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generate an extreme rarefaction of the air; which a little from the organ: and so nevertheless there is is an action materiate, differing from the action of some distance required in both. sound; if it be true, which is anciently reported, that 273. Visibles are swiftlier carried to the sense birds with great shouts have fallen down.
than audibles ; as appeareth in thunder and light
ning, flame and report of a piece, motion of the air Dissents of visibles and audibles.
in hewing of wood. All which have been set down 268. The species of visibles seem to be emissions heretofore, but are proper for this title. of beams from the objects seen, almost like odours, 274. I conceive also, that the species of audibles save that they are more incorporeal: but the species do hang longer in the air than those of visibles : of audibles seem to participate more with local mo- for although even those of visibles do hang some time, tion, like percussions, or impressions made upon the as we see in rings turned, that show like spheres; air. So that whereas all bodies do seem to work in in lutestrings filliped; a fire-brand carried along, two manners, either by the communication of their which leaveth a train of light behind it; and in the natures, or by the impressions and signatures of their twilight; and the like : yet I conceive that sounds motions; the diffusion of species visible seemeth to stay longer, because they are carried up and down participate more of the former operation, and the with the wind ; and because of the distance of the species audible of the latter.
time in ordnance discharged, and heard twenty 269. The species of audibles seem to be carried miles off. more manifestly through the air than the species of 275. In visibles there are not found objects so visibles ; for I conceive that a contrary strong wind odious and ingrate to the sense as in audibles. For will not much hinder the sight of visibles, as it will foul sights do rather displease, in that they excite the do the hearing of sounds.
memory of foul things, than in the immediate objects. 270. There is one difference above all others be- And therefore in pictures, those foul sights do not tween visibles and audibles, that is the most re- much offend; but in audibles, the grating of a saw, markable, as that whereupon many smaller differ- when it is sharpened, doth" offend so much, as it ences depend: namely, that visibles, except lights, setteth the teeth on edge. And any of the harsh are carried in right lines, and audibles in arcuate discords in music the air doth straightways refuse. lines. Hence it cometh to pass, that visibles do 276. In visibles, after great light, if you come not intermingle and confound one another, as hath suddenly into the dark, or contrariwise, out of the been said before ; but sounds do. Hence it com- dark into a glaring light, the eye is dazzled for a eth, that the solidity of bodies doth not much time, and the sight confused; but whether any such hinder the sight, so that the bodies be clear, and the effect be after great sounds, or after a deep silence, pores in a right line, as in glass, crystal, diamonds, may be better inquired. It is an old tradition, that water, &c. but a thin scarf or handkerchief, though those that dwell near the cataracts of Nilus, are they be bodies nothing so solid, hinder the sight: strucken deaf : but we find no such effect in cannonwhereas contrariwise, these porous bodies do not iers, nor millers, nor those that dwell upon bridges. much hinder the hearing, but solid bodies do al. 277:' It seemeth that the impression of colour is most stop it, or at the least attenuate it. Hence also it cometh, that to the reflexion of visibles small beams, or right lines, whereof the basis is in the glasses suffice; but to the reverberation of audibles object, and the vertical point in the eye ; so as there are required greater spaces, as hath likewise been is a corradiation and conjunction of beams: and said before.
those beams so sent forth, yet are not of any force 271. Visibles are seen farther off than sounds to beget the like borrowed or second beams, except are heard ; allowing nevertheless the rate of their it be by reflexion, whereof we speak not. For the bigness ; for otherwise a gteat sound will be heard beams pass, and give little tincture to that air which farther off than a small body seen.
