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euax a cry of joy. juchhe.



Comp. eva, eváčew, and perhaps Germ.

the sound of blows. Comp. Engl. thwack.

Abbreviated sentences or mutilated words. The following are probably such:



(a) Latin:



lo here! The ce is perhaps the demonstrative particle, cf. § 374. In the comic poets it is frequently combined with the accusative (as if it were equivalent to see) of the pronouns is and ille; eccum, eccam, eccos, eccas, ecca; eccillum, eccillam, eccillut; once also eccistam. used similarly to English there!

mehercules, mehercule, me

hercle, hercules, hercle

abbreviations of me Hercules juvet.

medius fidius for me deus Fidius juvet, so help me the God of Faith. perhaps for en Castor.





for Pollux.

said by Roman grammarians to be for per ædem Pollucis. prythee. Said by Cicero (Or. 45) to be for si audes (cf. Wagner ad Pl. Aul. 46).

(b) Borrowed from the Greek:





come! for aye. It is sometimes followed by dum.
off! for anaye.

for εὖγε.

originally for evye maî?



i. THE following Extracts are made in order to give a fuller exposition of some points of Phonetics, and to furnish physiological explanations of some of the phenomena stated in Book 1.

The books chiefly quoted from are, as I believe, the best on the subject, viz.: A. Melville Bell's Principles of Speech, London, new edt. 1863. Visible Speech, London, 1867. A. J. Ellis on Early English Pronunciation, Part 1. 1869; Part 11. 1869. These books contain much more that is illustrative but not so easily quotable, The Visible Speech contains Bell's latest views, which in some points, are different from those given in the Principles.

The notation of the sounds has been in some cases modified, to make the account intelligible to readers who are not familiar with Bell's or Ellis' notation. (In the Principles, Bell uses 'articulations' for 'consonants.' I have substituted the latter term as better known.) I have also occasionally made omissions and transpositions for the sake of brevity and clearness, but have not cared to remove all repetition.

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On Nasals. (Comp. § 6.)

ii. 'The letters m, n, ng have the same oral positions as b, d, g 'but the inner end of the nasal passages is uncovered by the soft palate, and while the breath is shut in by the mouth, it escapes freely through the nostrils.

'Though the nasals gain but little percussive audibility by the 'cessation of contact, yet they cannot, any more than the perfectly 'obstructive consonants, be considered finished until the oral organs are separated. There is breath within the mouth pressing against the conjoined organs, and slightly distending the pharynx, as well as a free current in the nostrils: and though the voice may be 'perfectly finished by merely closing the glottis, the consonant 'would be imperfect, if the breath within the mouth were not 'allowed to escape. There is thus a slight, but very slight, effect of 'percussion heard on the organic separation as in come, sun, tongue, &c.; and when a vowel follows the articulation, this slight pha

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'ryngal expression gives a sharpness and closeness of connexion 'to the combination, which would be wanting, if the voice were 'stopped in the glottis before the organic disjunction.

'In finishing these nasal elements, the soft palate must not be 'allowed to cover the nares before the articulating organs are sepa'rated; for a momentary closure will convert m, n, ng into 'b, d, g. A tendency to compress the breath in this way is especi'ally felt in finishing ng, in the formation of which the tongue and 'soft palate are already in contact, and so in the position for g, 'to which ng is consequently more easily convertible than the other 'nasals are to their corresponding shut letters.

'The English nasals are all voiced consonants.

iii. The French has a series of seminasal sounds represented 'by an, en, in, on, un and by various other literal combinations. 'In forming these the soft palate is depressed sufficiently to open 'the nasal passages but not so much as, by contact with the tongue, 'to obstruct the passage into the mouth. Thus having an oral 'as well as a nasal passage they are capable of being affected by 'changes in the position of the mouth. There are four recognized 'varieties of them. The English ng on the contrary, has always 'a uniform sound, it is incapable of any change of vowel quality.' M. Bell, Principles, PP. 49, 50, 39.

iv. It may here be noted that n and 1 are in several languages palatalised. Thus Ital. gl, Spanish 11, Portug. lh, all are equal, or nearly so, to ly: French and Ital. gn, Span. nn (old) now ñ, Portug. nh are all equal or nearly equal to ny. (Ellis, p. 199. Brücke, p. 70.)


On held or sustained Consonants.

'The nasal elements and also the letter 1, are often called 'semivowels because they are perfectly sonorous and capable of 'separate and prolonged enunciation like vowels. These semi' vowels may each separately form a syllable; 1 and n often do so in English as in castle, fasten, &c.; and m has a similar syllabic 'effect in rhythm, chasm, prism, &c. In the pronunciation of such 'words care must be taken that no vowel sound is heard between 'the m and the preceding consonant.

'The letters of this class are often called liquids because they 'flow into other articulations, and seem to be absorbed by them. "This peculiar quality might perhaps be better understood, were 'we to call it transparency; they shew through them the nature of 'proximate consonants. When the liquids occur before voiceless

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