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much in music, have an agreement with the glitter- tions there are in nature, which pass without sound ing of light; as the moon-beams playing upon a
The heavens turn about in a most rapid Again, the falling from a discord to a con- motion, without noise to us perceived; though in cord, which maketh great sweetness in music, hath some dreams they have been said to make an exan agreement with the affections, which are rein- cellent music. So the motions of the comets, and tegrated to the better, after some dislikes; it agreeth fiery meteors, as stella cadens, &c. yield no noise. also with the taste, which is soon glutted with that And if it be thought, that it is the greatness of diswhich is sweet alone. The sliding from the close tance from us, whereby the sound cannot be heard ; or cadence, hath an agreement with the figure in we see that lightnings and coruscations, which are rhetoric, which they call præter expectatum ; for near at hand, yield no sound neither: and yet in all there is a pleasure even in being deceived. The re- these, there is a percussion and division of the air. ports, and fuges, have an agreement with the figures The winds in the upper region, which move the in rhetoric, of repetition and traduction. The clouds above, which we call the rack, and are not triplas, and changing of times, have an agreement perceived below, pass without noise. The lower with the changes of motions ; as when galliard time, winds in a plain, except they be strong, make no and measure time, are in the medley of one dance. noise; but amongst trees, the noise of such winds
114. It hath been anciently held and observed, will be perceived. And the winds, generally, when that the sense of hearing, and the kinds of music, they make a noise, do ever make it unequally, rising have most operation upon manners; as, to encourage and falling, and sometimes, when they are vehement, men, and make them warlike; to make them soft trembling at the height of their blast. Rain or. and effeminate; to make them grave; to make them hail falling, though vehemently, yieldeth no noise in light; to make them gentle and inclined to pity, &c, passing through the air, till it fall upon the ground, The cause is, for that the sense of hearing striketh water, houses, or the like. Water in a river, though the spirits more immediately than the other senses; a swift stream, is not heard in the channel, but runand more incorporeally than the smelling; for the neth in silence, if it be of any depth ; but the very sight, taste, and feeling, have their organs not of so stream upon shallows of gravel, or pebble, will be present and immediate access to the spirits, as the heard. And waters, when they beat upon the shore, hearing hath. And as for the smelling, which in- or are straitened, as in the falls of bridges, or are deed worketh also immediately upon the spirit, and dashed against themselves, by winds, give a roaring is forcible while the object remaineth, it is with a noise. Any piece of timber, or hard body, being communication of the breath or vapour of the object thrust forwards by another body contiguous, without odorate; but harmony entering easily, and mingling knocking, giveth no noise. And so bodies in weighnot at all, and coming with a manifest motion, doth ing one upon another, though the upper body press by custom of often affecting the spirits, and putting the lower body down, make no noise. So the them into one kind of posture, alter not a little the motion in the minute parts of any solid body, which nature of the spirits, even when the object is removed. is the principal cause of violent motion, though unAnd therefore we see, that tunes and airs, even in observed, passeth without sound; for that sound their own nature, have in themselves some affinity that is heard sometimes, is produced only by the with the affections; as there be merry tunes, doleful breaking of the air ; and not by the impulsion of tunes, solemn tunes; tunes inclining men's minds the parts. So it is manifest, that where the anteto pity; warlike tunes, &c. So as it is no marvel | rior body giveth way, as fast as the posterior cometh if they alter the spirits, considering that tunes have on, it maketh no noise, be the motion never so great a predisposition to the motion of the spirits in them
or swift. selves. But yet it hath been noted, that though this 116. Air open, and at large, maketh no noise, variety of tunes doth dispose the spirits to variety of except it be sharply percussed; as in the sound of a passions, conform unto them, yet generally music string, where air is percussed by a hard and siiff feedeth that disposition of the spirits, which it find body, and with a sharp loose : for if the string be eth. We see also, that several airs and tunes do not strained, it maketh no noise. But where the please several nations and persons, according to the air is pent and straitened, there breath or other sympathy they have with their spirits.
blowing, which carry but a gentle percussion, suffice Experiments in consort touching sounds ; and first But then you must note, that in recorders, which go
to create sound; as in pipes and wind-instruments. touching the nullity and entity of sounds.
