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Close affinity of 1 and 1 (=y). (Comp. $ 138. 144. 2.)

xxiv. "The tongue in forming y is almost in the position for the vowel ee; just as in forming w the lips modify the voice almost to

the quality of the vowel oo. The formative apertures are simply more close, so that y and w are articulated forms of the close • vowel sounds ee and oo.

“Y before ee (18th vowel) presents an articulative difficulty, Many persons, especially in Scotland, entirely omit the y in that • situation : thus we hear of an old man bending under the weight • of ears instead of years.' M, Bell, p. 216.





On Palatalisation ($ 110. 4). xxv. 'In pronouncing 1 (=Engl. y) the middle of the tongue is 'arched up against the palate; while for k the back and for t the 'tip of the tongue only come in contact with the palate. When • then kj or tj come together rapidly, the first change is to produce a palatal modification of k and t. For there is an attempt to

pronounce k and 3 simultaneously. Hence the back of the tongue still remaining in contact with the palate, the middle of the tongue is also raised, so that both back and middle lie against the “palate. This is rather a constrained position, and consequently the • back of the tongue readily drops. The result is the exact position for the palatal modification of t, which originating in an attempt to sound t and j simultaneously brought the tip and • middle of the tongue to the palate, and this being almost an impossible position dropped the tip. The two consonants k and t, • as palatally modified, are therefore ready to interchange. The passage from this modification of t to tsh (=Eng. ch) is very

short and swift. But the organs of different speakers have differ“ent tendencies, and in some s or sh are more readily evolved than tsh from t palatally modified. It must be remembered that • when the sound is thus spoken of as changing, it is not meant • that it changes in the mouth of a single man from perfect k to * perfect tsh. Quite the contrary. It probably required many

generations to complete the change, and the transitional forms were probably in use by intermediate generations.' Ellis, pp. 204, 205





On the change of t to s ($ 151. 2). xxvi. The slight change requisite to convert t into s is seen in the following description of their formation.

• In forming t the edge of the whole tongue is laid against the




• front and sides of the mouth so as perfectly to obstruct the breath. • While the tongue is in this position, there must be a continued pressure of breath against it, and wherever an aperture is made by the removal of any part of the obstructing edge, the confined • breath will be emitted with a degree of explosiveness more or less

strong in proportion to the degree of its previous compression behind the tongue, and also in proportion to the abruptness with • which the aperture is made.' M. Bell, p. 199.

xxvii. "The peculiar mechanism requisite to produce the clear hissing sound heard in the letter s, is a single and very contracted • aperture for the emission of the breath over the centre of the forepart (not the tip) of the tongue, when without much elevation • from the bed of the lower jaw, it is closely approximated to the • upper gum. The tongue is otherwise in contact with the teeth

and gum so as to obstruct the breath at all parts but the point, • which is sufficiently squared to prevent its touching the front * teeth. The slightest projection of the tip brings it against the · teeth, and by partially intercepting the breath at that point modi•fies the sound into that of th: and the least retraction of the 'tongue from the precise point of the true formation causes the "middle of the tongue to ascend towards the arch of the palate, • and modifies the current of breath into that of sh.'

M. Bell,


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p. 181.

On the change of s to r. (Compare § 183.) xxviii. • The articulative position of s giving sibilation to voca• lized breath, produces 2, which differs in no wise from the oral • action of s.

'r as pronounced in England, differs from z merely in the narrowing and retraction of the point of the tongue. In

in Spain, and on the Continent generally, r receives a stronger vibra• tion of the whole forepart of the tongue.' M. Bell, pp. 53, 54.

On the pronunciation of r generally, see above $ xiii.

Omission of t before 1 and n. (Comp. § 192. I. 4.)

xxix. The following passage shews that the pronunciation of t is peculiar before 1 and n.

• The correct articulative action of t is the removal of the whole 'tongue from the palate, allowing the breath to escape by a single . frontal aperture. Such must always be the mechanism of t initial or final: but when the liquids 1 or n follow t in the same word, a





• lateral explosion before 1, and a nasal emission before n are the

regular and necessary modes of finishing t in such cases. Thus in * fitly and fitness, &c.: batch, nettle, little, &c., batten, bitten, button, &c., the point of the tongue is kept in contact with the front of *the palate in forming the ti; and the whole tongue is retained in • its obstructive position during the utterance of the tn.' M. Bell, p. 200.


The interchange of 1 and r. (Comp. $ 176. 7.)

