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touched. On the other hand, sound and colour and smell supply no nourishment, nor do they cause either growth or dissolution. Taste, therefore, it follows, must be a kind of touch, because it is the sense which perceives the tangible and nutritive.

These two senses, then, of taste and touch are indispensable conditions of animal life: evidently, in fact, the animal cannot possibly exist without the sense of touch. The other senses are directed towards higher ends than mere existence, and do not belong to any class of animals whatever, but only to some particular species of animal. Thus, for example, they must be possessed by the animal capable of forward movement, because the animal, if it is to be preserved, must be able to perceive an object, not only when brought into immediate contact with it, but also when it is some distance from it. Now, this is only possible in case it have the power of perceiving through some intervening medium, this medium being affected and set in motion by the object of sense, while the sense itself in turn is affected by the medium. [We may illustrate by the manner in which movement is communicated.] That which produces local movement continues its effect until it makes a change and the original agent in propulsion causes another object to propel, the movement being effected through the intervening object: and just as the first object that moves propels without being propelled, whereas the last member in the chain is propelled only and does not propel, while the middle links (of which there may be many) are both propelling and propelled, so also is it with the alteration [involved in sense-perception], excepting that the alteration is effected without change of position. Thus, if one were to plunge anything in wax, the wax would be moved so far as one plunged it: a stone under similar treatment would not be moved at all, and water would be so to a still greater degree. Air, on the other hand, is moved to the greatest possible extent, and both impresses and is impressed so long as it continues still and remains a whole. And thus, also, to touch upon the theory of "repercussion,” it is better to suppose that the air is affected by the colour and the form, so long as it remains unbroken (and it is so over every smooth surface), than that the visual ray after

αν είς ή. επί δε του λείου έστιν είς διο πάλιν ούτος την όψιν κινεί, ώσπερ αν εί το εν τω κηρό σημείον διεδίδοτο μέχρι του πέρατος.

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ΧΙΙΙ. "Οτι δ' ουχ οίόν τε απλούν είναι το του ζώου σώμα, φανερόν, λέγω δ' οιον πύρινον ή αέρινον. άνευ μεν γαρ αφης ουδεμίαν ενδέχεται άλλην αίσθησιν έχειν το γαρ σώμα απτικόν το έμψυχον παν, ώσπερ είρηται. τα δε άλλα έξω γης αισθητήρια μεν άν γένοιτο, πάντα δε τα 15 δι' ετέρου αισθάνεσθαι ποιεί την αίσθησιν και διά των μεταξύ η δ' αφή τω αυτών άπτεσθαι έστιν, διό και τούνομα τούτο έχει. καίτοι και τα άλλα αισθητήρια αφη αισθάνεται, αλλά δι' ετέρου αύτη δε δοκεί μόνη δι' αυτής. ώστε των μεν τοιούτων στοιχείων ούθεν αν είη σώμα του ζώου. ουδε 20 δη γήϊνον. πάντων γαρ η αφή των απτων έστιν ώσπερ μεσότης, και δεκτικόν το αισθητήριον ου μόνον όσαι διαφοραι γης εισίν, αλλά και θερμού και ψυχρού και των άλλων απτων απάντων και δια τούτο τοις οστούς και ταις θριξί και τους τοιούτοις μορίοις ουκ αισθανόμεθα, ότι γης 25 εστίν. και τα φυτά δια τούτο ουδεμίαν έχει αίσθησιν, ότι 435) γης εστίν άνευ δε αφής ουδεμίαν οίόν τε άλλην υπάρχειν,

τούτο δε το αισθητήριον ουκ έστιν ούτε γης ούτε άλλου των $ 2 στοιχείων ουδενός. φανερον τοίνυν ότι ανάγκη μόνης ταύτης

στερισκόμενα της αισθήσεως τα ζώα αποθνήσκειν ούτε γαρ και ταύτην έχειν οίόν τε μη ζώον, ούτε ζωον όν άλλην έχειν ανάγκη πλήν ταύτης. και δια τούτο τα μεν άλλα αισθητα ταίς υπερβολαίς ου διαφθείρει το ζώον, οίον χρώμα

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it has issued from the eyes and mixed with objects is then reflected and sent back again. Hence this air, itself affected by the object, moves in turn the eyesight, much in the same way as if the impress in the wax were to penetrate through to its extremity,

CHAPTER XIII.