with a gentle breath, the concave of the pipe, were Perspective hath been with some diligence in- it not for the fipple that straiteneth the air, much quired ; and so hath the nature of sounds, in some more than the simple concave, would yield no sound. sort, as far as concerneth music : but the nature of For as for other wind-instruments, they require a sounds in general hath been superficially observed. forcible breath ; as trumpets, cornets, hunters' horns, It is one of the subtilest pieces of nature. And be- &c. which appeareth by the blown cheeks of him sides, I practise, as I do advise; which is, after long that windeth them. Organs also are blown with a inquiry of things immersed in matter, to interpose strong wind by the bellows. And note again, that some subject which is immateriate, or less materiate; some kind of wind-instruments are blown at a small such as this of sounds; to the end, that the intellect hole in the side, which straiteneth the breath at the may be rectified, and become not partial.
first entrance ; the rather, in respect of their tra115. It is first to be considered, what great mo- verse and stop above the hole, which performeth
the fipple's part; as it is seen in flutes and fifes, air. So as trial must be made by taking some which will not give sound by a blast at the end, as small concave of metal, no more than you mean to recorders, &c. do. Likewise in all whistling, you fill with powder, and laying the bullet in the mouth contract the mouth; and to make it more sharp, of it, half out in the open air. men sometimes use their finger. But in open air, 121. I heard it affirmed by a man that was a if you throw a stone or a dart, they give no sound; great dealer in secrets, but he was but vain, that no more do bullets, except they happen to be a little there was a conspiracy, which himself hindered, to hollowed in the casting; which hollowness penneth have killed queen Mary, sister to queen Elizabeth, the air: nor yet arrows, except they be ruffled in by a burning-glass, when she walked in Saint their feathers, which likewise penneth the air. As James's park, from the leads of the house. But for small whistles or shepherds' oaten pipes, they thus much, no doubt, is true; that if burning-glasses give a sound because of their extreme slenderness, could be brought to a great strength, as they talk whereby the air is more pent than in a wider pipe. generally of burning-glasses that are able to burn a Again, the voices of men and living creatures pass navy, the percussion of the air alone by such a through the throat, which penneth the breath. As burning-glass, would make no noise ; no more than for the Jews-harp, it is a sharp percussion ; and, is found in coruscations and lightnings without besides, hath the advantage of penning the air in the thunders. mouth.
122. I suppose that impression of the air with 117. Solid bodies, if they be very softly percussed, sounds asketh a time to be conveyed to the sense, as give no sound; as when a man treadeth very softly well as the impressing of species visible; or else upon boards. So chests or doors in fair weather, they will not be heard. And therefore, as the bulwhen they open easily, give no sound. And cart- let moveth so swift that it is invisible; so the same wheels squeak not when they are liquored.
swiftness of motion maketh it inaudible: for we see, 118. The flame of tapers or candles, though it that the apprehension of the eye is quicker than be a swift motion and breaketh the air, yet passeth that of the ear. without sound. Air in ovens, though, no doubt, it 123. All eruptions of air, though small and slight, doth, as it were, boil and dilate itself, and is reper- give an entity of sound, which we call crackling, cussed; yet it is without noise.
puffing, spitting, &c. as in bay-salt, and bay-leaves, 119. Flame percussed by air giveth a noise : as cast into the fire; so in chestnuts, when they leap in blowing of the fire by bellows; greater than if forth of the ashes ; so in green wood laid upon the the bellows should blow upon the air itself. And fire, especially roots ; so in candles, that spit flame 80 likewise flame percussing the air strongly, as if they be wet; so in rasping, sneezing, &c.; so in a when flame suddenly taketh and openeth, giveth a rose leaf gathered together into the fashion of a noise; so great flames, while the one impelleth the purse, and broken upon the forehead, or back of the other, give a bellowing sound.