is adjacent; which if they did, we should see colours 272. Visibles require, generally, some distance out of a right line. But as this is in colours, so between the object and the eye, to be better seen ; otherwise it is in the body of light. For when whereas in audibles, the nearer the approach of the there is a skreen between the candle and the eye, sound is to the sense, the better. But in this there yet the light passeth to the paper whereon one may be a double error. The one, because to seeing writeth ; so that the light is seen where the body there is required light; and any thing that touch of the flame is not seen, and where any colour, if it eth the pupil of the eye all over excludeth the light. were placed where the body of the flame is, would For I have heard of a person very credible, who not be seen. I judge that sound is of this latter himself was cured of a cataract in one of his eyes, nature ; for when two are placed on both sides of that while the silver needle did work upon the sight a wall, and the voice is heard, I judge it is not only of his eye, to remove the film of the cataract, he the original sound which passeth in an arched line; never saw any thing more clear or perfect than that but the sound which passeth above the wall in a white needle : which, no doubt, was, because the right line, begetteth the like motion round about it needle was lesser than the pupil of the eye, and so as the first did, though more weak. took not the light from it. The other error may be, for that the object of sight doth strike upon the Experiments in consort touching the sympathy or papil of the eye directly without any interception ;
antipathy of sounds one with another. whereas the cave of the ear doth hold off the sound 278. All concords and discords of music are, no
doubt, sympathies and antipathies of sounds. And a sound afar off men hold their breath. The cause so, likewise, in that music which we call broken is, for that in all expiration the motion is outwards; music, or consort music, some consorts of instruments and therefore rather driveth away the voice than are sweeter than others, a thing not sufficiently yet draweth it: and besides we see, that in all labour to observed : as the Irish harp and base viol agree do things with any strength, we hold the breath ; well: the recorder and stringed music agree well : and listening after any sound that is heard with diforgans and the voice agree well, &c. But the vir-ficulty, is a kind of labour. ginals and the lute; or the Welsh harp and Irish 285. Let it be tried, for the help of the hearing, harp; or the voice and pipes alone, agree not so well: and I conceive it likely to succeed, to make an inbut for the melioration of music, there is yet much strument like a tunnel; the narrow part whereof left, in this point of exquisite consorts, to try and may be of the bigness of the hole of the ear; and inquire.
the broader end much larger, like a bell at the 279. There is a common observation, that if a skirts; and the length half a foot or more. And let lute or viol be laid upon the back, with a small the narrow end of it be set close to the ear : and straw upon one of the strings; and another lute or mark whether any sound, abroad in the open air, viol be laid by it; and in the other lute or viol the will not be heard distinctly from farther distance, unison to that string be strucken, it will make the than without that instrument ; being, as it were, an string move; which will appear both to the eye, ear-spectacle. And I have heard there is in Spain and by the straw's falling off. The like will be, if an instrument in use to be set to the ear, that help the diapason or eighth to that string be strucken, eth somewhat those that are thick of hearing. either in the same lute or viol, or in others lying 286. If the mouth be shut close, nevertheless by: but in none of these there is any report of there is yielded by the roof of the mouth a murmur; sound that can be discerned, but only motion. such as is used by dumb men. But if the nostrils
280. It was devised, that a viol should have a lay be likewise stopped, no such murmur can be made : of wire-strings below, as close to the belly as a lute; except it be in the bottom of the palate towards the and then the strings of guts mounted upon a bridge throat. Whereby it appeareth manifestly that a as in ordinary viols; to the end that by this means sound in the mouth, except such as aforesaid, if the the upper strings strucken should make the lower mouth be stopped, passeth from the palate through resound by sympathy, and so make the music the the nostrils. better; which if it be to purpose, then sympathy worketh as well by report of sound as by motion.
Experiments in consort touching the spiritual and But this device I conceive to be of no use, because
fine nature of sounds. the upper strings, which are stopped in great 287. The repercussion of sounds, which we call variety, cannot maintain a diapason or unison with echo, is a great argument of the spiritual essence of the lower, which are never stopped.
