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light, and the object of sight, move swifter than | distance from the wall, will be heard if you stand sound: for we see the flash of a piece is seen sooner close under the wall. than the noise is heard. And in hewing wood, if 215. Soft and foraminous bodies, in the first creone be some distance off, he shall see the arm lifted ation of the sound, will dead it; for the striking up for a second stroke, before he hear the noise of against cloth or fur will make little sound; as hath the first. And the reater the distance, the greater been said: but in the passage of the sound, they is the prevention : as we see in thunder which is will admit it better than harder bodies; as we see far off, where the lightning precedeth the crack a that curtains and hangings will not stay the sound good spree.
much ; but glass windows, if they be very close, 211. (Colours, when they represent themselves to will check a sound more than the like thickness of the eye, fade not, nor melt not by degrees, but ap- cloth. We see also in the rumbling of the belly, pear still in the same strength, but sounds melt and how easily the sound passeth through the guts and vanish by little and little. The cause is, for that skin. colours participate nothing with the motion of the 216. It is worthy the inquiry, whether great air, but sounds do. And it is a plain argument, that sounds, as of ordnance or bells, become not more sound participateth of some local motion of the air, weak and exile when they pass through small cranas a cause sine qua non, in that it perisheth so sud-nies. For the subtilties of articulate sounds, it may denly ; for in every section or impulsion of the air, be, may pass through small crannies not confused ; the air doth suddenly restore and reunite itself; but the magnitude of the sound, perhaps, not so well. which the water also doth, but nothing so swiftly.
Experiments in consort touching the medium Experiments in consort touching the passage and
of sounds. interceptions of sounds.
217. The mediums of sounds are air; soft and In the trials of the passage, or not passage of porous bodies; also water. And hard bodies refuse sounds, you must take heed you mistake not the not altogether to be mediums of sounds. But all of passing by the sides of the body, for the passing them are dull and unapt deferents, except the air. through a body; and therefore you must make the 218. In air, the thinner or drier air carrieth pot intercepting body very close ; for sound will pass the sound so well as the more dense; as appeareth through a small chink.
in night sounds, and evening sounds, and sounds in 212. Where sound passeth through a hard or close moist weather and southern winds. The reason is body, as through water; through a wall; through already mentioned in the title of majoration of metal, as in hawks' bells stopped, &c.; the hard or sounds; being for that thin air is better pierced; close body must be but thin and small; for else it but thick air preserveth the sound better from waste: deadeth and extinguisheth the sound utterly. And let further trial be made by hollowing in mists and therefore in the experiment of speaking in air under gentle showers ; for, it may be, that will somewhat water, the voice must not be very deep within the dead the sound. water; for then the sound pierceth not. So if you 219. How far forth flame may be a medium of speak on the farther side of a close wall, if the wall sounds, especially of such sounds as are created by be very thick you shall not be heard ; and if there air, and not betwixt hard bodies, let it be tried in were a hogshead empty, whereof the sides were speaking where a bonfire is between ; but then you some two foot thick, and the bung-hole stopped; I must allow for some disturbance the noise that the conceive the resounding sound, by the communication flame itself maketh. of the outward air with the air within, would be 220. Whether any other liquors, being made melittle or none : but only you shall hear the noise of diums, cause a diversity of sound from water, it the outward knock, as if the vessel were full. may be tried : as by the knapping of the tongs; or
213. It is certain, that in the passage of sounds striking of the bottom of a vessel, filled either with through hard bodies the spirit or pneumatical part of milk or with oil; which though they be more light, the hard body itself doth co-operate; but much yet are they more unequal bodies than air. better when the sides of that hard body are struck, Of the nature of the mediums we have now than when the percussion is only within, without spoken; as for the disposition of the said mediums, touch of the sides. Take therefore a hawk's bell, it doth consist in the penning, or not penning of the the holes stopped up, and hang it by a thread within air; of which we have spoken before in the title of a bottle glass, and stop the mouth of the glass very delation of sounds: it consisteth also in the figure close with wax; and then shake the glass, and see of the concave through which it passeth ; of which whether the bell give any sound at all, or how weak : we will speak next. but note, that you must instead of the thread take a wire ; or else let the glass have a great belly; Experiments in consort, what the figures of the pipes, lest when you shake the bell, it dash upon the sides
or concaves, or the bodies deferent, conduce to the of the glass.