The body of the animal cannot, it is evident, consist of any one single element, such as for instance fire or air. The reason of this is that touch is the necessary pre-supposition of the other senses, because, as we have said, every animate body is also provided with the sense of touch. Now, all the other elements except earth might serve as organs of the senses, . but they all effect perception only mediately. Touch, on the contrary, acts by direct contact with its objects, and from this very circumstance, in fact, derives its name: and though the other senses do also perceive by contact, yet it is by contact through a third thing: whereas touch seems to perceive by direct contact on its own part. Thus the body of the animal cannot be composed of any such element as forms the medium to the other senses. Nor yet can it be composed of earth alone. For touch applies itself as a central state to all things tangible, and its organ is fitted to receive, not only the different qualities of earth, but also of the hot and cold, and of all other tangible qualities of body. And hence it is that we have no perception through the bones and hair and such like parts, because they are composed of earth entirely. Plants, again, do not have any powers of sense-perception, because they are composed totally of earth. Apart from touch, however, no other powers of senseperception can exist: and this organ of touch is composed neither of the earth nor of any other of the elements.

It is manifest, therefore, that the absence of this sense alone must involve the animal's death: for nothing can possess this without being a living animal, nor need the animal, to be an animal, have any sense but this one. Hence the objects of the other senses—such as, for example, colour, sound, and scent

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και ψόφος και οσμή, αλλά μόνον τα αισθητήρια, αν μη κατα συμβεβηκός, οίον άν άμα τα ψόφω ώσις γένηται και και πληγή, και υπό όραμάτων και όσμης έτερα κινείται,

α τη αφή φθείρει. και ο χυμός δε η άμα συμβαίνει 8 3 απτικών είναι, ταύτη φθείρει. η δε των απτών υπερβολή,

οιον θερμών και ψυχρών και σκληρών, αναιρεί το ζωον: παντός μεν γαρ αισθητού υπερβολή αναιρεί το αισθητήριον, 13 ώστε και το απτον την αφήν, ταύτη δε ώρισται το ζην άνευ γαρ αφής δέδεικται ότι αδύνατον είναι ζώον. διό η των απτών υπερβολή ου μόνον το αισθητήριον φθείρει, αλλά και το ζώον, ότι ανάγκη μόνην έχειν ταύτην. τας δ άλλας αισθήσεις έχει το ζώον, ώσπερ είρηται, ού του είναι 20 ένεκα αλλά του εύ, οίον όψιν, επεί έν αέρι και υδατι, όπως ορα, όλως δ' επεί εν διαφανεί, γευσίν τε δια το ηδυ και λυπηρόν, ίνα αισθάνεται το έν τροφη και επιθυμη και κινηται, ακοήν δε όπως σημαίνη τι αυτό, γλώτταν δε όπως σημαίνη τι ετέρω.

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do not by their excess destroy the animal itself, but only the organ, although it may incidentally destroy the animal frame as well : as, for example, when a push and blow accompany a sound, or when what is directly seen and smelled sets in movement other forces which destroy life by their contact. So also flavour may cause destruction in this manner-in so far, that is, as it is incidentally something tangible.

In the case of objects of touch, however, such as heat and cold and hardness, excess destroys (not only the sense-organ but also] the animal itself. The object of any sense, in fact, destroys, if it be developed to excess, the organ of sense: and in this same way, then, tangible objects destroy the sense of touch. But life itself is constituted by this sense, since, as has been shewn before, the animal cannot exist without the sense of touch. And thus excess in things tangible destroys not only the organ of sense but the animal itself as well, because this is the one sense absolutely essential to animal life; while as regards the other senses, the animal has them, as has been said, not for bare existence, but for the sake of higher ends. Thus, for instance, it possesses sight, so that it may see objects both in air and water, and in general in whatever is transparent. Taste, on the other hand, it possesses for the sake of discriminating the agreeable and disagreeable in food, so that it may desire and move itself accordingly. Hearing, again, it possesses so that it may convey a meaning to itself: the tongue it possesses so that it may express something or other to another.

W. AR.

13

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