But if it sounds. For if it were corporeal, the repercussion should be of use at all, it must be in instruments should be created in the same manner, and by like which have no stops, as virginals and harps; where-instruments, with the original sound: but we see in trial may be made of two rows of strings, distant what a number of exquisite instruments must conthe one from the other.
cur in speaking of words, whereof there is no such 281. The experiment of sympathy may be trans- matter in the returning of them, but only a plain ferred, perhaps, from instruments of strings to other stop and repercussion. instruments of sound. As to try, if there were in 288. The exquisite differences of articulate. one steeple two bells of unison, whether the striking sounds, carried along in the air, show that they of the one would move the other, more than if it cannot be signatures or impressions in the air, as were another accord: and so in pipes, if they be of hath been well refuted by the ancients. For it is equal bore and sound, whether a little straw or true, that seals make excellent impressions; and so feather would move in the one pipe, when the other it may be thought of sounds in their first generais blown at an unison.
tion : but then the delation and continuance of them 282. It seemeth, both in ear and eye, the instru- without any new sealing, show apparently they canment of sense hath a sympathy or similitude with not be impressions. that which giveth the reflexion, as hath been touch- 289. All sounds are suddenly made, and do suded before : for as the sight of the eye is like a crys- denly perish: but neither that, nor the exquisite diftal, or glass, or water ; so is the ear a sinuous cave,
ferences of them, is matter of so great admiration : with a hard bone to stop and reverberate the sound: for the quaverings and warblings in lutes and pipes which is like to the places that report echos.
are as swift ; and the tongue, which is no very fine
instrument, doth in speech make no fewer motions Experiments in consort touching the hindering or
than there be letters in all the words which are helping of the hearing.
uttered. But that sounds should not only be so 283. When a man yawneth, he cannot hear so speedily generated, but carried so far every way in well. The cause is, for that the membrane of the such a momentary time, deserveth more admiration. ear is extended ; and so rather casteth off the sound As for example, if a man stand in the middle of a than draweth it to.
field and speak aloud, he shall be heard a furlong in 284. We hear better when we hold our breath round; and that shall be in articulate sounds; and than contrary : insomuch as in all listening to attain those shall be entire in every little portion of the air ;
and this shall be done in the space of less than a example of the former of these is in a country life; minute.
and of the latter in monks and philosophers, and 290. The sudden generation and perishing of such as do continually enjoin themselves. sounds, must be one of these two ways. Either that the air suffereth some force by sound, and then
Experiment solitary touching appetite of union restoreth itself, as water doth; which being divided
in bodies. maketh many circles, till it restore itself to the na- 293. It is certain that in all bodies there is an tural consistence: or otherwise, that the air doth appetite of union, and evitation of solution of contiwillingly imbibe the sound as grateful, but cannot nuity: and of this appetite there be many degrees; maintain it; for that the air hath, as it should seem, but the most remarkable and fit to be distinguished a secret and hidden appetite of receiving the sound
The first in liquors; the second in hard at the first; but then other gross and more materiate bodies ; and the third in bodies cleaving or tenaqualities of the air straightways suffocate it; like cious. In liquors this appetite is weak : we see unto flame, which is generated with alacrity, but in liquors, the threading of them in stillicides, as straight quenched by the enmity of the air or other hath been said; the falling of them in round drops, ambient bodies.
which is the form of union ; and the staying of There be these differences in general, by which them for a little time in bubbles and froth. In the sounds are divided : 1. Musical, immusical. 2. second degree or kind, this appetite is strong ; as in Treble, base. 3. Flat, sharp. 4. Soft, loud. 5. Ex- iron, in stone, in wood, &c. In the third, this apterior, interior. 6. Clean, harsh, or purling. 7. Arti- petite is in a medium between the other two: for culate, inarticulate.