sounds. 214. It is plain, that a very long and downright How the figures of pipes, or concaves, through arch for the sound to pass, will extinguish the sound which sounds pass, or of other bodies deferent, conquite ; so that that sound, which would be heard duce to the variety and alteration of the sounds ; over a wall, will not be heard over a church ; nor either in respect of the greater quantity, or less that sound, which will be heard if you stand some quantity of air, which the concaves receive; or in
respect of the carrying of sounds longer and shorter | parts, one of them would utterly confound the other. way; or in respect of many other circumstances ; So we see, that voices or consorts of music do make they have been touched, as falling into other titles. a harmony by mixture, which colours do not. It But those figures which we now are to speak of, we is true nevertheless that a great light drowneth a intend to be, as they concern the lines through which smaller, that it cannot be seen ; as the sun that of the sound passeth; as straight, crooked, angular, a glow-worm; as well as a great sound drowneth a circular, &c.
lesser. And I suppose likewise, that if there were 221. The figure of a bell partaketh of the pyra- two lanthorns of glass, the one a crimson, and the mis, but yet coming off and dilating more suddenly. other an azure, and a candle within either of them, The figure of a hunter's horn and cornet is oblique; those coloured lights would mingle, and cast upon a yet they have likewise straight horns; which if they white paper a purple colour. And even in colours, be of the same bore with the oblique, differ little in they yield a faint and weak mixture : for white walls sound, save that the straight require somewhat a make rooms more lightsóme than black, &c. but the stronger blast. The figures of recorders, and flutes, cause of the confusion in sounds, and the inconfuand pipes, are straight; but the recorder hath a less sion in species visible, is, for that the sight worketh bore and a greater, above and below. The trumpet in right lines, and maketh several cones; and so hath the figure of the letter S: which maketh that there can be no coincidence in the eye or visual purling sound, &c. Generally the straight line hath point: but sounds, that move in oblique and arcuate the cleanest and roundest sound, and the crooked, lines, must needs encounter and disturb the one the the more hoarse and jarring.
other. 222. Of a sinuous pipe that may have some four 225. The sweetest and best harmony is, when flexions, trial would be made. Likewise of a pipe every part or instrument is not heard by itself, but made like a cross, open in the midst. And so like- a conflation of them all; which requireth to stand wise of an angular pipe: and see what will be some distance off, even as it is in the mixture of the effects of these several sounds. And so again perfumes; or the taking of the smells of several of a circular pipe ; as if you take a pipe perfect flowers in the air. round, and make a hole whereinto you shall blow, 226. The disposition of the air in other qualities, and another hole not far from that; but with a tra- except it be joined with sound, hath no great operaverse or stop between them; so that your breath tion upon sounds : for whether the air be lightsome may go the round of the circle, and come forth at or dark, hot or cold, quiet or stirring, except it be the second hole. You may try likewise percussions with noise, sweet-smelling, or stinking, or the like; of solid bodies of several figures; as globes, flats, it importeth not much ; some petty alteration or cubes, crosses, triangles, &c. and their combinations, difference it may make. as flat against flat, and convex against convex, and 227. But sounds do disturb and alter the one the convex against flat, &c. and mark well the diversi-other: sometimes the one drowning the other, and ties of the sounds. Try also the difference in sound making it not heard; sometimes the one jarring of several crassitudes of hard bodies percussed; and and discording with the other, and making a confutake knowledge of the diversities of the sounds. I sion; sometimes the one mingling and compoundmyself have tried, that a bell of gold yieldeth an ing with the other, and making a harmony. excellent sound not inferior to that of silver or brass, 228. Two voices of like loudness will not be but rather better ; yet we see that a piece of money heard twice as far as one of them alone ; and two canof gold soundeth far more flat than a piece of money dles of like light will not make things seen twice as of silver.
