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hope, that by continuing the air longer time, the cular inquiry made of them. It is certain, that an effect will follow : for that artificial conversion of egg was found, having lain many years in the botwater into ice, is the work of a few hours; and this tom of a moat, where the earth had somewhat overof air may be tried by a month's space or the like. grown it; and this egg was come to the hardness
of a stone, and had the colours of the white and Experiments in consort touching induration of
yolk perfect, and the shell shining in small grains bodies.
like sugar or alabaster. Induration, or lapidification of substances more 86. Another experience there is of induration by soft, is likewise another degree of condensation ; and cold, which is already found; which is, that metals is a great alteration in nature. The effecting and themselves are hardened by often heating and accelerating thereof is very worthy to be inquired. quenching in cold water : for cold ever worketh It is effected by three means. The first is by cold; most potently upon heat precedent. whose property is to condense and constipate, as 87. For induration by heat, it must be considered hath been said. The second is by heat; which is that heat, by the exhaling of the moister parts, not proper but by consequence; for the heat doth doth either harden the body, as in bricks, tiles, &c. attenuate; and by attenuation doth send forth the or if the heat be more fierce, maketh the grosser spirit and moister part of a body; and upon that, the part itself run and melt; as in the making of ordimore gross of the tangible parts do contract and serre nary glass; and in the vitrification of earth, as we themselves together; both to avoid vacuum, as they see in the inner parts of furnaces, and in the vitrificall it, and also to munite themselves against the cation of brick, and of metals. And in the former force of the fire, which they have suffered. And of these, which is the hardening by baking without the third is by assimilation ; when a hard body melting, the heat hath these degrees; first, it inassimilateth a soft, being contiguous to it.
durateth, and then maketh fragile; and lastly it The examples of induration, taking them promis- doth incinerate and calcinate. cuously, are many : as the generation of stones with- 88. But if you desire to make an induration with in the earth, which at the first are but rude earth or toughness, and less fragility, a middle way would clay; and so of minerals, which come, no doubt, at be taken; which is that which Aristotle hath well first of juices concrete, which afterwards indurate : noted; but would be thoroughly verified. It is to and so of porcellane, which is an artificial cement, decoct bodies in water for two or three days; but buried in the earth a long time; and so the making they must be such bodies into which the water will of brick and tile: also the making of glass of a cer- not enter; as stone and metal : for if they be bodies tain sand and brake-roots, and some other matters; | into which the water will enter, then long seething also the exudations of rock-diamonds and crystal, will rather soften than indurate them; as hath been which harden with time; also the induration of tried in eggs, &c. therefore softer bodies must be bead-amber, whch is a soft substance: as appeareth put into bottles, and the bottles hung into water by the flies and spiders which are found in it; and seething, with the mouths open above the water, many more : but we will speak of them distinctly. that no water may get in ; for by this means the
83. For indurations by cold, there be few trials virtual heat of the water will enter; and such a of it; for we have no strong or intense cold here on heat, as will not make the body adust or fragile ; the surface of the earth, so ncar the beams of the but the substance of the water will be shut out. sun, and the heavens. The likeliest trial is by This experiment we made and it sorted thus. It snow and ice ; for as snow and ice, especially being was tried with a piece of free-stone, and with pewholpen and their cold activated by nitre, or salt, will ter, put into the water at large. The free-stone we turn water into ice, and that in a few hours; so it found received in some water; for it was softer and may be, it will turn wood or stiff clay into stone, in easier to scrape than a piece of the same stone kept longer time. Put therefore into a conserving pit dry. But the pewter, into which no water could of snow and ice, adding some quantity of salt and enter, became more white, and liker to silver, and nitre, a piece of wood, or a piece of tough clay, and less flexible by much. There were also put into an let it lie a month or more.
earthen bottle, placed as before, a good pellet of 84. Another trial is by metalline waters, which clay, a piece of cheese, a piece of chalk, and a piece have virtual cold in them. Put therefore wood or of free-stone. The clay came forth almost of the clay into smith's water, or other metalline water, hardness of stone ; the cheese likewise very hard, and try whether it will not harden in some reason- and not well to be cut; the chalk and the free-stone able time. But I understand it of metalline waters much harder than they were. The colour of the that come by washing or quenching; and not of clay inclined not a whit to the colour of brick, but strong waters that come by dissolution; for they rather to white, as in ordinary drying by the sun. are too corrosive to consolidate..