XXX. 'r and 1 are very liable to be confounded where they occur in proximate syllables. The vocal aperture for the former is over the point of the tongue, and for the latter over the sides of the back

part of the tongue; and there is a difficulty in passing quickly • from one to the other of these positions.' M. Bell, P. 193.

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Correspondence of Latin ito Greek 4. (Comp. $ 99. 6.)

xxxi. The following passages deal with a confusion of f with the sharp dental fricative, which is the sound ordinarily given to the Greek 7, though, as stated in the text, probably not its real value, at least originally.

"A faulty pronunciation of th consists in a movement of the lower lip inwards to meet the tongue. This gives so much of the character of 1 to this articulation that it is often difficult to know • which is the letter intended. F and Th are mechanically much alike. The action of the lip for f is precisely analogous to that of the tongue for th. Both organs partially obstruct the breath by central contact with the teeth; and the breath is in both cases emitted through lateral interstices.' M. Bell, p. 177.

"When f and th are pronounced without any vowel, it is very difficult to distinguish them at a little distance.' Ellis, p. 213.



The following selection of inscriptions has been made in order to give specimens of the old forms of the language. They are arranged in chronological order, and have all (except No. 20) been taken from, and examined and re-examined on the proof sheets with, the facsimiles given in Ritschl's Prisca Latinitatis Monumenta, and, in the case of No. 9, with that given in the Corp. Inscr. Rom. Vol. II. The explanations have been taken chiefly from Ritschl's preface and the Corp. Inscr. Lat., edited by Mommsen (Vol. 1., except when otherwise stated). The number of the inscriptions in Corp. Inscr., as well as of Ritschl's plates, is added to facilitate reference. All these inscriptions are in the original in capital letters. The vertical strokes are used to denote the end of the line in the original; but in the modernisation they mark off the cæsura in the saturnian lines.

The blank spaces, and the omission or insertion of dots (to mark the end of the words), have been represented with tolerable fidelity. The dot is sometimes a dot proper (e.g. in iii. iv. xvii.), sometimes a square (e.g. in xiv. xxi.), sometimes a triangle (e.g, in ix. xxii.), sometimes a cross, or square with projecting corners (e.g. in xvi. xxiv.).


Found in a sacred grove at Pisaurum in Picenum on stone. • End

of 5th century.' Ritschl and Mommsen. Corp. I. R. 173. Ritschl, tab. XLIII. C, | matrona | pisaurese dono.dedrot Junoni reginæ matrona Pisaurenses dono (donum?) dederunt,

Do. on stone, end of sth century. Ritschl and Mommsen.
Corp. I. R. 177. Ritschl, tab. xliii. A.

matre | matuta | dono.diidro | matrona | ria. / pola liuia | deda

Matri Matutæ dono (donum?) dederunt matrona, mania Curia, Pola Livia deda (dedant, comp. repúkayti).

The m before Curia is the old form with five strokes (see p. 23), for which in modern books M' is substituted.

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On a bronze tablet found at Firmum in Picenum, now in the Paris

museum, .of a date nearer to the oldest Scipio il scription than

to the second.' Ritschl. Corp. I. R. 181. Ritschl, tab. XCVII. A.

erentio.l.f | aprufenio.c.f 1 1. turpilio.c.f m.albani .l.f t.munatio .tif quaistores aire.moltaticod | dederont 1

Terentius, Lucii filius, Aprufenius Caii filius, Lucius Turpilius Caii filius, Marcus Albanius Lucii filius, Titus Munatius, Titi filius, quæstores ære multatico dederunt; i.e. from the produce of fines.


On a bronze tablet, first made known at Rome, but the place of

finding is unknown. Corp. I. R. 187. Ritschi, tab. II. B. | aidiles • uicesma. parti | apolones. dederi

Marcus Mindius Lucii filius, Publius Condetius, valesi (?) filius, ædilis vicesimam partem Apollinis dederunt, i.e. have offered Apollo's twentieth.


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On a small stone column found at Tusculum near the tomb of the

Furii. “A faithful copy of an original older than the Scipio

inscriptions.' Ritschl. Corp. I. R. 63. Ritschl, tab. xlix. B.

m.fourio.c.f.tribunos Marcus Furius, Caii filius, tribunus, militari de præda Marti dedit.


This and viII. XI. XIII. XIV. are all on stone and taken from the

tombs of the Scipios near the Capene gate. This inscription is on L. Cornelius Scipio, son of Barbatus, Consul 495 U.C. • It probably was written about 500 u.c. Ritschl.

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