far off as one. The cause is profound; but it seem223. The harp hath the concave not along the eth that the impressions from the objects of the strings, but across the strings: and no instrument senses do mingle respectively, every one with his hath the sound so melting and prolonged, as the kind ; but not in proportion, as is before demon. Irish harp. So as I suppose, that if a virginal were strated : and the reason may be, because the first made with a double concave, the one all the length, impression, which is from privative to active, as as the virginal hath; the other at the end of the from silence to noise, or from darkness to light, is a strings, as the harp hath; it must needs make the greater degree than from less noise to more noise, sound perfecter, and not so shallow and jarring. You or from less light to more light. And the reason may try it without any sound-board along, but only of that again may be, for that the air, after it hath harp-wise at one end of the strings; or lastly, with received a charge, doth not receive a surcharge, or a double concave at each end of the strings one. greater charge, with like appetite as it doth the first Experiments in consort touching the mixture of
charge. As for the increase of virtue generally,
what proportion it beareth to the increase of the sounds.
matter, it is a large field, and to be handled by itself. 224. There is an apparent diversity between the species visible and audible in this, that the visible
Experiments in consort touching melioration of doth not mingle in the medium, but the audible
sounds. doth. For if we look abroad, we see heaven, a 229. All reflexions concurrent do make sounds number of stars, trees, hills, men, beasts, at once. greater; but if the body that createth either the oriAnd the species of the one doth not confound the ginal sound, or the reflexion, be clean and smooth, other. But if so many sounds came from several | it maketh them sweeter. Trial may be made of a lute or viol, with the belly of polished brass instead attentively considered, how children, and some of wood. We see that even in the open air, the birds, learn to imitate speech. They take no mark wire-string is sweeter than the string of guts. And at all of the motion of the mouth of him that speakwe see that for reflexion water excelleth; as in eth, for birds are as well taught in the dark as by music near the water, or in echos.
light. The sounds of speech are very curious and 230. It hath been tried, that a pipe a little moist. exquisite : so one would think it were a lesson hard ened on the inside, but yet so as there be no drops to learn. It is true that it is done with time, and left, maketh a more solemn sound, than if the pipe by little and little, and with many essays and proffers, were dry: but yet with a sweet degree of sibilation but all this dischargeth not the wonder. It would or purling ; as we touched it before in the title of make a man think, though this which we shall say equality. The cause is, for that all things porous may seem exceeding strange, that there is some being superficially wet, and, as it were, between dry transmission of spirits ; and that the spirits of the and wet, become a little more even and smooth ; but teacher put in motion should work with the spirits the purling which must needs proceed of inequality, of the learner a predisposition to offer to imitate ; I take to be bred between the smoothness of the in- and so to perfect the imitation by degrees. But ward surface of the pipe, which is wet, and the rest touching operations by transmissions of spirits, of the wood of the pipe unto which the wet cometh which is one of the highest secrets in nature, we not, but it remaineth dry.
shall speak in due place; chiefly when we come to 231. In frosty weather music within doors sound inquire of imagination. But as for imitation, it is eth better. Which may be by reason not of the certain, that there is in men and other creatures a disposition of the air, but of the wood or string of predisposition to imitate. We see how ready apes the instrument, which is made more crisp, and so and monkeys are to imitate all motions of man; and more porous and hollow : and we see that old lutes in the catching of dottrels, we see how the foolish sound better than new for the same reason. And bird playeth the ape in gestures: and no man, in so do lute-strings that have been kept long. effect, doth accompany with others, but he learneth,
232. Sound is likewise meliorated by the ming- ere he is aware, some gesture, or voice, or fashion ling of open air with pent air; therefore trial may of the other. be made of a lute or viol with a double belly ; 237. In imitation of sounds, that man should be making another belly with a knot ever the strings; the teacher is no part of the matter; for birds will yet so, as there be room enough for the strings, learn one of another; and there is no reward by and room enough to play below that belly. Trial fecding, or the like, given them for the imitation; may be made also of an Irish harp, with a concave and besides, you shall have parrots that will not on both sides : whereas it useth to have it but on only imitate voices, but laughing, knocking, squeakone side. The doubt may be, lest it should make ing of a door upon the hinges, or of a cart-wheel : too much resounding; whereby one note would and, in effect, any other noise they hear. overtake another.