hand, as children use. 120. There is a conceit runneth abroad, that Experiments in consort touching production, conserthere should be a white powder, which will dis
vation, and delation of sounds ; and the office of charge a piece without noise ; which is a danger
the air therein. ous experiment if it should be true: for it may cause secret murders. But it seemeth to me im- 124. The cause given of sound, that it should be possible ; for, if the air pent be driven forth and an elision of the air, whereby, if they mean any strike the air open, it will certainly make a noise. thing, they mean a cutting or dividing, or else an As for the white powder, if any such thing be, that attenuating of the air, is but a term of ignorance ; may extinguish or dead the noise, it is like to be a and the notion is but a catch of the wit upon a few mixture of petre and sulphur, without coal. For instances; as the manner is in the philosophy repetre alone will not take fire. And if any man ceived. And it is common with men, that if they think, that the sound may be extinguished or deaded have gotten a pretty expression by a word of art, by discharging the pent air, before it cometh to the that expression goeth current; though it be empty mouth of the piece and to the open air, that is not of matter. This conceit of elision appeareth most probable ; for it will make more divided sounds : as manifestly to be false, in that the sound of a bell, if you should make a cross-barrel hollow through string, or the like, continueth melting some time the barrel of a piece, it may be it would give seve- after the percussion ; but ceaseth straightways, if ral sounds both at the nose and at the sides. But I the bell or string be touched and stayed: whereas, conceive, that if it were possible to bring to pass, if it were the elision of the air that made the sound, that there should be no air pent at the mouth of it could not be that the touch of the bell or string the piece, the bullet might fly with small or no should extinguish so suddenly that motion caused by noise. For first it is certain, there is no noise in the elision of the air. This appeareth yet more the percussion of the flame upon the bullet. Next manifestly by chiming with a hammer upon the the bullet, in piercing through the air, maketh no outside of a bell: for the sound will be according to noise; as hath been said. And then, if there be the inward concave of the bell: whereas the elision no pent air that striketh upon open air, there is no or attenuation of the air cannot be but only between cause of noise ; and yet the flying of the bullet will the hammer and the outside of the bell. So again, not be stayed. For that motion, as hath been oft if it were an elision, a broad hammer and a bodkin, said, is in the parts of the bullet, and not in the struck upon metal, would give a diverse tone, as well
as a diverse loudness: but they do not so; for received, that extreme applauses, and shouting of though the sound of the one be louder, and of the people assembled in great multitudes, have so rariother softer, yet the tone is the same. Besides, in fied and broken the air, that birds flying over have echoes, whereof some are as loud as the original fallen down, the air being not able to support them. voice, there is no new elision, but a repercussion And it is believed by some, that great ringing of only. But that which convinceth it most of all is, bells in populous cities hath chased away thunder ; that sounds are generated where there is no air at and also dissipated pestilent air : all which may be all. But these and the like conceits, when men also from the concussion of the air, and not from have cleared their understanding by the light of the sound. experience, will bcatter and break up like a mist) 128. A very great sound, near hand, hath strucken
125. It is certain, that sound is not produced at many deaf; and at the instant they have found, as the first, but with some local motion of the air, or it were, the breaking of a skin or parchment in flame, or some other medium ; nor yet without their ear: and myself standing near one that lured some resistance, either in the air or the body per- loud and shrill, had suddenly an offence, as if somecussed. For if there be a mere yielding or cession, what had broken or been dislocated in my ear; and it produceth no sound; as hath been said. And immediately after a loud ringing, not an orditherein sounds differ from light and colours, which nary singing or hissing, but far louder and differing, pass through the air, or other bodies, without any so as I feared some deafness. But after some half local motion of the air ; either at the first, or after. quarter of an hour it vanished. This effect may be But you must attentively distinguish between the truly referred unto the sound: for, as is commonly local motion of the air; which is but vehiculum received, an over-potent object doth destroy the causa, a carrier of the sounds, and the sounds sense; and spiritual species, both visible and audithemselves, conveyed in the air. For as to the ble, will work upon the sensories, though they former, we see manifestly, that no sound is produced, move not any other body. no not by air itself against other air, as in organs, 129. In dilation of sounds, the enclosure of them &c. but with a perceptible blast of the air; and preserveth them, and causeth them to be heard farwith some resistance of the air strucken. For even ther. And we find in rolls of parchment or trunks, all speech, which is one of the gentlest motions of the mouth being laid to the one end of the roll of air, is with expulsion of a little breath. And all parchment or trunk, and the ear to the other, the pipes have a blast, as well as a sound. We see