Note, that all the former trials were made by a 85. It is already found that there are some natu- boiling upon a good hot fire, renewing the water as ral spring waters, that will inlapidate wood; so that it consumed, with other hot water; but the boiling you shall see one piece of wood, whereof the part was but for twelve hours only; and it is like that above the water shall continue wood; and the part the experiment would have been more effectual, if under the water shall be turned into a kind of gra- the boiling had been for two or three days, as we velly stone. It is likely those waters are of some prescribed before. metalline mixture ; but there would be more parti- 89. As touching assimilation, for there is a de
gree of assimilation even in inanimate bodies, we for that, I say, the greater body resisteth more any see examples of it in some stones in clay-grounds, alteration of form, and requireth far greater strength lying near to the top of the earth, where pebble is ; | in the active body that should subdue it. in which you may manifestly see divers pebbles gathered together
, and a crust of cement of stone Experiment solitary touching the producing of feabetween them, as hard as the pebbles themselves;
thers and hairs of divers colours. and it were good to make a trial of purpose, by 93. We have spoken before, in the fifth instance, taking clay, and putting in it divers pebble stones, of the cause of orient colours in birds; which is by thick set, to see whether, in continuance of time, it the fineness of the strainer ; we will now endeavour will not be harder than other clay of the same lump, to reduce the same axiom to a work. For this in which no pebbles are set. We see also in ruins writing of our “ Sylva Sylvarum” is, to speak proof old walls, especially towards the bottom, the mor- perly, not natural history, but a high kind of natutar will become as hard as the brick; we see also ral magic. For it is not a description only of that the wood on the sides of vessels of wine, ga- nature, but a breaking of nature into great and thereth a crust of tartar harder than the wood itself; strange works. Try therefore the anointing over of and scales likewise grow to the teeth, harder than pigeons, or other birds, when they are but in their the teeth themselves.
whelps, cutting their hair as short as 90. Most of all, induration by assimilation ap- may be ; or of some other beast; with some ointpeareth in the bodies of trees and living creatures : ment that is not hurtful to the flesh, and that will for no nourishment that the tree receiveth, or that harden and stick very close ; and see whether it will the living creature receiveth, is so hard as wood, not alter the colours of the feathers or hair. It is bone, or horn, &c. but is indurated after by assimi- received, that the pulling off the first feathers of lation.
birds clean, will make the new come forth white :
and it is certain that white is a penurious colour, Experiment solitary touching the version of water
and where moisture is scant. So blue violets, and into air.
other flowers, if they be starved, turn pale and 91.(The eye of the understanding is like the eye white; birds and horses, by age or scars, turn
( of the sense : for as you may see great objects white; and the hoar hairs of men come by the same through small crannies, or levels; so you may see
And therefore in birds, it is very likely, great axioms of nature through small and contemp- that the feathers that come first will be many times tible instances. ) The speedy depredation of air of divers colours, according to the nature of the upon watery moisture, and version of the same into bird, for that the skin is more porous; but when the air, appeareth in nothing more visible, than in the skin is more shut and close, the feathers will come sudden discharge or vanishing of a little cloud of white. This is a good experiment, not only for the breath or vapour from glass, or the blade of a producing of birds and beasts of strange colours ; sword, or any such polished body, such as doth not but also for the disclosure of the nature of colours at all detain or imbibe the moisture ; for the misti-themselves; which of them require a finer porosity, ness scattereth and breaketh up suddenly. But the and which a grosser. like cloud, if it were oily or fatty, will not discharge; not because it sticketh faster ; but because air
Experiment solitary touching the nourishment of preyeth upon water; and flame and fire upon oil ;
living creatures before they be brought forth. and therefore to take out a spot of grease they use 94. It is a work of Providence, that hath been a coal upon brown paper; because fire worketh truly observed by some, that the yolk of the egg upon grease or oil, as air doth upon water. And conduceth little to the generation of the bird, but we see paper oiled, or wood oiled, or the like, last only to the nourishment of the same; for if a long moist; but wet with water, dry or putrify chicken be opened, when it is new hatched, you sooner. The cause is, for that air meddleth little shall find much of the yolk remaining. And it is with the moisture of oil.