238. No beast can imitate the speech of man, 233. If you sing in the hole of a drum, it maketh but birds only ; for the ape itself, that is so ready the singing more sweet. And so I conceive it to imitate otherwise, attaineth not any degree of would, if it were a song in parts sung into several imitation of speech. It is true that I have known drums; and for handsomeness and strangeness sake, a dog, that if one howled in his ear, he would fall a it would not be amiss to have a curtain between the howling a great while. What should be the aptplace where the drums are and the hearers. ness of birds in comparison of beasts to imitate the
234. When a sound is created in a wind instru- speech of man, may be farther inquired. We see that ment between the breath and the air, yet if the beasts have those parts which they count the instrusound be communicated with a more equal body of ments of speech, as lips, teeth, &c. liker unto man the pipe, it meliorateth the sound. For, no doubt, than birds. As for the neck, by which the throat there would be a differing sound in a trumpet or pipe passeth, we see many beasts have it for the length of wood ; and again in a trumpet or pipe of brass. as much as birds. What better gorge or artery It were good to try recorders and hunters' horns of birds have, may be farther inquired. The birds brass, what the sound would be.
that are known to be speakers, are parrots, pies, 235. Sounds are meliorated by the intension of jays, daws, and ravens. Of which parrots have an the sense, where the common sense is collected adunque bill, but the rest not. most to the particular sense of hearing, and the 239. But I conceive, that the aptness of birds is sight suspended : and therefore sounds are sweeter, not so much in the conformity of the organs of as well as greater, in the night than in the day; speech, as in their attention. For speech must and I suppose they are sweeter to blind men than come by hearing and learning; and birds give more to others: and it is manifest, that between sleeping heed, and mark sounds more than beasts; because and waking, when all the senses are bound and sus- naturally they are more delighted with them, and pended, music is far sweeter than when one is fully practise them more, as appeareth in their singing. waking.
We see also, that those that teach birds to sing, do
keep them waking to increase their attention. We Experiments in consort touching the imitation of
see also, that cock birds amongst singing birds are sounds.
ever the better singers : which may be because they 236. It is a thing strange in nature when it is are more lively and listen more,
240. Labour and intention to imitate voices, doth | long, not full upon the surface, the rebound will be conduce much to imitation : and therefore we see as much the contrary way: whether there be any that there be certain pantomimi, that will represent such resilience in echos, that is, whether a man the voices of players of interludes so to life, as if shall hear better if he stand aside the body reperyou see them not you would think they were those cussing, than if he stand where he speaketh, or any players themselves; and so the voices of other men where in a right line between, may be tried. Trial that they hear.
likewise would be made by standing nearer the place 241. There have been some that could counter- of repercussing, than he that speaketh; and again, feit the distance of voices, which is a secondary by standing farther off than he that speaketh; and object of hearing, in such sort, as when they stand so knowledge would be taken, whether echos, as fast by you, you would think the speech came from well as original sounds, be not strongest near hand. afar off, in a fearful manner. How this is done 246. There be many places where you shall hear may be farther inquired. But I see no great use of a number of echos one after another : and it is it but for imposture, in counterfeiting ghosts or when there is variety of hills or woods, some nearer, spirits.
some farther off : so that the return from the far
ther, being last created, will be likewise last heard. Euperiments in consort touching the reflexion of
247. As the voice goeth round, as well towards sounds.
the back, as towards the front of him that speaketh; There be three kinds of reflexions of sounds; a so likewise doth the echo: for you have many back reflexion concurrent, a reflexion iterant, which we echos to the place where you stand. call echo; and a super-reflexion, or an echo of an 248. To make an echo that will report three, or echo : whereof the first hath been handled in the four, or five words distinctly, it is requisite that the title of magnitude of sounds : the latter two we will body repercussing be a good distance off: for if it now speak of.