sound is heard much farther than in the open air. also manifestly, that sounds are carried with wind: The cause is, for that the sound spendeth, and is and therefore sounds will be heard farther with the dissipated in the open air ; but in such concave it is wind, than against the wind; and likewise do rise conserved and contracted. So also in a piece of and fall with the intension or remission of the wind. ordnance, if you speak in the touch-hole, and But for the impression of the sound, it is quite another lay his ear to the mouth of the piece, the another thing, and is utterly without any local mo- sound passeth and is far better heard than in the tion of the air, perceptible; and in that resembleth open air. the species visible : for after a man hath lured, or 130. It is further to be considered, how it proveth a bell is rung, we cannot discern any perceptible and worketh when the sound is not enclosed all the motion at all in the air along as the sound goeth ; length of its way, but passeth partly through open but only at the first. Neither doth the wind, as far air; as where you speak some distance from a as it carrieth a voice, with the motion thereof, con- trunk; or where the ear is some distance from the found any of the delicate and articulate figurations trunk at the other end; or where both month and of the air, in variety of words. And if a man speak ear are distant from the trunk. And it is tried, that a good loudness against the flame of a candle, it will in a long trunk of some eight or ten foot, the sound not make it tremble much; though most when those is holpen, though both the mouth and the ear be a letters are pronounced which contract the mouth; handful or more from the ends of the trunk; and as F, S, V, and some others. But gentle breathing, somewhat more holpen, when the ear of the hearer or blowing without speaking, will move the candle is near, than when the mouth of the speaker. And far more. And it is the more probable, that sound it is certain, that the voice is better heard in a is without any local motion of the air, because as it chamber from abroad, than abroad from within the differeth from the sight, in that it needeth a local chamber. motion of the air at first; so it paralleleth in so 131. As the enclosure that is round about and many other things with the sight, and radiation of entire, preserveth the sound; so doth a semi-conthings visible; which, without all question, induce cave, though in a less degree. And therefore, if no local motion in the air, as hath been said. you divide a trunk or a cane into two, and one
126. Nevertheless it is true, that upon the noise speak at the one end, and you lay your ear at the of thunder, and great ordnance, glass windows will other, it will carry the voice farther, than in the air shake ; and fishes are thought to be frayed with the at large. Nay farther, if it be not a full semi-conmotion caused by noise upon the water. But these cave, but if you do the like upon the mast of a ship, effects are from the local motion of the air, which or a long pole, or a piece of ordnance, though one is a concomitant of the sound, as hath been said, speak upon the surface of the ordnance, and not at and not from the sound.
any of the bores, the voice will be heard farther, 127. It hath been anciently reported, and is still than in the air at large.
132. It would be tried, how, and with what pro- | itself in round, and so spendeth itself; but if the portion of disadvantage the voice will be carried in sound, which would scatter in open air, be made to a horn, which is a line arched; or in a trumpet, go all into a canal, it must needs give greater force which is a line retorted; or in some pipe that were to the sound. And so you may note, that enclosures sinuous.
do not only preserve sound, but also increase and 133. It is certain, howsoever it cross the received sharpen it. opinion, that sounds may be created without air, 139. A hunter's horn being greater at one end though air be the most favourable deferent of sounds. than at the other, doth increase the sound more than Take a vessel of water, and knap a pair of tongs if the horn were all of an equal bore. The cause is, some depth within the water, and you shall hear for that the air and sound being first contracted at the sound of the tongs well, and not much dimin- the lesser end, and afterwards having more room to ished; and yet there is no air at all present. spread at the greater end, do dilate themselves; and
134. Take one vessel of silver, and another of in coming out strike more air; whereby the sound wood, and fill each of them full of water, and then is the greater and baser. And even hunters' horns, knap the tongs together, as before, about a hand which are sometimes made straight, and not oblique, ful from the bottom, and you shall find the sound are ever greater at the lower end. It would be much mo resounding from the vessel of silver, tried also in pipes, being made far larger at the than from that of wood : and yet if there be no lower end; or being made with a belly towards the water in the vessel, so that you knap the tongs in lower end, and then issuing into a straight concave the air, you shall find no difference between the sil- again. ver and the wooden vessel. Whereby, beside the 140. There is in St. James's fields a conduit of main point of creating sound without air, you may brick, unto which joineth a low vault; and at the collect two things: the one, that the sound commu- end of that a round house of stone: and in the brick nicateth with the bottom of the vessel; the other, conduit there is a window; and in the round house that such a communication passeth far better through a slit or rift of some little breadth: if you cry out water than air.
