The American Journal of Science, Volumes 163-164

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J.D. & E.S. Dana, 1902 - Science

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Page 307 - ... degrees of the zero ; but even a second hypothetical substance, again exceeding the first one in volatility to an equal extent, would not suffice to bring him quite to the point of his ambition. That the zero will ever be reached by man is extremely improbable. A thermometer introduced into regions outside the uttermost confines of the earth's atmosphere might approach the absolute zero, provided that its parts were highly transparent to all kinds of radiation, otherwise it would be affected...
Page 306 - ... that of water. Such cold involves the solidification of every gaseous substance but one that is at present definitely known to the chemist, and so liquid hydrogen introduces the investigator to a world of solid bodies.
Page 309 - A specimen of this gas was subjected by Olszewski to liquid air temperatures, combined with compression and subsequent expansion, following the Cailletet method, and resulted in his being unable to discover any appearance of liquefaction, even in the form of mist. His experiments led him to infer that the boiling point of the substance is probably below !) absolute.
Page 308 - But supposing all difficulties to be overcome, and the experimenter to be able to reach within a few degrees of the zero, it is by no means certain that he would find the near approach of the death of matter sometimes pictured. Any forecast of the phenomena that would be seen must be 'based on the assumption that there is continuity between the processes studied at attainable temperetures and those which take place at still lower ones.
Page 229 - It is interesting to note the phases of petrography through which the work of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel passed, since this was the first of the larger surveys in this country that took a deep interest in the petrography of eruptive rocks. It began with King's interest in...
Page 307 - Another important application of liquid air, liquid hydrogen, etc., is as analytic agents. Thus, if a gaseous mixture be cooled by means of liquid oxygen only those constituents will be left in the gaseous state which are less condensable than oxygen. Similarly, if this gaseous residue be in its turn cooled in liquid hydrogen a still further separation will be effected, everything that is less volatile than hydrogen being condensed to a liquid or solid. By proceeding in this fashion it has been found...
Page 306 - ... gaseous substance but one that is at present definitely known to the chemist, and so liquid hydrogen introduces the investigator to a world of solid bodies. The contrast between this refrigerating substance and' liquid air is most remarkable. On the removal of the loose plug of cotton wool used to cover the mouth of the vacuum vessel in which it is stored, the action is followed by a miniature snowstorm of solid air, formed by the freezing of the atmosphere at the point where it comes into contact...
Page 145 - The composition of yttrialite, with a criticism of the formula assigned to thalenite. Am. Jour. Sci., 4th ser., vol. 13, pp. 145-152, 1902. Discusses Benedicks' formula for thalenite and presents the author's results of the chemical properties of yttrialite.
Page 67 - In one sense the conditions of life may be said, not only to cause variability, either directly or indirectly, but likewise to include natural selection ; for the conditions determine whether this or that variety shall survive.
Page 309 - ... it possesses high conductivity. It. may safely be predicted that liquid hydrogen will be the means by which many obscure problems of physics and chemistry will ultimately be solved, so that the liquefaction of the last of the old permanent gases is as pregnant now with future consequences of great scientific moment as was the liquefaction of chlorine in the early years of the last century. The next step...

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