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CHAPTER VI.

In dealing with the senses separately we must begin by a description of their objects. The so-called object of sense-perception may mean three different things, of which two are said to be perceived directly in themselves, the third incidentally and with regard to its concomitants. Of the two firstmentioned, one is special and confined to each one of the senses separately, the other is common to them all. By the special is to be understood that which it is impossible to perceive by any other sense than that appropriated to it and with respect to which that sense cannot be deceived. So it is that colour stands to sight, sound to hearing, flavour to taste : touch, however, it must be added, deals with a number of different qualities. Each single sense in fact discerns these different qualities, and is subject to no delusion as to whether it be a colour or whether it be a sound that it perceives : its only doubt is what it is that is coloured or where it is, or what or where is the body that is sounding. Such are the objects of perception which are said to be peculiar to each separate sense.

The common sensibles are movement, rest, number, figure, magnitude; such properties being peculiar to no one single sense but shared in common by them all. Movement for instance is perceived at once by touch and by sight.

By the term incidental sensible I describe such a case as when a certain white object is perceived as the son of Diares : for here there is but an incidental or indirect perception of this object, in so far as the object which is perceived is an incident or property of what is white. Hence then the organ of sense is affected in no way by the object of sense so far as it is such and such a person or thing. But among those objects of sense which are perceived directly in themselves, it is those special to the separate senses that are strictly the objects of perception and those for which the essential nature of each sense is naturally adapted.

SI VII. Ου μεν ούν έστιν η όψις, τούτ' έστιν ορατόν. ορα

τον δ' έστι χρωμά τε, και ο λόγω μέν έστιν ειπείν, ανώνυμος δε τυγχάνει όν· δήλον δε έσται δ λέγομεν προελθουσι μάλιστα, το γαρ ορατόν εστι χρώμα. τούτο δ' έστι το επί του καθ' αυτό ορατού καθ' αυτό δε ου τα λόγω, αλλ' ότι έν 30 εαυτό έχει το αίτιον του είναι ορατόν. παν δε χρώμα κινητικόν έστι του κατ' ενέργειαν διαφανούς, και τούτ' έστιν αυτού 4185 η φύσις. διόπερ ουχ ορατόν άνευ φωτός, αλλά πάν το εκάστου

χρώμα εν φωτί ορατόν. διο περί φωτός πρώτον λεκτέον το S 2 εστιν. έστι δή τι διαφανές. διαφανές δε λέγω δ έστι μεν

ορατόν, ου καθ' αυτό δε ορατόν ως απλώς ειπείν, αλλά δι' 5 αλλότριον χρώμα. τοιούτον δε έστιν αήρ και ύδωρ και πολλά των στερεών ου γαρ ή ύδωρ ουδ' ή αήρ διαφανές, αλλ' ότι εστί τις φύσις υπάρχουσα ή αυτή εν τούτοις αμφοτέροις και εν τω αϊδίω τω άνω σώματι. φως δε έστιν η τούτου ενέργεια του διαφανούς και διαφανές. δυνάμει δε ενώ τούτ' εστί, και το 1ο σκότος. το δε φώς οίον χρωμά εστι του διαφανούς, όταν η εντελεχεία διαφανές υπό πυρος ή τοιούτου οίον το άνω σώμα και γαρ τούτω τι υπάρχει ένα και ταυτόν. τί μέν ούν το διαφανές και τι το φως, είρηται, ότι ούτε πυρ ούθ' όλως σώμα ουδ' απορροή σώματος ουδενός (είη γαρ άν σωμά τι και 15 ούτως), αλλά πυρός ή τοιούτου τινός παρουσία εν τω διαφανει· ουδε γαρ δύο σώματα άμα δυνατόν εν τω αυτά είναι.

4185

28. μάλιστα om. SUX. ύελος κρύσταλλος. ου T et margo U. ενυπάρχουσα SUVX. Βekk. Trend.

3. οραται ETy Tor. 7. στερεών οιον

8. τις om. ESTVW Bekk. Trend. Η Π. ή om. Ε.

CHAPTER VII.

Sight then has for its object what is visible. This visible itself is colour and something which may be described, although there is no one term by which to name it-its nature will be evident as we proceed. Meanwhile, let us repeat, the visible is colour. This is that which diffuses itself over what is visible in itself, meaning by 'in itself' not that it is so in its very conception, but that it contains within itself the reason of its being visible. Now every colour is disposed to set in movement that which is actually pellucid, this being in fact its nature. Hence colour is not visible without light: the colour on the contrary of every object is only visible in light. And accordingly something must be said in the first place about the character of light.

There is then, we may begin by saying, something which is pellucid. And by pellucid is meant something which is visible, not visible by itself (to speak without further qualification), but visible by reason of some foreign colour which affects its neutral pellucidity. Of this character are air and water and also many among solid bodies, water and air being pellucid not in virtue of their qualities as water or air, but because they both contain the same element as constitutes the everlasting empyrean essence. Light then is the expression of this pellucid qua pellucid : and whenever this pellucidity is present only potentially, there darkness also is present. Light is thus almost as it were the colour of the pellucid when it is realized into full pellucidity by fire or something like the upper substance of the heavens, this upper substance possessing one and the same element with fire. Thus then we have described pellucidity and light: and have shewn light to be neither fire, nor body generally, nor even the effluvium or emanation from any body (since even in this case it would be a body of a kind) but only the presence of fire or something like it in that which is pellucid: two bodies being unable to exist at one and the same time within the same space.

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VII. Ου μεν ουν έστιν η όψις, τουτ' εσ τον δ' έστι χρωμά τε, και ο λόγω μέν έστιν δε τυγχάνει όν· δηλον δε έσται δ λέγομεν λιστα, το γαρ ορατόν εστι χρώμα. τούτο δ'

τους στηκε, και αερομειο καθ' αυτό ορατού καθ' αυτό δε ου το λό, πετεια της γης εαυτό έχει το αίτιον του είναι ορατόν.

πανι

σήμερα. τικόν έστι του κατ' ενέργειαν διαφανούς, και το η φύσις. διόπερ ουχ ορατόν άνευ φωτός, αλλά

χρώμα εν φωτί ορατόν. διο περί φωτός πρα. S 2 εστιν. έστι δή τι διαφανές. διαφανές δε λ

ορατόν, ου καθ' αυτό δε ορατόν ως απλώς εί
αλλότριον χρώμα. τοιούτον δε έστιν αήρ και ύ
των στερεών" ου γαρ ή ύδωρ ουδ' ή αήρ διαφ
εστί τις φύσις υπάρχουσα ή αυτή εν τούτοις α
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του διαφανούς και διαφανές. δυνάμει δε ενώ του
σκότος. το δε φως οίον χρωμά εστι του διαφα
εντελεχεία διαφανές υπό πυρος ή τοιούτου ο
σώμα και γαρ τούτω τι υπάρχει ένα και ταυτόν.
το διαφανές και τι το φως, είρηται, ότι ούτε πυ
σώμα ουδ' απορροή σώματος ουδενός (εϊη γαρ αν ο
ούτως), αλλά πυρός ή τοιούτου τινός παρουσία εν
νει· ουδε γαρ δύο σώματα άμα δυνατόν εν τω α

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3. οράται ETy Tor.

7. 8. τις om. ESTVW Be! 11. nom. E.

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