## Indian Mathematics, an IntroductionThis Book Taps The Mathematical Traditions Of India For Some Simple And Elegant Methods Of Performing Arithmetic Calculations. There Are Techniques For Multiplication, Division, Squaring, Square-Rooting And Factorisation That, Once Mastered, Are Faster Than The Conventional Approaches Currently In Wide Use. Errors Arising Out Of Carelessness In Calculation Were Apparently A Problem Faced By Our Ancestors Too! They Devised An Amazingly Simple Technique To Catch Such Errors. These Techniques Are Presented In This Book In A Lucid Manner, With A Large Number Of Examples To Illustrate The Basic Ideas And Elaborate On Their Variations. The Use Of Sanskrit Terms Has Been Minimised. Most Of The Methods Described Are General And Work For All Numbers, Not Just For Special Cases. The Mixed-Number, Or Mishrank, Which Contains Both Positive And Negative Digits, Is Extremely Useful In Simplifying Calculations And Is Widely Used In This Book. The Reader Will Find That Ideas Such As These Can Be Effectively Grafted To The Conventional Methods.The Book Will Interest A Wide Audience. Students Will Benefit The Most, Since They Can Easily Make The Methods Of This Book Their Own. They Will Soon Find That Much Of Their Arithmetic Can Be Performed Orally. Adults Will Find It A Pleasure To Discover New And Elegant Ways Of Doing Things They Already Know. The Computer Enthusiast May Find Hidden In The Simple Methods Ideas To Speed-Up Machine Computation. Finally, The Mathematically-Inclined May Find Their Curiosity Sufficiently Aroused To Go Beyond This Book And Delve Deeper Into The Indian Mathematical Legacy. |

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### Contents

Nikhilam Special Multiplication | 16 |

Multiplication Using Urdhva Tiryaka | 36 |

Evaluation of Powers | 53 |

Square Root | 80 |

R Redundant Number System 42 | 81 |

Notes and Explanations | 99 |

### Common terms and phrases

aibo algorithm answer is yes ASHOK JHUNJHUNWALA back one step bers binary number system Chapter Check your result compute corrected partial dividend correction involves cross-subtraction decimal places determine deviations digit number digits are obtained divided dividend digit divisibility by prime divisible by 11 divisible by 13 division process Dwandwa Ekad Ekadhika of 13 Find the square following numbers higher digits hundreds place India INDIAN MATHEMATICS last digit Let us illustrate Let us take Mishrank multi negative Ekadhika negative partial dividends Nikhilam normalisation Note number is divisible number of digits obtain the quotients original number partial dividend 20 positive Ekadhika previous quotient digit prime numbers quotients and remainders reduce the previous remainder digit result using Navasesh right-most digit second digit second divisor digit single digit sqft sqin square root straight-division method sub-base subtracted to obtain take another example third digit three digits units digits upto Vedic Mathematics verified using Navasesh write