needful, that birds that are shaped without the
female's womb have in the egg, as well matter of Experiment solitary touching the force of union.
nourishment, as matter of generation for the body. 92. There is an admirable demonstration in the For after the egg is laid, and severed from the body same tribing instance of the little cloud upon glass, of the hen, it hath no more nourishment from the or gems, or blades of swords, of the force of union, hen, but only a quickening heat when she sitteth. even in the least quantities, and weakest bodies, But beasts and men need not the matter of nourishhow much it conduceth to preservation of the present ment within themselves, because they are shaped form, and the resisting of a new. For mark well within the womb of the female, and are nourished the discharge of that cloud ; and you shall see it continually from her body. ever break up, first in the skirts, and last in the midst. We see likewise, that much water draweth
Experiments in consort touching sympathy and forth the juice of the body infused; but little water
antipathy for medicinal use. is imbibed by the body: and this is a principal 95. It is an inveterate and received opinion, that cause, why in operation upon bodies for their version cantharides applied to any part of the body, touch or alteration, the trial in great quantities doth not the bladder, and exulcerate it, if they stay on long. answer the trial in small ; and so deceiveth many : It is likewise received that a kind of stone, which
they bring out of the West Indies, hath a peculiar | one from the other, than the dense or tangible parts: force to move gravel, and to dissolve the stone: and they are in all tangible bodies whatsoever, more insomuch, as laid but to the wrist, it hath so forci- or less; and they are never almost at rest; and bly sent down gravel, as men have been glad to from them, and their motions, principally proceed remove it, it was so violent.
arefaction, colliquation, concoction, maturation, pu96. It is received, and confirmed by daily expe- trefaction, vivification, and most of the effects of rience, that the soles of the feet have great affinity nature: for, as we have figured them in our with the head and the mouth of the stomach ; as pientia Veterum,” in the fable of Proserpina, you we see going wet-shod, to those that use it not, shall in the infernal regiment hear little doings of affecteth both : applications of hot powders to the Pluto, but most of Proserpina : for tangible parts in feet attenuate first, and after dry the rheum: and bodies are stupid things; and the spirits do in effect therefore a physician that would be mystical, pre- all. As for the differences of tangible parts in scribeth, for the cure of the rheum, that a man bodies, the industry of the chemists hath given some
should walk continually upon a camomile-alley; light, in discerning by their separations the oily, I meaning, that he should put camomile within his crude, pure, impure, fine, gross parts of bodies, and
socks. Likewise pigeons bleeding, applied to the the like. And the physicians are content to acsoles of the feet, ease the head: and soporiferous knowledge, that herbs and drugs have divers parts; med nes applied unto them, provoke sleep. as that opium hath a stupefactive part, and a heat
97. It seemeth, that as the feet have a sympathy ing part; the one moving sleep, the other a sweat with the head, so the wrists and hands have a sym- following; and that rhubarb hath purging parts, pathy with the heart; we see the affects and pas- and astringent parts, &c. But this whole inquisition sions of the heart and spirits are notably disclosed is weakly and negligently handled. And for the by the pulse : and it is often tried, that juices of more subtle differences of the minute parts, and the stock-gilly-flowers, rose-campian, garlick, and other posture of them in the body, which also hath great things, applied to the wrists, and renewed, have effects, they are not at all touched; as for the mocured long agues. And I conceive, that washing tions of the minute parts of bodies, which do so great with certain liquors the palms of the hands doth effects, they have not been observed at all; because much good : and they do well in heats of agues, to they are invisible, and incur not to the eye; but yet hold in the hands eggs of alabaster and balls of they are to be deprehended by experience : as Decrystal.
