lēg-); exsangvis, bloodless (sansvěn-); exsomnis, sleepless (somno-); exsors, without lot (sorti-); exspes, hopeless. (spe-); exsucus (Quint.), juiceless (sūco-). Compare its use with verbs in App. to Syntax. in un-=not: adjectives (and thence derived substantives):

(a) from existing adjectives and participles: ignāvus, inactive; ignārus, ignorant; ignobilis, unrenowned; illěpidus, disagreeable; illīběralis, ungentlemanly; illicitus, unlawful; illītěratus, illiterate; illotus, unwashed; immansvētus, untamed; immātūrus, unripe; immědicabilis, incurable; imměmor, unmindful; imměmõrābilis, indescribable; imměměratus, unmentioned; immensus, measureless; imměrens, undeserving; imměritus, undeserved; immiséricors, pitiless; immītis, unmellowed, harsh; immodérātus, immoderate; immodicus, excessive; immortalis, immortal, immortalitas, immortality; impătiens, impatient; impătientia (post-Aug.), impatience; imperitus, unskilled, impērītia, unskilfulness; impius, impious; impos, powerless (pôti-); inaudītus, unheard; incæduus, uncut; incognitus, unknown; incolumis, unhurt (comp. -cellěre, strike); incrēdibilis, incredible; inděcõrus, unbecoming (děcore); indēfessus, unwearied; indignus, unworthy; ineptus, without tact; infandus, (cf. 984 c); inhăbilis, unmanageable; inhospitalis, inhospitable; inimicus, un

friendly; Inīqvus, unlevel, unfair (æqvo-); insulsus, insipid (salso-); intempestivus, unseasonable; intestātus, that has made no will; invěrěcundus, unblushing; irritus, in vain (răto-); and many others.

(6) From substantives: ignominia, disgrace (gnoměn-); imbellis, unwarlike (bello-); imberbis, beardless (barba-); implūmis, featherless (pluma-); inănimis, lifeless (anima-); incūria, want of care (cura-); indemnis (post-Aug.), without loss (damno-); inermis, unarmed (armo-); iners, unskilled, sluggish (arti-); infāmis, of ill-report (fama-); informis, formless (forma-); infrēnis, bridleless (frēno-); ingens, not of the class? huge (genti-); inglorius, without glory (gloria-); inhospitus, inhospitable (hospět-); injúria, wrongful conduct, injūrius (rare), wrongful (jūs-); innůměrus, numberless (nůměro-); înops, helpless (opi-); insomnis, sleepless (somno-); invius, roadless (via-); and others. in on: insignis, with a stamp on, distinguished (sign-). inter between: internuntius, a go-between; here perhaps be

longs interpres, a broker, interpreter. not: něfas, wickedness (fas); něgotium, business (otium);

nēmo, none (homon-); nullus, not any (ullo-).

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per thoroughly: with all kinds of adjectives: perabsurdus,

peraccommodatus (per fore accommodatum tibi, C. Fam. 3. 5. 3), pěrācer, perăcerbus, perăcutus, perădðlescens, peramplus, perangustus, perbönus, percontumax (Ter.), perėlėgans, perexignus, perfăcētus, perfăcilis, pergrātus, pergrăvis, perhonorificus, perhūmānus, peridoneus, perinsignis, perjūcundus, permagnus, permīrus (per mihi mirum visum est, Cic.); permodestus, permultus, peropportunus, perparvus, perpropinquus, perpulcer (Ter.), perrārus, perstúdiosus, persubtilis, pertinax (těnax), perurbanus, pervětus, and many others.

through: pervius, with a way through. præ (1) very: from adjectives, but few used before Augustan

age: præaltus, præcălīdus (Tac.), præclārus, prædensus (Plin.), prædives, prædulcis, prædūrus, præferox, præfervidus, præfidens (Cic.), prægělidus, prægrandis, prægrăvis, prælongus, præproperus (Cic.), over hasty; prærăpidus (Sen., Sil.), prætěnuis, prætrèpidus, in a great flurry; prævălidus, and others.

(2) before: (a) from adjectives: præcānus (Hor.), prematurely gray; præmātūrus, ripe before the time; prænuntius, foretelling; præpilātus, tipped with a ball in front; præpostěrus (Cic.), behind before, reversed; præsāgus, foretelling.

