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APPENDIX D.

NUMERALS, MEASURES, WEIGHTS, &c. i. List of Numerals (chiefly from Neue, cf. supr. p. 103).

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ORDINAL:

DISTRIBUTIVE:
answering the ques. answering to the

NUMERAL ADVERBS:
tion quotus? which question quotēni?

answering the question
in numerical order? how many each?

quotiens (quotiēs)? (all declinable adjec. (all declinable adjec

how many times ? tives). tives plural).

(see § 168. 36). Sprīmus, a, um

seměl prior, first of two

singuli, æ, a
sécundus
bīni

bis
(alter
tertius

terni (or trini, cf. inf.) těr
qvartus
qvăterni

qvătěr
qvintus
qvini

qvinqviens
sextus

sexiens
septimus
septēni

septiens
octavus
octoni

octiens
nõnus
novēni

noviens
děcimus
dēni

děciens
unděcimus
undēni

unděciens
duoděcimus
důödēni

duoděciens tertius decimus terni dēni

terděciens qvartus decimus qvăterni dēni qvăterdèciens

sēni

III.
IIII. or IV.

V.
VI.

VII.
VIII. or IIX.
VIIII. or IX.

X.
XI.
XII.

XIII.
XIIII. or XIV.

7
8
9
IO

duo, &, o
tres, tria
avattuor
qvinqve
sex
septem
octo
novem
děcem
unděcim
duoděcim
treděcim
avattuorděcim

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15 16 17 18 19 20 21

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22 XXII.

duo et viginti
28 XXVIII. or XXIIX. duodētriginta
29 XXVIIII. or xxix. undetrīginta
30
XXX.

trigintā
40 XXXX, or XL. qvadrāginta
50

L.

qvinqvāginta

bis et viciens
duodetriciens
undetriciens (?)
triciens
qvadragiens
qvinqvagiens (also
qvinqvagēsiens, Plaut.)
sexagiens
septuagiens
octogiens
nonagiens
duodecentiens
undecentiens
centiens
centiens semel
centiens viciens qva-

ter
ducentiens
ducentiens triciens

60 LX. sexāginta sexagēnsimus

sexāgeni 70 LXX. septuāginta

septuagēnsimus septuāgeni 80 LXXX. or xxc. octoginta

octogensimus

octogeni
90 LXXXX. or XC. nonāginta

nonagensimus nonāgeni
98

XCIX. or IIC. octo et nonaginta duodecentensimus duodecenteni 99 XCIX. Or IC. undecentum

undecentensimus undecenteni Іоо

centum
centēnsimus

centeni
IOI

CI.

centum et unus centensimus primus centeni singuli 124 CXXIIII. or cxxiv. centum viginti qvat- centensimus vicensi- centeni viceni qva

tuor
mus qvartus

terni
200

CC.
důcenti, a, a

ducentensimus duceni 230 CCXXX. ducenti («,a) triginta ducentensimus tri- duceni triceni

censimus

C.

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List of Numerals (Continued). trécenti, a, a trecentensimus treceni

trecentiens qvadringenti, a, a qvadringentensimus qvadringeni

qvadringentiens
qvingenti, æ, a qvingentensimus qvingeni

qvingentiens
sescenti, a, a sescentensimus sesceni

sescentiens
septingenti, a, a septingentensimus septingeni

septingentiens octingenti, a, a octingentensimus octingeni

octingentiens nongenti, a, a nongentensimus nongeni

nongentiens
mille
millensimus

singula millia milliens
mille ducenti («, a) millensimus ducen- singula millia ducena milliens ducentiens
triginta qvinque tensinus tricensi- tricena quina triciens qvinqviens

mus qvintus
duo millia
bis millensimus bina millia

bis milliens
qvattuor millia qvater millensimus qvaterna millia qvater milliens
qvinqve millia qvinqviens millen- qvina millia

qvinqviens milliens
simus
sex millia
sexiens millensiinus sena millia

sexiens milliens
decem millia
deciens millensimus dena millia

deciens milliens
viginti willia
viciens millensimus vicena millia

viciens milliens
qvinqvāginta millia qvinqvagiens mil- qvinqvagena millia qvinqvagiens milliens

lensimus
centum millia

centiens millensimus centena millia centiens milliens
qvingentă millia qvingentiens mil- qvingena millia qvingentiens milliens

lensimus
deciēns centum mil- deciens, centiens mil- deciens centena mil- deciens centiens mil-
lia
lensimus
lia

Liens

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In spelling, on the above table, the terminations of the ordinals ensimus (instead of the older -ensumus, and later -esimus), and of the adverbs -ens (instead of the later -es), and of millia (not milia), the Monumentum Ancyranum has been followed.

