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Colligit ac ponit teinere, et inutatur in horas. 160
Inberbus juvenis, tandem cuftode remoto, in
Gaudét equis canibufque ét aprici gramine campi;
Cereus in vitiuin flecti, inonitoribus aspèr; 5 A
Utilium tardus provisor, prodigus aeris,
Sublimis, cupidulque, ét'ainata relinquere pernit,
Conversis studiis, aetas animufque virilis : :
Quaerit opes et amicitias, inservit honori;
Conmififfe cavet quod mox mutare laboret..
Multa senem circumveniunt incommoda; vel quod
Quaerit, et inventis miser abftinet, ae timet uti;
Vel quòd res omnis timide gelideque ministrats
Dilator, spe lentus, iners, pavidusque futuri; :
Difficilis, querulus, laudator temporis acti ..
Se puero, caftigator, cenforque minorum. i
Multa ferunt anni venientes commoda fecum, 175
Multa recedentes adimunt: ne forte feniles
Mandentur juveni partes, pueroque viriles."
Semper in adjun&tis aevcque morabimur aptis.
Aut agitur res in fcenis, aut acta refertur

.::;:. COMMENTARY. : .. which was the point he had been considering, was destructive of probability, this leads the poet, by a natural order, to cenfure some other species of misconduct, which have the same effect. He determines then, 1. [from l. 179 to 189] the case of representation and recital: or what it is, which renders some things more fit to be ected on the stage, others more fit to be related on it.

Segnius inritant animos demifla per aurem, iso
Quam quae funt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quác
Ipse sibi tradit spectator, non tamen intus
Digna geri promes in scenam : itiultaque tolles
Ex oculis, quae inox narret facundia praesens :
Ne pueros coram populo Medea trucidet; 185
Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus;
Aut in Avem Procne vertatur, Cadmus in anguem.
Quodcunque ostendis mihi fic, incredulus odi.
Neve minor, neu fit quinto productior actu
Fabula, quae pofci volt, et spectata reponi. 190
Nec Deus intersit, nifi dignus vindice nodus
Inciderit : nec quarta loqui persona laborét.
Actoris partes chorus, officiumque virile
Defendat : neu quid medios intercinat actus,
Quod non proposito conducat et haereat apte. 195
Ille bonis faveatque et consilietur amice,
Ét regat iratos, et amet pacare tumentis :
Ille dapes laudet mensae brevis, ille falubren

COMMENTARY. Next, 2. In pursuance of the fame point, viza proba bility (to l. 193] he restrains the use of machines; and prescribes the number of acts, and of persons, to be introduced on the stage at the same time. And, 3lastly, the persona dramatis, just mentioned, fuggesting it to his thoughts, he takes occasion from thence to pass on to the chorus (froin 1, 193 to 202] whose double office it was, 1. To sustain the part of a persona dramatis in the acts; and, 2. To connect the acts with Vol. I.

fongs,

Justitiain, legesque, et apertis otia portis :
Ille tegat conmissa, Deosque precetur et oret, 200
Ut redeat miseris, abeat fortuna superbis.
Tibia non, ut nunc, orichalco, juncta, tubaeque
Aemula; sed tenuis, simplexque foramine pauco,
Aspirare et adesse choris erat utilis, atque
Nondum fpiffa nimis conplere sedilia flatu : 205
Quo fane populus numerabilis, utpote parvus
Et frugi caftusque verecundusque coibat.
Poftquam coepit agros extendere victor, et urbem
Laxior ample&ti murus, vinoque diurno
Placari Genius feftis inpune diebus; 210
Accessit numerisque modisque licentia major.
Indoctus quid enim saperet liberque laborum,

COMMENTARY. fongs, persuading to good morals, and suitable to the subject. Further, tragedy being, originally, nothing more than a chorus or fong, set to music, from which practice the harmony of the regular chorus in aftertimes had its rise, he takes occasion to digress [from 1. 202 to 220] in explaining the fimplicity and barbarity of the old, and the refinements of the later, mufic. The application of this account of the dramatic music to the case of the tragic chorus, together with a short glance at the other improvements of num= bers, Ayle, &c. necessarily connected with it, gives him the opportunity of going off eafily into a subject of near affinity with this, viz. the Roman satiric piece; which was indeed a species of tragedy, but of so ex. traordinary a compofition, as to require a set of rules,

and

Rusticus urbaño confufus, turpis honesto?
Sic priscaé motumque et luxuriem addidit arti
Tibicen, traxitque vagus per pulpita veftem: 215
Sic etiam fidibus voces crevére feveris,
Et tulit eloquium infolitum facundia praeceps ;
Utiliumque fagax rerum, et divina futuri,
Sortilegis non discrepuit fententia Delphis.
Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum,
Mox etiam agreftis Satyros nudavit, et asper 221
Incolumi gravitate jocum tentavit : eo quod
Inlecebris erat et grata novitate morandus
Spectator fun&tusque facris, et potus, et exlex.
Verum ita rifores; ita commendare dicacis 225

COMMENTARY. and instructions, peculiar to itself. A point, in which they agreed, but which was greatly misunderstood ór ill-obferved by his countrynien, was the kind of verse or measure employed in them. This therefore, by a difpofition of the most beautiful method, he reserves for a confideration by itself, having, first of all, delivered such rules, as seemed necessary about those points, in which they eflentially differed. He explains then [from l. 220 to 225] the use and end of the satires, fhewing them to be designed for the exhilaration of the rustic youth, on their folemn festivities, after the exhibition of the graver, tragic News. But, 2. To convert, as far as was pofsible, what was thus a necessary facrifice to the taste of the multitude into a tolerable entertainment for the better fort, he lays down [from 1. 225 to 240] the exacteft descripx

C2

tión

Conveniet Satyros, ita vertere seria ludo;
Ne quicunque Deus, quicunque adhibebitur heros
Regali conspectus in auro nuper et ostro,
Migret in obscuras humili sermone tabernas ::
Aut, dum vitat humum, nubes et inania captet.:
Effutire levis indigna tragoedia versus, 231
Ut festis matrona moveri juffa diebus,
Intererit Satyris paulum pudibunda protervis."
Non ego inornata et dominantia nomina solum
Verbaque, Pisones, Satyrorum fcriptor amabo:
Nec fic enitar tragico differre colori;
Ut nihil intersit, Davusne loquatur et audax
Pythias emuncto lucrata Simone talentum,
An custos famulusque Dei Silenus alumni.
Ex noto fictum carmen sequar: ut fibi quivis 240
Speret idem; sudet multum, fruftraque laboret
Ausus idem : tantum series juncturaque pollet :
Tantum de medio suintis accedit honoris.
Silvis dedu&ti caveant, me judice, Fauni,
Ne velut innati triviis, ac pene forenses, 245

COMMENTARY. tion or idea of this sort of poem ; by means of which he instructs us in the due temperature and decorum of the fatyric style. 3. Lastly, (from I. 240 to 251] he directs to the choice of proper subjects, and defines the just character of those principal and so uncommon personages in this draina, the fatyrs them. felves. This being premised, he confiders, as was observed, what belongs in common to this with the

regular

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