be near, and yet not so near as to make a concur242. The reflexion of species visible by mirrors rent echo, it choppeth with you upon the sudden. you may command ; because passing in right lines | It is requisite likewise that the air be not much they may be guided to any point: but the reflexion pent: for air at a great distance pent, worketh the of sounds is harder to master; because the sound same effect with air at large in a small distance. filling great spaces in arched lines, cannot be so And therefore in the trial of speaking in the well, guided: and therefore we see there hath not been though the well was deep, the voice came back sudpractised any means to make artificial echos. And denly, and would bear the report but of two words. no echo already known returneth in a very narrow 249. For echos upon echos, there is a rare inroom.
stance thereof in a place which I will now exactly 243. The natural echos are made upon walls, describe. It is some three or four miles from Paris, woods, rocks, hills, and banks; as for waters, being near a town called Pont-Charenton : and some birdnear, they make a concurrent echo; but being far- bolt shot or more from the river of Sein. The room ther off, as upon a large river, they make an iterant is a chapel or small church. The walls all standecho: for there is no difference between the con ing, both at the sides and at the ends. Two rows current echo and the iterant, but the quickness or of pillars, after the manner of aisles of churches, also slowness of the return. But there is no doubt but standing; the roof all open, not so much as any water doth help the delation of echo; as well as it embowment near any of the walls left. There was helpeth the delation of original sounds.
against every pillar a stack of billets above a man's 244. It is certain, as hath been formerly touched, height; which the watermen that bring wood down that if you speak through a trunk stopped at the the Sein in stacks, and not in boats, laid there, as it farther end, you shall find a blast return upon your seemeth, for their ease. Speaking at the one end, mouth, but no sound at all. The cause is, for that I did hear it return the voice thirteen several times; the closeness which preserveth the original, is not and I have heard of others, that it would return able to preserve the reflected sound : besides that sixteen times : for I was there about three of the echos are seldom created but by loud sounds. And clock in the afternoon : and it is best, as all other therefore there is less hope of artificial echos in air echos are, in the evening. It is manifest that it is pent in a narrow concave. Nevertheless it hath not echos from several places, but a tossing of the been tried, that one leaning over a well of twenty- voice, as a ball, to and fro; like to reflections in five fathom deep, and speaking, though but softly, looking-glasses, where if you place one glass before set not so soft as a whisper, the water returned a and another behind, you shall see the glass behind good audible echo. It would be tried whether speak with the image, within the glass before ; and again, ing in caves, where there is no issue, save where the glass before in that; and divers such superyou speak, will not yield echos, as wells do. reflections, till the species speciei at last die. For
245. The echo cometh as the original sound doth, it is every return weaker and more shady. In like in a round orb of air: it were good to try the cre- manner the voice in that chapel createth speciem ating of the echo where the body repercussing mak- speciei, and maketh succeeding super-reflexions ; tth an angle ; as against the return of a wall, &c. for it melteth by degrees, and every reflexion is Also we see that in mirrors there is the like angle weaker than the former: so that if you speak three of incidence, from the object to the glass, and from words, it will, perhaps, some three times report you the glass to the eye. And if you strike a ball side- the whole three words; and then the two laiter
258. Both of them do receive and carry exquisite
words for some times; and then the last word alone fusion : as we see ordinarily in levels, as to the eye ; for some times; still fading and growing weaker. and in crannies or chinks, as to the sound. And whereas in echos of one return, it is much to 257. Both of them are of a sudden and easy hear four or five words; in this echo of so many generation and delation ; and likewise perish swiftly returns upon the matter, you hear above twenty and suddenly; as if you remove the light, or touch words for three.
the 250. The like echo upon echo, but only with two reports, hath been observed to be, if you stand be- and accurate differences; as of colours, figures, motween a house and a hill, and lure towards the hill. tions, distances, in visibles; and of articulate voices, For the house will give a back echo; one taking it tones, songs, and quaverings, in audibles. from the other, and the latter the weaker.