In some good MSS. other forms for the distributives of hundreds are (rarely) found; e. g. ducenteni, qvadringenteni, &c., and these forms are mentioned by Priscian.

Multiplicative adjectives are formed with the suffix -plex, -fold, viz. simplex, sescuplex (one and a half fold), duplex, triplex, quadruplex, qvincuplex, septemplex, decemplex, centuplex.

Others in -plus are generally used in neuter only, to denote a magnitude twice, &c. as great as another. These are simplus, sescuplus, duplus, triplus, qvadruplus, octuplus.

For derivatives like primānus, of the first (legion), see $ 830; primarius, of the first (rank), § 942, 1; and the names of the numbers, e.g. binio, two, see $ 852.

Another series (see esp. Frontin., de aquæduct., 26—62) is binarius, containing two, ternarius, qvaternarius, qvīnarius, sēnarius, septenarius, octonarius, novenarius, denarius, duodenarius, vicenarius (“ lex quina vicenaria," Plaut.), tricenarius, qvadragenarius, qvinqvagenarius, sexagenarius, septuagenarius, octogenarius, nonagenarius, centenarius, ducenarius, trecenarius, qvadringenarius, qvingenarius, septingenarius, octingenarius, millenarius. Comp. $ 942, 1.

ii. Signs for Numerals. In writing numbers a stroke over the (Roman) letters indicates thousands, and top as well as side strokes indicate hundred thousands; e.g. XVIII. is duodeviginti millia, xxcccc. is viginti millia quadringenti, (x/CLXXXDC is deciens centum millia et octoginta millia sescenti (1,180,600). See also in § xii.

The signs? for 50, 100, 1000 were originally the three Greek aspirate letters which the Romans did not require, viz. ¥, 0, 0, i.e. x, 0, 0. The y was written I and abbreviated into L; O from a false notion of its origin made like the initial of centum; and o assimilated to ordinary letters clɔ.

The half of o, viz. D, was taken for 1000, i.e. 500; X probably from the ancient form of 8, viz., being adopted for so, the half of it v was taken for 5.

1 Marquardt, Röm. Alterth. III. 2, p. 32.

Ritschl, Rhein. Mus. 1869, XXIV. p. 12.

iii. Inflexions of Numerals. Unus. For mode of declension see $ 371. In the plural it is only ased with substantives whose plural denotes a singular, e.g. una litteræ, one epistle; unæ ædes, one house (set of rooms, or of hearths?); uni mores, one and the same conduct; uni Suevi, the single tribe of the Suevi (or the Suevi alone).

Duo. The masc. and neut. are: nom. acc. duo, gen. duorum or duum, dat. abl. duobus. For the m. acc. duos is also used. The fem. is: nom. duæ, acc. duas, gen. duarum or duum, dat. abl. duābus. Ambo, both, is similarly declined. In expressions like duodecim, duodeviginti, duoetvicesimus, duo is not varied.

Nom. and acc. tres, n. tria, gen. trium, dat. tribus.

All the other cardinal numbers up to centum are undeclined: so also is mille when used as an adjective. As a substantive it has a declinable plural millia, millium, millibus (cf. § 177): but in the singular is only used in nom. or acc. In expressions like cæsi sunt tria millia trecenti milites, we must supply militum after millia. If the name of the thing, &c. numbered precede, it is usually put in the genitive, e.g. militum (not milltes) tria millia trecenti cæsi sunt.

The other cardinal, all the ordinal and the distributive numbers, are declinable adjectives with -o stems. The genitive plural of the cardinals and distributives is usually in -um for -orum (cf. § 365); e. g. non plus mille qvingentum æris (for qvingentorum nummorum); senum septenumque denum.

iv. Order in compounding Numerals. In compound numbers, from thirteen to nineteen inclusive, the smaller is usually prefixed to the larger without et, e.g. septem decem (or septemdecim), septimus decimus, septeni deni, septies decies; but in cardinals and ordinals the order is sometimes reversed, and in cardinals et is sometimes inserted, especially if the larger come first, e.g. decem septem, decem et septem, septem et decem: decimus septimus (Sen.).

From twenty-one to ninety-nine, the rule is that, either the larger should precede the smaller number without et, or the smaller precede the larger with et, e.g. viginti qvattuor or avattuor et viginti; vicesimus quartus or qvartus et vicesimus, &c.; but in the ordinals and distributives, exceptions to both usages occur, e.g. qvadragesimum et sextum, sexto tricesimo, qvinqvagena et singula, qvinos vicenos, &c.; and in cardinals and distributives the conjunction is sometimes inserted even when the larger precedes, e.g. viginti et septem (Cic.), qvadraginta et qvisque (Liv.), vicies ac septies, &c.

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