mocritus said well, when they charged him to hold, Of these things we shall speak more, when we that the world was made of such little motes, as were handle the title of sympathy and antipathy in the seen in the sun: “ Atomus," saith he,“ necessitate proper place.
rationis et experientiæ esse convincitur; atomum Experiment solitary touching the secret processes of mult in the parts of solid bodies, when they are
enim nemo unquam vidit.” And therefore the tunature.
compressed, which is the cause of all flight of bodies 98. The knowledge of man hitherto hath been through the air, and of other mechanical motions, determined by the view or sight; so that whatso- as hath been partly touched before, and shall be ever is invisible, either in respect of the fineness of throughly handled in due place, is not seen at all. the body itself, or the smallness of the parts, or of But nevertheless, if you know it not, or inquire it the subtilty of the motion, is little inquired. And not attentively and diligently, you shall never be
, yet these be the things that govern nature princi- able to discern, and much less to produce, a number pally; and without which you cannot make any true of mechanical motions. Again, as to the motions analysis and indications of the proceedings of nature. corporal, within the enclosures of bodies, whereby The spirits or pneumaticals, that are in all tangible the effects, which were mentioned before, pass bebodies, are scarce known. Sometimes they take tween the spirits and the tangible parts, which are them for vacuum ; whereas they are the most active arefaction, colliquation, concoction, maturation, &c. of bodies. Sometimes they take them for air; from they are not at all handled. But they are put off which they differ exceedingly, as much as wine by the names of virtues, and natures, and actions, from water; and as wood from earth. Sometimes and passions, and such other logical words. they will have them to be natural heat, or a portion of the element of fire; whereas some of them are
Experiment solitary touching the power of heal. crude and cold.
And sometimes they will have 99. It is certain, that of all powers in nature heat them to be the virtues and qualities of the tangible is the chief; both in the frame of nature, and in the parts which they see; whereas they are things by works of art. Certain it is likewise, that the effects themselves. And then, when they come to plants of heat are most advanced, when it worketh upon a and living creatures, they call them souls. And body without loss or dissipation of the matter; for such superficial speculations they have ; like pro- that ever betrayeth the account. And therefore it spectives, that show things inward, when they are is true, that the power of heat is best perceived in
Neither is this a question of words, distillations, which are performed in close vessels but infinitely material in nature.' For spirits are and receptacles. But yet there is a higher degree; nothing else but a natural body, rarified to a propor- for howsoever distillations do keep the body in cells tion, and included in the tangible parts of bodies, as and cloisters, without going abroad, yet they give in an integument. And they be no less differing space unto bodies to turn into vapour ; to return
into liquor; and to separate one part from another. and age do in long time. But of the admirable So as nature doth expatiate, although it hath not effects of this distillation in close, for so we will call full liberty ; whereby the true and ultimate opera- it, which is like the wombs and matrices of living tions of heat are not attained. But if bodies may creatures, where nothing expireth nor separateth, we be altered by heat, and yet no such reciprocation of will speak fully, in the due place; not that we aim rarefaction, and of condensation, and of separation, at the making of Paracelsus's pygmies, or any such admitted; then it is like that this Proteus of matter, prodigious follies; but that we know the effects of being held by the sleeves, will turn and change into heat will be such, as will scarce fall under the conmany metamorphoses. Take therefore a square ceit of man, if the force of it be altogether kept in. vessel of iron, in form of a cube, and let it have good thick and strong sides. Put into it a cube of
Experiment solitary touching the impossibility wood, that may fill it as close as may be; and let it