(6) From substantives: præceps, headlong (for præcăpits); prænõmen, the commencing name (noměn-); præsæpe, an enclosure (sæpi-); præsignis, distinguished (signo); prævius, on the way in front (via-). pro forwards: procērus, tall; proclivis, sloping forwards;

procurvus, curved forwards; prðfundus, pouring forth? deep; progèner, a grandson-in-law (son-in-law further off?) (but cf. $ 990); prolixus, stretched out (laxo-); promulsis, a preliminary mead-drinking, the first course (mulso-); prõmūtuus, lent in advance; propălam (adv.), publicly, open in front? propătůlus, open in front; prðtēlum, à team (lengthened web?); prðtervus, forward in manner, saucy; protěnus or protinus (adv.), forthwith.

back: rébellis, insurgent (bello-); réclinis, leaning back;

récurvus, curved back (curvo-); réduncus, hooked back (unco-); rėmora, delay (mora-); répandus, turned backwards (pando-): résīmus, turned up (simo-); răsónus, resounding (sốno-); rèsúpīnus, lying on one's back (súpino). sub (a) slightly: from adjectives: subabsurdus, subagrestis,

subalbidus (post-Aug.), súbămārus, subcandidus, subcrispus, subcrūdus, subdifficilis, subdulcis (Plin.), subdūrus, subflāvus (Suet.), subfuscus, subgrandis, subhorridus, subimpudens,

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subinānis, sublīvidus (Cels.), submolestus, submörösus, subniger, subnubilus, subobscūrus, subpallidus (Cels.), subpar, subrancidus, subraucus, subrīdicŭlus, subrůber, subrůbicundus (post-Aug.), subrüfus, subrusticus, subrůtilus (Plin.), subsimilis (Cels.), subtristis, subturpiculus, subturpis, and some others.

(6) beneath: subcăvus, bollow underneath; sublāmina (Cato), an underplate.

(c) inferior: subcentărio, an under-centurion; subcustos, under-keeper; subprõmus, an under-butler; subvădes (old word), under-sureties. So Plautus coins Sub-Ballio from the name of a man. súper above, exceedingly: superficies, the surface (facie-); super

văcāneus, süpervăcuus, superfluous.
bad: vēcors, foolish (cordi-); vēgrandis, small; vēmens
(věněmens), violent (menti-); vēpallidus (Hor.), very
pale; vēsānus, not sane.

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iii. Compounds of words in regular syntactical re- 987 lation to each other.

(A) Attribute+substantive: (a) numeral + substantive:

bicessis, a twenty-as (bi-, decussi-, or viginti, assi-); bicolor, of two colours; bicornia, with two borns (cornu-); bicorpor (rare), with two bodies; bidens, with two teeth (denti-); biduus, for two days (die-); biennis, lasting for two years; hence biennium (anno-); bifðris, with two doors (fori-); biformis, with two shapes (forma); bifrons, with two fronts (fronti-); bifurcus, with two forks (furca-); bīga, a two-yoke chariot (Jugo-); bigěner, from two stocks (gěnus-); bijúgis, yoked two together (Júgo-); bilibris, weighing two pounds (librā-); bilingvis, with two tongues (lingva-); bimăris, on two seas (mări-); bimestris, for two months (mens-); bīmus, two years old (hiem-); bipalmis, two spans in measure (palma-); bipedālis, two foot in measure (pěd-); bipennis, a two-edged axe (penna-); bipes, with two feet; birēmis, with two oars (rēmo-); bisulcus, forked (sulco-); bivius, with two roads (via-); and others with bi-.

centimănus, hundred-handed (manu-); centumviralis, of the hundred men (viro-); centuplex, hundred-fold; centúria, a company of a hundred (centu-, viro-); centussis, of a hundred asses (assi-).

děcempěda, a ten foot rod (péd-); décennis, for ten years (anno-); děcussis, (1) a cross, (2) a ten-as piece (assi-).

;

ducenti (pl.), two hundred (centum); důcēni, důcenties, &c.; dúplex, with two folds (comp. plīcāre); dupondius, two pound piece or sum (pondo-); duumvir, duovir, apparently formed forgetfully from some such expression as duumvirum collegium.

nundina (pl.), the ninth day, i.e. market day (novem, die-).

primævus, in early age (ævo-); primigěnius, of the first stock (gěnús-); primipilus, a captain of the first pike (pilo-).

qvadragēnārlus, consisting of forty (see § 942); qvadragēni, forty each; qvadragēsimus, fortieth; qvadrangulus, four-cornered (angülo-); qvadrīgæ (pl., also qvadriga sing.), a four-horse chariot (júgo-); qvadrijŭgus (qvadrijugis), four-yoked; qvadrimestris, four months (mens-); qvadrīmus, qvadrīmulus, four years old (hiěm.); qvadringeni (pl.), four hundred each; qvadringenti, four hundred (centum, cf. $ 794); qvadrůpědans, going on four feet (pèd-); qvadrúplex, fourfold (plic-, cf. qvadruplus, § 860); and others similar to the compounds with bi-.

qvincunx, five-twelfths (uncia-); qvincuplex, five-fold (plic-āre); qvinqvefolium, cinquefoil (folio-); qvinqvennalis, happening every five years (anno-); quinqvennis, five years old (anno-); qvinqvevir, one of five commissioners (cf. duumvir); and some others.