in the rift, it will make a fearful roaring at the 135. Strike any hard bodies together in the midst window. The cause is the same with the former; of a flame; and you shall hear the sound with little for that all concaves, that proceed from more narrow difference from the sound in the air.
to more broad, do amplify the sound at the coming 136. The pneumatical part which is in all tangi- out. ble bodies, and hath some affinity with the air, per- 141. Hawks' bells, that have holes in the sides, formeth, in some degree, the parts of the air ; as give a greater ring, than if the pellet did strike upon when you knock upon an empty barrel, the sound is brass in the open air. The cause is the same with in part created by the air on the outside, and in the first instance of the trunk; namely, for that the part by the air in the inside: for the sound will be sound enclosed with the sides of the bell cometh greater or lesser, as the barrel is more empty or forth at the holes unspent and more strong. more full; but yet the sound participateth also with 142. In drums, the closeness round about, that the spirit in the wood through which it passeth, from preserveth the sound from dispersing, maketh the the outside to the inside: and so it cometh to pass noise come out at the drum-hole far more loud and in the chiming of bells on the outside ; where also strong than if you should strike upon the like skin the sound passeth to the inside : and a number of extended in the open air. The cause is the same other like instances, whereof we shall speak more with the two precedent. when we handle the communication of sounds. 143. Sounds are better heard, and farther off, in
137. It were extreme grossness to think, as we an evening or in the night, than at the noon or in have partly touched before, that the sound in strings the day. The cause is, for that in the day, when is made or produced between the hand and the the air is more thin, no doubt, the sound pierceth string, or the quill and the string, or the bow and better ; but when the air is more thick, as in the the string, for those are but vehicula motus, passages night, the sound spendeth and spreadeth abroad less : to the creation of the sound, the sound being pro- and so it is a degree of enclosure. As for the night, duced between the string and the air : and that not it is true also that the general silence helpeth. by any impulsion of the air from the first motion of 144. There be two kinds of reflexions of sounds; the string; but by the return or result of the string, the one at distance, which is the echo; wherein which was strained by the touch, to his former place: the original is heard distinctly, and the reflection which motion of result is quick and sharp; whereas also distinctly; of which we shall speak hereafter: the first motion is soft and dull. So the bow tor- the other in concurrence; when the sound reflecttureth the string continually, and thereby holdeth it | ing, the reflexion being near at hand, returneth in a continual trepidation.
immediately upon the original, and so iterateth it
Therefore we see, that Experiments in consort touching the magnitude and not, but amplifieth it.
music upon the water soundeth more; and so likeexility and damps of sounds.
wise music is better in chambers wainscotted than 138. Take a trunk, and let one whistle at the one hanged. end, and hold your ear at the other, and you shall 145. The strings of a lute, or viol, or virginals, find the sound strike so sharp as you can scarce do give a far greater sound, by reason of the knot, endure it. The cause is, for that sound diffuseth I and board, and concave underneath, than if there
were nothing but only the flat of a board, without 152. The sound which is made by buckets in a that hollow and knot, to let in the upper air into the well, when they touch upon the water, or when they lower. The cause is the communication of the strike upon the side of the well, or when two buckets upper air with the lower, and penning of both from dash the one against the other, these sounds are expense or dispersing.
deeper and fuller than if the like percussion were 146. An Irish harp hath open air on both sides made in the open air. The cause is the penning of the strings: and it hath the concave or belly not and enclosure of the air in the concave of the well. along the strings, but at the end of the strings. It 153. Barrels placed in a room under the floor of maketh a more resounding sound than a bandora, a chamber, make all noises in the same chamber more orpharion, or cittern, which have likewise wire-strings. full and resounding. I judge the cause to be, for that open air on both So that there be five ways, in general, of majorasides helpeth, so that there be a concave; which is tion of sounds : enclosure simple ; enclosure with ditherefore best placed at the end.