259. Both of them, in their virtue and working, 251. There are certain letters that an echo will do not appear to emit any corporal substance into hardly express ; as S for one, especially being prin- their mediums, or the orb of their virtue ; neither cipal in a word. I remember well, that when I again to raise or stir any evident local motion in their went to the echo at Pont-Charenton, there was an mediums as they pass ; but only to carry certain old Parisian, that took it to be work of spirits, and spiritual species; the perfect knowledge of the cause of good spirits. For, said he, call Satan, and the whereof, being hitherto scarcely attained, we shall echo will not deliver back the devil's name; but will search and handle in due place. say, va t'en; which is as much in French as apage, 260. Both of them seem not to generate or proor avoid. And thereby I did hap to find, that an duce any other effect in nature, but such as apperecho would not return S, being but a hissing and taineth to their proper objects and senses, and are an interior sound.
otherwise barren. 252. Echos are some more sudden, and chop 261. But both of them, in their own proper again as soon as the voice is delivered ; as hath action, do work three manifest effects. The first, been partly said : others are more deliberate, that is, in that the stronger species drowneth the lesser; as give more space between the voice and the echo; the light of the sun, the light of a glow-worm; the which is caused by the local nearness or distance : report of an ordnance, the voice : the second, in that some will report a longer train of words, and some an object of surcharge or excess destroyeth the a shorter; some more loud, full as loud as the sense; as the light of the sun, the eye; a violent original, and sometimes more loud, and some sound near the ear, the hearing: the third, in that weaker and fainter.
both of them will be reverberate; as in mirrors, and 253. Where echos come from several parts at in echos. the same distance, they must needs make, as it were, 262. Neither of them doth destroy or hinder the a choir of echos, and so make the report greater, species of the other, although they encounter in the and even a continued echo; which you shall find in same medium; as light or colour hinder not sound, some hills that stand encompassed theatre-like. nor e contra.
254. It doth not yet appear that there is refrac- 263. Both of them affect the sense in living tion in sounds, as well as in species visible. For I creatures, and yield objects of pleasure and dislike: do not think, that if a sound should pass through yet nevertheless the objects of them do also, if it be divers mediums, as air, cloth, wood, it would deliver well observed, affect and work upon dead things; the sound in a different place from that unto which namely, such as have some conformity with the it is deferred; which is the proper effect of refrac. organs of the two senses; as visibles work upon a tion. But majoration, which is also the work of looking-glass, which is like the pupil of the eye;, refraction, appeareth plainly in sounds, as hath been and audibles upon the places of echo, which rehandled at full, but it is not by diversity of mediums. semble in some sort the cavern and structure of Experiments in consort touching the consent and
264. Both of them do diversly work, as they dissent between visibles and audibles.
have their medium diversly disposed. So a trem
bling medium, as smoke, maketh the object seem to We have obiter, for demonstration's sake, used tremble, and a rising or falling medium, as winds, in divers instances the examples of the sight and maketh the sounds to rise or fall. things visible, to illustrate the nature of sounds : but 265. To both, the medium, which is the most we think good now to prosecute that comparison propitious and conducible, is air; for glass or water, more fully.
&c. are not comparable.
266. In both of them, where the object is fine Consent of visibles and audibles.
and accurate, it conduceth much to have the sense 255. Both of them spread themselves in round, intentive and erect; insomuch as you contract your and fill a whole floor or orb unto certain limits; and eye when you would see sharply; and erect your are carried a great way: and do languish and lessen car when you would hear attentively; which in beasts by degrees, according to the distance of the objects that have ears movable is most manifest. from the sensories.
267. The beams of light, when they are multi256. Both of them have the whole species in plied and conglomerate, generate heat; which is a every small portion of the air, or medium, so as the different action from the action of sight: and the species do pass through small crannies without con- multiplication and conglomeration of sounds doth