such bodies do partly follow the touch of another We have laboured, as may appear, in this inquisi- body, and partly stick and continue to themselves; tion of sounds diligently ; both because sound is and therefore they rope, and draw themselves in one of the most hidden portions of nature, as we threads; as we see in pitch, glue, bird-lime, &c. said in the beginning, and because it is a virtue But note, that all solid bodies are cleaving more or which may be called incorporeal and immateriate ; less : and that they love better the touch of somewhereof there be in nature but few. Besides, we what that is tangible, than of air. For water in were willing, now in these our first centuries, to small quantity cleaveth to any thing that is solid : make a pattern or precedent of an exact inquisition; and so would metal too, if the weight drew it not off. and we shall do the like hereafter in some other And therefore gold foliate, or any metal foliate, subjects which require it. For we desire that men cleaveth : but those bodies which are noted to be should learn and perceive, how severe a thing the clammy and cleaving, are such as have a more intrue inquisition of nature is; and should accustom different appetite at once to follow another body, themselves by the light of particulars to enlarge and to hold to themselves. And therefore they are their minds to the amplitude of the world, and not commonly bodies ill mixed; and which take more reduce the world to the narrowness of their minds. pleasure in a foreign body, than in preserving their Experiment solitary touching the orient colours in
own consistence; and which have little predomi
nance in drought or moisture. dissolution of metals. 291. Metals give orient and fine colours in dis
Experiments solitary touching the like operations of
heat and time. solations; as gold giveth an excellent yellow ; quicksilver an excellent green; tin giveth an excel- 294. Time and heat are fellows in many effects. lent azure : likewise in their putrefactions or rusts; Heat drieth bodies that do easily expire ; as parchas vermilion, verdigrease, bise, cirrus, &c. and like- ment, leaves, roots, clay, &c. And so doth time or wise in their vitrifactions. The cause is, for that age arefy; as in the same bodies, &c. Heat disby their strength of body they are able to endure solveth and melteth bodies that keep in their spirits ; the fire or strong waters, and to be put into an equal as in divers liquefactions: and so doth time in some posture ; and again to retain a part of their princi- bodies of a softer consistence, as is manifest in pal spirit: which two things, equal posture and honey, which by age waxeth more liquid, and the quick spirits, are required chiefly to make colours like in sugar; and so in old oil, which is ever more lightsome.
clear and more hot in medicinable use. Heat
causeth the spirits to search some issue out of the Erperiment solitary touching prolongation of life.
body; as in the volatility of metals; and so doth 292. It conduceth unto long life, and to the time; as in the rust of metals. But generally heat more placid motion of the spirits, which thereby do doth that in small time which age doth in long. less prey and consume the juice of the body, either that men's actions be free and voluntary, that no
* Experiment solitary touching the differing operathing be done invita Minerva, but secundum genium ;
tions of fire and time. or on the other side, that the actions of men be full 295. Some things which pass the fire are softest of regulation and commands within themselves: for at first, and by time grow hard, as the crumb of then the victory and performing of the command breadw Some are harder when they come from the giveth a good disposition to the spirits; especially fire, and afterwards give again, and grow soft, as if there be a proceeding from degree to degree; for the crust of bread, bisket, sweetmeats, salt, &c. The then the sense of the victory is the greater. An cause is, for that in those things which wax hard with time, the work of the fire is a kind of melting; Experiment solitary touching exercise of the body. and in those that wax soft with time, contrariwise, the work of the fire is a kind of baking; and what- 299. Much motion and exercise is good for some soever the fire baketh, time doth in some degree bodies; and sitting and less motion for others. If dissolve.
the body be hot and void of superfluous moistures,
too much motion hurteth: and it is an error in Experiment solitary touching motions by imitation. physicians, to call too much upon exercise. Like
wise men ought to beware, that they use not exercise 296. Motions pass from one man to another, not and a spare diet both; but if much exercise, then so much by exciting imagination as by invitation; a plentiful diet; and if sparing diet, then little ex
; especially if there be an aptness or inclination be-ercise. The benefits that come of exercise are, first, fore. Therefore gaping, or yawning, and stretch- that it sendeth nourishment into the parts more ing do pass from man to man; for that that causeth forcibly. Secondly, that it helpeth to excern by gaping and stretching is, when the spirits are a sweat, and so maketh the parts assimilate the more little heavy by any vapour, or the like. For then perfectly. Thirdly, that it maketh the substance of they strive, as it were, to wring out and expel that the body more solid and compact; and so less apt which loadeth them. So men drowsy, and desirous to be consumed and depredated by the spirits. The to sleep, or before the fit of an ague, do use to yawn evils that come of exercise are, first, that it maketh and stretch; and do likewise yield a voice or sound, the spirits more hot and predatory. Secondly, that which is an interjection of expulsion; so that if it doth absorb likewise, and attenuate too much the another be apt and prepared to do the like, he fol moisture of the body. Thirdly, that it maketh too loweth by the sight of another. So the laughing great concussion, especially if it be violent, of the of another maketh to laugh.