of annihilation. have a cover of iron, as strong at least as the sides; 100. There is nothing more certain in nature and let it be well luted, after the manner of the che-than that it is impossible for any body to be utterly mists. Then place the vessel within burning coals, annihilated; but that as it was the work of the omkept quick kindled for some few hours' space. Then nipotency of God to make somewhat of nothing, so take the vessel from the fire, and take off the cover, it requireth the like omnipotency to turn somewhat and see what is become of the wood. I conceive, into nothing. And therefore it is well said by an that since all inflammation and evaporation are ut obscure writer of the sect of the chemists, that there terly prohibited, and the body still turned upon itself, is no such way to effect the strange transmutations that one of these two effects will follow : either of bodies, as to endeavour and urge by all means the that the body of the wood will be turned into a kind reducing of them to nothing. And herein is contained of amalgama, as the chemists call it; or that the also a great secret of preservation of bodies from finer part will be turned into air, and the grosser change; for if you can prohibit, that they neither stick as it were baked, and incrustate upon the sides turn into air, because no air cometh to them; nor go of the vessel, being become of a denser matter than into the bodies adjacent, because they are utterly the wood itself crude. And for another trial, take heterogeneal; nor make a round and circulation also water, and put it in the like vessel, stopped as within themselves; they will never change, though before ; but use a gentler heat, and remove the ves- they be in their nature never so perishable or musel sometimes from the fire; and again, after some table. We see how flies, and spiders, and the small time, when it is cold, renew the heating of it; like, get a sepulchre in amber, more durable than and repeat this alteration some few times : and if the monument and embalming of the body of any you can once bring to pass, that the water, which is king. And I conceive the like will be of bodies put one of the simplest of bodies, be changed in colour, into quicksilver. But then they must be but thin, odour, or taste, after the manner of compound bodies, as a leaf, or a piece of paper or parchment; for if you may be sure that there is a great work wrought they have a great crassitude, they will alter in their in nature, and a notable entrance made into strange own body, though they spend not. But of this we changes of bodies and productions; and also a way shall speak more when we handle the title of conmade to do that by fire, in small time, which the sun servation of bodies.
102. The sounds that produce tones, are ever Experiments in consort touching Music.
from such bodies as are in their parts and pores Music, in the practice, hath been well pursued, equal ; as well as the sounds themselves are equal; and in good variety ; but in the theory, and especi- and such are the percussions of metal, as in bells; ally in the yielding of the causes of the practice, of glass, as in the fillipping of a drinking glass; of very weakly ; being reduced into certain mystical air, as in men's voices whilst they sing, in pipes, subtilties of no use and not much truth. We shall, whistles, organs, stringed instruments, &c.; and of therefore, after our manner, join the contemplative water, as in the nightingale pipes of regals, or orand active part together.
gans, and other hydraulics ; which the ancients had, 101. All sounds are either musical sounds, which and Nero did so much esteem, but are now lost. we call tones; whereunto they may be an harmony; And if any man think, that the string of the bow which nds are ever equal; as singing, the sounds and the string of the viol are neither of them equal of stringed and wind instruments, the ringing of bodies, and yet produce tones, he is in an error. bells, &c.; or immusical sounds, which are ever un- For the sound is not created between the bow or equal; such as are the voice in speaking, all whis- plectrum and the string ; but between the string and perings, all voices of beasts and birds, except they the air ; no more than it is between the finger or be singing-birds, all percussions of stones, wood, quill and the string in other instruments. So there parchment, skins, as in drums, and infinite others. are, in effect, but three percussions that create to nes;
percussions of metals, comprehending glass and the the ancients esteemed, and so do myself and some like, percussions of air, and percussions of water. other yet, the fourth which they call diatessaron.