qvotidianus, daily (qvoti, die).

sembella, a half-pound (sēmi, libella-, Varr. L.L. 5. 174); semjădăpertus, half-opened; semiambustus, half-burnt; semjanimus (semjănimis); half-alive (ănima-); semibarbarus, half-barbarous; semibos, half an ox; semicaper, half a goat; semicirculus (Cels.), a half-circle; semicoctus, half-cooked; semideus, a demigod; semjermus (semjermis), half-armed (armo-); sēmifer, half-beast; semiGermanus, half-German; semihians, half-open; semihomo, half a man; semihora, a half-hour; semilixa, half-suttler; semimas, half a male; seminec- (no nom.), half-dead; seminūdus, half-naked; semipědalis, half-foot in measure; semipes, a half-foot; semiplēnus, half-full; semirėtus, half-pulled down; semisěnex, an oldish man; semisomnus, half-asleep; semjustus, half-burnt; semivir, half a man; semivīvus, half-alive; semuncia, a half-ounce; sestertius, containing two and the third) a half (semis tertius).

septemgeminus, sevenfold; septentrio, the constellation of the seven stars? i.e. Great Bear (cf. § 852); septimontium, the group of seven hills (monti-); septuennis, seven years old (anno); septunx, seven-twelfths (uncia-).

sescuncia, one and a half ounces; sesqvihora, one hour and a half; sesqvilibra, a pound and a half; sesqvimensis, one month and a half; sesqvimodius, a peck and a half; ses vioctavus, of a thing containing a whole and an eighth; sesqvipedalis, a foot and a half in measure; sesqvipes, a foot and a half; sesqviplāga (Tac.), a stroke and

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a half; sesqviplex, once and a half (cf. plic-åre); sesqvitertius, containing four-thirds.

sevir (sexvir), one of six commissioners; sexangulus, hexagonal; sexcenti, six hundred (centum); sexcentoplāgus (Plaut.), a six-hundred-stripe man; sextadecimarius, of the sixteenth legion (sextadecima).

teruncius, a three-ounce, i.e. į of an as (uncia-); tressis, a threeas (tri-, assi-); triceps, with three heads (caput-); tricuspis, with three points (cuspid-); tridens, with three teeth (denti-); trifaux, baving three throats (fauci-); trifüis (Mart.), with three threads (filo-); trigēminus, tergeminus, born three at a birth; trigemmis, with three buds (gemma-); trilingvis, triple-tongued (lingva-); trilix, triple-twilled (comp. lic-ium); trinoctium, a space of three nights (nocti-); triplex, threefold; tripůdium, a thrice stamping (tri-, pěd-?); triqvetrus, three-cornered (comp. qvat-tuor, qvadra); triumviri or tresviri (also triumvir, sing. Suet.), a board of three; and others similar to the compounds with bi-.

unănimus, of one mind (ănimo-); unicaulis (Plin.), with one stalk (caulis-); ūnicolor, self-coloured (color-); unimănus, one-handed (mănu-); universus, all together (in one row, versu-?).

(6) Ordinary adjective+substantive:

æqvilibris, of equal balance (libra-); æqvævus, contemporary (ævo-); Ahēnðbarbus, Bronzebeard, name of family in Domitian clan; ahēnipes, bronzefoot (pēd-); æqvănimitas (Ter.), equanimity (animo-); æqvinoctium, a time when nights are equal to days (nocti-) ; åliqvis, some (lit. an other one); angusticlāvius (Suet.), with a narrow border (clavo-).

celěripes (Cic.), swift-footed; flexipes, with curling foot (flexo-); plānipes, with flat foot (plāno-); sõlidipes, solid-hoofed (of horses); tardipes, slow-footed.

falsspårens (Catull.), having a false father (falso-, parenti-); flexănimus, causing a bent soul, i.e. soul swaying (flexo-); grandævus, of great age (grandi-, avo-); grandiscāpius (Sen.), big-stemmed (grandi-, scāpo-); lāticlāvius, with a broad border; longævus, longlived; magnănimus, high-souled (animo-); mediastīnus, a mid-city dweller (mědio-, COTU-); mediterraneus, midland (terra-); misèricors, pitiful (misero-, cord-); multicăvus, with many hollows (căvo-); multiformis, with many shapes (forma-); multifòrus (Ov.), manyboled (föro-); multigěnus (with -o stem, Lucr.); multigener (? no nom. is found of this consonant stem: Plaut.), of many sorts (gěnės-); multijugus, many-teamed (júgo-); multimodus, in many ways (modo-); multiplex, manifold (plic-āre); miséricors, tenderhearted (misèro-, cordi-).

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