inward parts, which delight more in rest. But ge
nerally exercise, if it be much, is no friend to proExperiment solitary touching infectious diseases. longation of life ; which is one cause why women
live longer than men, because they stir less. 297. There be some known diseases that are infectious; and others that are not. Those that are
Experiment solitary touching meats that induce infectious are, first, such as are chiefly in the spirits,
satiety. and not so much in the humours; and therefore 300. Some food we may use long, and much, withpass easily from body to body; such are pestilences, out glutting; as bread, flesh that is not fat or rank, lippitudes, and such like. Secondly, such as taint &c. Some other, though pleasant, glutteth sooner; the breath, which we see passeth manifestly from as sweet-meats, fat meats, &c. The cause is, for that man to man; and not invisibly, as the effects of the appetite consisteth in the emptiness of the mouth of spirits do; such are consumptions of the lungs, &c. the stomach; or possessing it with somewhat that Thirdly, such as come forth to the skin, and there is astringent; and therefore cold and dry. But fore taint the air or the body adjacent; especially things that are sweet and fat are more filling ; and if they consist in an unctuous substance not apt to do swing and hang more about the mouth of the dissipate ; such are scabs and leprosy. Fourthly, stomach; and go not down so speedily: and again such as are merely in the humours, and not in the turn sooner to choler, which is hot, and ever abateth spirits, breath, or exhalations; and therefore they the appetite. We see also that another cause of never infect but by touch only ; and such a touch satiety is an over-custom; and of appetite is novelty;
1 also as cometh within the epidermis ; as the venom and therefore meats if the same be continually taken, of the French pox, and the biting of a mad dog. induce loathing. To give the reason of the distaste Experiment solitary touching the incorporation of
of satiety, and of the pleasure in novelty ; and to
distinguish not only the meats and drinks, but also powders and liquors.
in motions, loves, company, delights, studies, what 298. Most powders grow more close and coherent they be that custom maketh more grateful, and by mixture of water, than by mixture of oil, though what more tedious, were a large field. But for oil be the thicker body; as meal, &c. The reason meats, the cause is attraction, which is quicker, and is the congruity of bodies; which if it be more, more excited towards that which is new, than tomaketh a perfecter imbibition and incorporation ; wards that whereof there remaineth a relish by which in most powders is more between them and former use. And, generally, it is a rule, that whatwater, than between them and oil; but painters' soever is somewhat ingrate at first, is made gratecolours ground, and ashes, do better incorporate ful by custom ; but whatsoever is too pleasing at with oil.
first, groweth quickly to satiate.
work; Experiments in consort touching the clarification of
for though the lees do make the liquor turbid, liquors, and the accelerating thereof.
yet they refine the spirits. Take therefore a vessel
of new beer, and take another vessel of new beer, ACCELERATION of time, in works of nature, may and rack the one vessel from the lees, and pour the well be esteemed inter magnalia naturæ. And even lees of the racked vessel into the unracked vessel, in divine miracles, accelerating of the time is next and see the effect: this instance is referred to the to the creating of the matter. We will now there- refining of the spirits. fore proceed to the inquiry of it: and for accelera- 307. Take new beer, and put in some quantity of tion of germination, we will refer it over unto stale beer into it, and see whether it will not accethe place where we shall handle the subject of lerate the clarification, by opening the body of the plants generally; and will now begin with other beer, and cutting the grosser parts, whereby they accelerations.