103. The diapason or eight in music is the sweet- As for the tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, and so in infiniest concord, insomuch as it is in effect an unison: tum, they be but recurrences of the former, viz. of as we see in lutes that are strung in the base strings the third, the fifth, and the sixth ; being an eight with two strings, one an eight above another; which respectively from them. make but as one sound. And every eighth note in 108. For discords, the second and the seventh are ascent, as from eight to fifteen, from fifteen to twenty- of all others the most odious, in harmony, to the two, and so in infinitum, are but scales of diapason. sense; whereof the one is next above the unison, The cause is dark, and hath not been rendered by the other next under the diapason : which may any; and therefore would be better contemplated.show, that harmony requireth a competent distance It seemeth that air, which is the subject of sounds, of notes. in sounds that are not tones, which are all unequal, 109. In harmony, if there be not a discord to the as hath been said, admitteth much variety; as we base, it doth not disturb the harmony, though there see in the voices of living creatures; and likewise be a discord to the higher parts; so the discord be in the voices of several men, for we are capable to not of the two that are odious; and therefore the discern several men by their voices; and in the con- ordinary concent of four parts consisteth of an eight, jugation of letters, whence articulate sounds proceed; a fifth, and a third to the base; but that fifth is a which of all others are most various. But in the fourth to the treble, and the third is a sixth. And sounds which we call tones, that are ever equal, the the cause is, for that the base striking more air, air is not able to cast itself into any such variety ; doth overcome and drown the treble, unless the disbut is forced to recur into one and the same posture cord be very odious; and so hideth a small imperor figure, only differing in greatness and smallness. fection. For we see, that in one of the lower strings So we see figures may be made of lines, crooked of a lute, there soundeth not the sound of the treble, and straight, in infinite variety, where there is in- nor any mixt sound, but only the sound of the base. equality ; but circles, or squares, or triangles equi- 110. We have no music of quarter-notes; and it lateral, which are all figures of equal lines, can differ may be they are not capable of harmony : for we but in greater or lesser.
see the half-notes themselves do but interpose some104. It is to be noted, the rather lest any man times. Nevertheless we have some slides or reshould think, that there is any thing in this number lishes of the voice or strings, as it were continued of eight, to create the diapason, that this computa- without notes, from one tone to another, rising or tion of eight is a thing rather received, than any falling, which are delightful. true computation. For a true computation ought 111. The causes of that which is pleasing or inever to be by distribution into equal portions. Now grate to the hearing, may receive light by that there be intervenient in the rise of eight, in tones, which is pleasing or ingrate to the sight. There be two bemolls, or half-notes : so as if you divide the two things pleasing to the sight, leaving pictures tones equally, the eight is but seven whole and and shapes aside, which are but secondary objects; equal notes; and if you subdivide that into half- and please or displease but in memory; these two notes, as it is in the stops of a lute, it maketh the are colours and order. The pleasing of colour symnumber of thirteen.
bolizeth with the pleasing of any single tone to the 105. Yet this is true, that in the ordinary rises ear; but the pleasing of order doth symbolize with and falls of the voice of man, not measuring the harmony. And therefore we see in garden-knots, tone by whole notes, and half-notes, which is the and the frets of houses, and all equal and well anequal measure, there fall out to be two bemolls, as swering figures, as globes, pyramids, cones, cylinhath been said, between the unison and the diapason: ders, &c. how they please ; whereas unequal figures and this varying is natural. For if a man would are but deformities. And both these pleasures, that endeavour to raise or fall his voice, still by half-notes, of the eye, and that of the ear, are but the effects of like the stops of a lute; or by whole notes alone equality, good proportion, or correspondence: so without halfs, as far as an eight; he will not be able that, out of question, equality and correspondence to frame his voice unto it. Which showeth, that are the causes of harmony. But to find the proporafter every three whole notes, nature requireth, for tion of that correspondence, is more abstruse; whereall harmonical use, one half-note to be interposed. of notwithstanding we shall speak somewhat, when
106. It is to be considered, that whatsoever vir- we handle tones, in the general inquiry of sounds. tue is in numbers, for conducing to concent of notes, 112. Tones are not so apt altogether to procure is rather to be ascribed to the ante-number, than to sleep as some other sounds; as the wind, the purling the entire number; as namely, that the sound re- of water, humming of bees, a sweet voice of one that turneth after six or after twelve ; so that the seventh readeth, &ç. The cause whereof is, for that tones, or the thirteenth is not the matter, but the sixth or because they are equal and slide not, do more strike the twelfth ; and the seventh and the thirteenth are and erect the sense than the other, And overmuch but the limits and boundaries of the return.
attention hindereth sleep. 107. The concords in music which are perfect or 113. There be in music certain figures or tropes, semi-perfect, between the unison and the diapason, almost agreeing with the figures of rhetoric, and are the fifth, which is the most perfect; the third with the affections of the mind, and other senses. next; and the sixth, which is more harsh : and, as | First, the division and quavering, which please so 2