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I.

ii. Ordinary formation of Comparative and Superlative.

These derivative adjectives are formed from the positive as fol. lows. (For a more accurate mode of statement see $$ 755, 917.)

The comparative is formed by adding for (for the nom. sing. masc. and fem.) to the last consonant of the stem; i.e. by changing the inflexion i or is of the genitive into lor.

The superlative is formed by adding issimus to the last consonant of the stem; i.e. by changing the inflexion i or is of the genitive into issimus. Thus, dūr-us,

gen. dur-i, comp. dur-ior, superl. dur-issimus. trist-is, gen. trist-is, comp. trist-ior, superl. trist-issimus. felix (felic-s), gen. felic-is, comp. felic-ior, superl. felīc-issimus.

2.

Some adjectives form their superlative by doubling the last consonant of the stem and adding Imus. These are

(a) Adjectives with stems ending in ero or ēri, the e being omitted or retained, as in the positive, § 347.

pulcher, comp. pulchr-ior, superl. pulcher-rimus.
So niger, piger, růber, tæter, våfer: acer, celeber, sålūber.
asper,
aspěrior,

asperrimus. So celer, dexter (also rarely superl. dextimus), liber, miser, pauper, těner, über. Also větus no comp:

věterrimus prospěrus

prosperrimus sinister sinisterior

(sinistimus only in

augurial language) no positive dētěrior

deterrimus nüpěrum (acc. nūpěrior

no superl. Plaut. once)

mātūrus has mātur-rimus, as well as the more common form māturissimus.

(sincērus, austērus, procērus, sevērus have superl. in issimus.)

(6) The following adjectives whose last stem consonant is 1; facilis, easy; similis, like ; difficilis, difficult; dissimilis, unlike; grăcilis, thin, slender; hůmllis, low; as, fac11-18, făcil-limus. (Imbecillis has imbecillissimus.)

The vowel preceding mus in superlatives was in the older language (including Cicero) đ not. 1; thus, durissúmus, facilůmus, pulcherrúmus. So almost always in præ-Augustan inscriptions.

iii. Irregular or defective adjectives (besides those named

in 2. a).

1.

} rich

sēnex, old

The following are either deficient in the positive degree or form their comparative and superlative irregularly or from a different stem: Positive.

Comp.

Superl. bonus, good

mělior

optimus
mälus,
bad
pējor

pessimus
magnus, great

mājor

maximus parvus, small

(minimus (parvissiminor

| mus, Varr., Lucr.)

\plūs (neut. cf. multus, much

plūrimus

$ 432) nēqvam (indecl.), wicked nēqvior

nēqvissimus

dīvịtissimus (Cic.) dīves

dīvītior

dītissimus (Aug. dīs

dītior

and post-Aug.) sènior

(nātu maximus)

sjūnsor (sometimes jůvěnis, young

post-Aug. júvě- (nātu minimus)

nior)
potis, potě ($ 417), able,
possible

potior, better

potissimus, best (no positive)

ācior, swifter Öcissimus frügi (indecl.)

frūgālior

frūgālissimus egens

egentior

egentissimus
égēnus)
běněvolus

benevolentissimus
běněvðlens (Plaut., Ter.)}
mălěvõlus
målevðlens (Plaut.)} malevolentior malevolentissimus
mălědicus

maledicentior maledicentissimus mălědīcens (Plaut.) )

(beneficissimus běněficus

beneficentior (Cato)

beneficentissimus måleficus

maleficentissimus magnificus

magnificentior magnificentissimus munificus

munificentissimus mirificus

(mirificissimus

Į (Ter. once) honorificus

honorificentior honorificentissimus citra (adv.), on this side citěrior

citimus (dē, prep. down from) dētěrior, worse deterrimus

benevolentior

extra (adv.), extěr (adj.)

(extrēmus Papin.) outside, (very rare extěrior

extimus in sing.) externus infra (adv.), infěr (adj.), low) (chiefly used in plur. the inferior

finfinus

īmus beings, places, &c. below) intra (adv.), within

interior

intimus

Spostěrior, hinder, spostrēmus, last post, postěrus, next (in time)

later

(postūmus, last-born præ (prep.), before

prior

primus prope (adv.), near

propior

proximus supra (adv.),súpěr (adj.), high)

(súprēmus, highest, (chiefly used in plur. the superior

last (in time) beings, places, &c. above) ultra (adv.), beyond

ultěrior

ultimus

summus

2.

The following have superlative, but not comparative: bellus, cæsius, falsus, inclútus, invictus, invītus, nðvus, săcer, văfer.

3. The following have comparative, but not superlative:

Verbals in -Ilis : except amābilissimus (Cic., Sen.), hăbilissimus (Cels.), mirabilissimus (Col.), mobilissimus (Cic., Tac.), stăbilissimus (Cato), fertilissimus (Cæs., Liv., Plin. H. N.), utilissimus, nobilissimus.

ălăcer, agrestis, arcānus, āter (Plaut.), diuturnus, exilis, jējujus, júvěnis, longinquus, oblīqvus, opīmus, proclīvis, proximus (of kinship, in Sen., Ulp. &c.), prānus, sătur, segnis, sēnex, sērus, silvestris (Plin.), supīnus, surdus, taciturnus, tempestivus, vicīnus.