latation; communication; reflexion concurrent; and 147. In a virginal, when the lid is down, it mak- approach to the sensory. eth a more exile sound than when the lid is open. 154. For exility of the voice or other sounds; it The cause is, for that all shutting in of air, where is certain that the voice doth pass through solid and there is no competent vent, dampeth the sound : hard bodies if they be not too thick; and through which maintaineth likewise the former instance; water, which is likewise a very close body, and such
a for the belly of the lute or viol doth pen the air a one as letteth not in air. But then the voice, or somewhat.
other sound, is reduced by such passage to a great 148. There is a church at Gloucester, and, as I weakness or exility. If therefore you stop the holes have heard, the like is in some other places, where of a hawk's bell, it will make no ring, but a flat if you speak against a wall softly, another shall hear noise or rattle. And so doth aëtites or eagle-stone, your voice better a good way off, than near at hand. which hath a little stone within it. Inquire more particularly of the frame of that place. 155. And as for water, it is a certain trial: let a I suppose there is some vault, or hollow, or aisle, man go into a bath, and take a pail, and turn the behind the wall, and some passage to it towards the bottom upward, and carry the mouth of it, even, farther end of that wall against which you speak ; | down to the level of the water, and so press it down so as the voice of him that speaketh slideth along under the water some handful and a half, still the wall, and then entereth at some passage, and keeping it even, that it may not tilt on either side, communicateth with the air of the hollow ; for it is and so the air get out: then let him that is in the preserved somewhat by the plain wall; but that is bath dive with his head so far under water, as he too weak to give a sound audible, till it hath com- may put his head into the pail, and there will come municated with the back air.
as much air bubbling forth, as will make room for 149. Strike upon a bow-string, and lay the horn his head. Then let him speak, and any that shall of the bow near your ear, and it will increase the stand without shall hear his voice plainly ; but yet sound, and make a degree of a tone. The cause is, made extreme sharp and exile, like the voice of for that the sensory, by reason of the close holding, puppets: but yet the articulate sounds of the words is percussed before the air disperseth. The like is, will not be confounded. Note, that it may be much if you hold the horn betwixt your teeth : but that is more handsomely done, if the pail be put over the a plain delation of the sound from the teeth to the man's head above water, and then he cower down, instrument of hearing; for there is a great inter- and the pail be pressed down with him. Note, that course between those two parts; as appeareth by a man must kneel or sit, that he may be lower than this, that a harsh grating tune setteth the teeth on the water. A man would think that the Sicilian edge. The like falleth out, if the horn of the bow poet had knowledge of this experiment; for he saith, be put upon the temples; but that is but the slide that Hercules's page, Hylas, went with a water pot of the sound from thence to the ear.
to fill it at a pleasant fountain that was near the 150. If you take a rod of iron or brass, and hold shore, and that the nymphs of the fountain fell in the one end to your ear, and strike upon the other, love with the boy, and pulled him under water, it maketh a far greater sound than the like stroke keeping him alive ; and that Hercules missing his upon the rod, made not so contiguous to the ear. By page, called him by his name aloud, that all the which, and by some other instances that have been shore rang of it; and that Hylas from within the partly touched, it should appear, that sounds do not water answered his master, but, that which is to the only slide upon the surface of a smooth body, but do present purpose, with so small and exile a voice, as also communicate with the spirits, that are in the Hercules thought he had been three miles off, when pores of the body.
the fountain, indeed, was fast by. 151. I remember in Trinity College, in Cam- 156. In lutes and instruments of strings, if you bridge, there was an upper chamber, which, being stop a string high, whereby it hath less scope to thought weak in the roof of it, was supported by a tremble, the sound is more treble, but yet more dead. pillar of iron of the bigness of one's arm in the 157. Take two saucers, and strike the edge of the midst of the chamber; which if you had struck, it one against the bottom of the other, within a pail of would make a little flat noise in the room where it water; and you shall find, that as you put the was struck, but it would make a great bomb in the saucers lower and lower, the sound groweth more chamber beneath.
flat; even while part of the saucer is above the