may fall down into lees. And this instance again 301. Liquors are, many of them, at the first thick is referred to separation. and troubled; as muste, wort, juices of fruits, or 308. The longer malt or herbs, or the like, are herbs expressed, &c. and by time they settle and infused in liquor, the more thick and troubled the clarify. But to make them clear before the time is liquor is; but the longer they be decocted in the a great work ; for it is a spur to nature, and putteth liquor, the clearer it is. The reason is plain, beher out of her pace; and, besides, it is of good use cause in infusion, the longer it is, the greater is the for making drinks and sauces potable and service- part of the gross body that goeth into the liquor : able speedily. But to know the means of accelerating but in decoction, though more goeth forth, yet it clarification, we must first know the causes of clari- either purgeth at the top, or settleth at the bottom. fication. The first cause is, by the separation of And therefore the most exact way to clarify is, first, the grosser parts of the liquor from the finer. The to infuse, and then to take off the liquor and decoct second, by the equal distribution of the spirits of it; as they do in beer, which hath malt first infused the liquor with the tangible parts: for that ever in the liquor, and is afterwards boiled with the hop. representeth bodies clear and untroubled. The third This also is referred to separation. by the refining the spirit itself, which thereby giveth 309. Take hot embers, and put them about a to the liquor more splendour and more lustre. bottle filled with new beer, almost to the very neck;
302. First, for separation, it is wrought by let the bottle be well stopped, lest it fly out: and weight, as in the ordinary residence or settlement continue it, renewing the embers every day, by the of liquors ; by heat, by motion, by precipitation, or space of ten days; and then compare it with another sublimation, that is, a calling of the several parts bottle of the same beer set by. Take also lime either up or down, which is a kind of attraction ; both quenched and unquenched, and set the bottles by adhesion, as when a body more viscous is in them, ut supra. This instance is referred both mingled and agitated with the liquor, which viscous to the even distribution, and also to the refining of body, afterwards severed, draweth with it the grosser the spirits by heat. parts of the liquor ; and lastly, by percolation or 310. Take bottles, and swing them, or carry them passage.
in a wheel-barrow upon rough ground twice in a 303. Secondly, for the even distribution of the day ; but then you may not fill the bottles full, but spirits, it is wrought by gentle heat; and by agita- leave some air; for if the liquor come close to the tion or motion, for of time we speak not, because it stopple, it cannot play nor flower : and when you is that we would anticipate and represent; and it have shaken them well either way, pour the drink is wrought also by mixture of some other body into another bottle stopped close after the usual manwhich hath a virtue to open the liquor, and to make ner; for if it stay with much air in it, the drink the spirits the better pass through.
neither will it settle so perfectly in all the 304. Thirdly, for the refining of the spirit, it is parts. Let it stand some twenty-four hours: then wrought likewise by heat; by motion ; and by mix- take it, and put it again into a bottle with air, ut ture of some body which hath virtue to attenuate. supra : and thence into a bottle stopped, ut supra : So therefore, having shown the causes, for the acce- and so repeat the same operation for seven days. lerating of clarification in general, and the inducing Note, that in the emptying of one bottle into another, of it, take these instances and trials.
you must do it swiftly lest the drink pall. It were 305. It is in common practice to draw wine or good also to try it in a bottle with a little air below beer from the lees, which we call racking, whereby the neck, without emptying. This instance is reit will clarify much the sooner; for the lees, though ferred to the even distribution and refining of the they keep the drink in heart, and make it lasting, spirits by motion. yet withal they cast up some spissitude : and this 311. As for percolation inward and outward, instance is to be referred to separation.
which belongeth to separation, trial would be made 306. On the other side it were good to try, what of clarifying by adhesion, with milk put into new the adding to the liquor more lees than his own will beer, and stirred with it: for it may be that the