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iv. Adjectives used only in the positive:

Many adjectives, which express an absolute state or quality, e.g. material (e.g. aureus), time (e.g. nocturnus), relationship (e.g. paternus), which does not readily admit the idea of a higher or lower degree, have no comparative or superlative. In some others they are wanting without any such apparent reason.

If a comparison is required in such adjectives the defect is supplied by adding măgis and maxime. Thus, magis mirus, more wonderful, maxime mirus, most wonderful.

Adjectives used only in the positive are chiefly of the following classes:

D tives ending in -icus, -īnus, -īvus, -õrus, -timus, -ŭlus, -ālis or -āris, -ills, and (from substantives) in -ātus and -ītus, as cīvicus, natūrālis, &c., barbātus, crīnītus.

1.

Exceptions; rusticior (Sen.); rusticius, as adv. (Hor.).

æqvalior (Liv., Quint.), inæqvalior (Plin. Ep.), inæqvalissimus (Suet.); capitalior (Cic.); frugalior, frugalissimus ; hospitalissimus (Cic.); liberalior, liberalissimus; mortalior (Plin. H. N.); penetralior (Lucr.); regalior (Plaut.); vocalior (Sen., Quint.), vocalissimus (Plin. Ep.).

familiarior (Liv.), familiarissimus; popularior (Liv.); salutarior (Cic.).

civilior (Ov.); juvenilior (Ov.); puerilior (Hor.).

2. Compounds; as inops, magnanimus, &c. Except those named above from dico, facio, volo (§ iii. p. 434).

amentior (Cass., Cic., Suet.), amentissimus (Cic.); dementior, dementissimus (Cic.); ingentior (Verg.).

concordior (Plaut.), concordissimus (Cic., Sen.); misericordior (Plaut., Cic.); vecordissimus (Or. pro Domo).

inertior, inertissimus (Cic.); sollertior (Cic., Ov.), sollertissimus (Cato, Sall.).

deformior (Cic., Mart., Plin.); insignior (Liv.); perennior (Hor.); immanior (Cic., Verg.), immanissimus (Cic., Plin. Ep.).

3. Adjectives ending in -us, preceded by a vowel.

(a) But u often is, or becomes, consonantal, and thus allows a comparative or superlative without difficulty; e.g. in -avus and -gvis; e.g. antiqvior, antiqvissimus; pingvior, pingvissimus; tenvis, tenvior, tenvissimus.

ardyior, arduissimus (Cato); assidvior (Varr.), assiduissimus (Suet., and as adv. Cic.); exiguior (Col.), exiguissimus (Ov., Plin. Ep.); strenuior (Plaut., Lucil.), strenuissimus (Cato, Sall. &c.); vacuissimus (Ov.); perpetuior, perpetuissimus (Cato).

(6) industrior (Plaut.); piissimus (condemned by Cic. Phil. 13. 19, but used by Antony, Sen., Curt., Tac.); noxdor (Sen.). On alsius see p. 240.

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The following: albus, almus, căducus, calvus, cānus, cicër, claudus, comis (comior once in Cic.), compos, curvus, dirus (dīrior once in Cic.), förus, gnārus, lăcer, luscus, mancus, mědiooris, měmor, immémor, měrus, mīrus (mirior Fest., Varr.), mútilus, mütus, gnāvus, néfastus, par, impar, dispar, rüdis, trux, văgus,

v. Many participles present and past have comparatives and superlatives.

Neue (11. 91) gives the following lists of participles, with the time of the first occurrence of one or other form (i.e. comparative or superlative).

I.

Present Participle: (a) In Cicero: amans, appetens, ardens, continens, egens, fervens, flagrans, florens, indulgens, negligens, patiens, temperans, tuens, valens. (6) In Cæs. or Liv. (not in Cic.): oboediens, patens.

In imperial times: abstinens, audens, decens, instans, metuens, obseqvens, reverens.

2. Past Participle:

(a) In Cicero: abjectus, acceptus, accommodatus, accuratus, adstrictus, apertus, apparatus, attentus, aversus, celebratus, commendatus, commotus, concitatus, conditus, conirmatus, conjunctus, contemptus, contractus, cultus, cumulatus, demissus, despectus, desperatus, despicatus, disjunctus, dissolutus, distortus, doctus, effusus, erectus, eruditus, exercitatus, exoptatus, expeditus, exploratus, expressus, exqvisitus, exspectatus, fractus, impeditus, incitatus, inqvinatus, instructus, intentus, junctus, munitus, obstinatus, obtusus, occultus, optatus, ornatus, pacatus, paratus, perditus, perfectus, perversus, politus, pressus, probatus, productus, promptus, refertus, remissus, remotus, restrictus, sedatus, solutus, spectatus, suspectus.

(6) In Cæs. or Liv. (not in Cic.): auctus, citatus, confertus, conspectus, distinctus, diversus, excitatus, extentus, insignitus.

(c) In imperial times: coloratus, compressus, confusus, effectus, elatus, emendatus, fusus, ordinatus.

But the comparative or superlative of many other participles occurs occasionally.

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