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95. mit Schmerzen, with a sad (sorrowing) heart.


We more commonly use the compound ein Blutstrom. 104. licht leuchtend (scheinend, glänzend, strahlend). 106. gut should be taken as an adverb.

107. We say both der Quell and die Quelle.

JIO. In prose it is zurück. The trisyllabic form employed by Uhland is, however, the original one.-jung, instead of junge, Comp. vv. 22 and 23.

112. schlafend should be understood as accusative: invenit eum dormientem.

114. In English we say overcome with, or conquered by sleep. (The Greek idiom is quite parallel to the German, Tv, daμels.)

121. We have now had three feminine substantives of the same formation: die Ferne, die Weite, die Wilde. Thus we also say tie Nähe. The subst. used in the present line is not so common as the others. See also v. 205.

122. Comp. v. 33.

125. hätt', instead of hatte, is in the tone of popular poetry.—jüngst, 'a short while ago.'

127. It is common to say, er kann kaum seinen Augen glauben (or trauen). Comp. also the proverb, was meine Augen sehen, glaubt mein Herz. 130. So welches or vas. This use of so, instead of the relative pronoun, is very antiquated. Observe also the omission of the auxiliary hatte.

133. In prose we should be obliged to add the article, der Rumpf. 137. In prose war would be placed at the end of the sentence. 139. Etwas verschlafen means to lose by sleeping, to sleep away. 141. stund is a less common form of the imperf. than stand.

143. gesund was formerly used in a wider sense than now; here it means not only 'healthy,' but whole and unhurt.

144. weilen, to tarry.

148. Muth is commonly used in modern German in the sense of 'courage'; it is, however, originally the same as the Engl. mood, which may, perhaps, be employed here to translate it (e.g. 'with moody brow').

152, Comp. v. 39.

156. It might also be des Riesen Handschuh. The compound expresses a wider idea than the original genitival term, ein Riesenhandschuh being a glove fit for a giant, and the other meaning one actually belonging to a giant.


157. ungefüg, uncouth.

158. aus heraus or hervor.

159. schön instead of schönes.—Neliquienstück, a somewhat jocular expression, a specimen of a relic.' Comp. Waffenstück, v. 174.

165. See note on v. 58.-The form lange is now only used as an adverb of time, and produces a very peculiar and quaint effect in the present passage.

167. Bavarian beer is considered the best of the various kinds brewed in Germany.-Schluck, draught.

171. die Wehr(e): comp. our note on Kohlrausch, p. 26, 1.

175. The omission of es before the verb. is in conformity with popular speech.

176. ferne von ferne, or in der Ferne, at a distance.

178. Der dieser.—deß =dessen, gen. of possession: huius est.

181. I should very much like to have.'

184. lenkte, viz. sein Pferd.

191. Observe the difference between the German and the English idioms: sie kamen geritten (gegangen, gefahren, gelaufen, etc.), they came riding. Comp. 7, 1; 13, 2.

193. in der Mitten is archaic instead of Mitte.

195. wunderklar, wondrously clear.

199. frohgemuth instead of mit frohem Muthe, this being the opposite of the expression read v. 148. A more common word is wohlgemuth, 'cheerful' (8, 2).

204. gewandt, instead of the compound umgewandt (or umgedreht in vulgar parlance).

205. die Helle: see note on v. 121.

207. Gefelle is often used like lad or fellow. Originally the word means one who shares a room with somebody else, ge+sal=Saal, 'hall.' Comp. the parallel expression comrade, from camera, 'room.' 208. Um Gott, for God's sake'; comp. perdy in old French and English.


209. Wicht, the same word in point of etymology and of meaning as wight, is now commonly used as a contemptuous term.

210. Derweil the while (though the German is orig. a genitive of die Weile), is obsolete as a conjunction. Comp. 19, 41.—eben, just. In English we should say, 'while you happened to be asleep.'


Wittekind (or Wittikind) was the valiant leader of the Saxons, against whom Charlemagne waged fierce and bloody wars. In his first war, A.D. 772, he destroyed the Irminsul, the foremost sanctuary of these pagan tribes, and founded many Christian chapels throughout the country. In the second war, A.D. 778-780, Wittekind obtained a victory on the Süntel mountains, but was subsequently beaten at Verden and in other battles. He submitted to Charlemagne in 785, and was then baptized. The present poem relates a legend connected with Wittekind's conversion.

2. Der morgenrothe Schein=der Glanz der Morgenröthe (dawn).

5. In prose: mit leisen Schritten. For leise, leise comp. 12, 19.

9. It is not common to say, einen Streit fechten; the usual phrases are einen Kampf führen, einen Streit auskämpfen. But we also say quite commonly einen Streit aus fechten.

11. fonder is more poetical than ohne.

12. "The Lord of Christendom' is Charlemagne, who was then the most powerful prince of the Christian world.

15. Heldenfelle denotes the furs in which the German warriors were then still dressed and which marked them at once as such (Helden). This compound is omitted in Grimm's Dictionary.

16. Is there not a contradiction between feig here and kühn, v. 13? There is not: but we leave the student to unravel this difficulty for himself. 17. umrungen, by poetical licence for umringt, surrounded.' 24. ganze einzige, sole.


26. erglühen is here used of the rising of the sun.


27. innig schwoll: Charlemagne's heart expanded in love and piety. 32. Die Glorie is often used of splendour, magnificence.

34. golddurchwirkt, embroidered in gold.

'the pure

35. Maged is the old form of the modern word Magd, which is applied by the medieval writers to the Virgin Mary, maiden.'

41. brünstig (derived from brenn-en, 'to burn'), is often used of ardent zeal and piety.—stillandächtig, in silent prayer.

43. Charlemagne delegated the administration of the several provinces of his states to Counts, comites, Grafen (O. H. G. grâveo, grâvo, mediæval Latin graphio, A.S. geréfa, Engl. reeve. Comp. Markgraf, Burggraf, Landgraf, etc. with sheriff (=shire-reeve), borough-reeve, townreeve, etc.

47. The plural die Angesichter is not so common as die Gesichter.

49. die Päre, or Pairs, the peers.

51. himmlisch, i.e. with heavenly food.

53. deß darob or deshalb. We generally say ob einer Sache staunen. 54. dem Gotte, according to Wittekind's pagan conception. 57. The old Christian name was dyάral, literally translated by Liebesmahl.

61 sqq. The poet alludes to the doctrine of transubstantiation. The miracle consists in the fact of this process becoming visible to Wittekind, while it remains hidden from the communicants. In the original edition of this poem by Platen, a different miracle stands in the place of this transubstantiation scene.

65. erlachen (not a common word), 'break into smiles.'

68. felig (from sala, 'fortune') means originally 'happy.' We may say 'blessed,' as this does not exclude the idea of terrestrial bliss. Our word 'silly' is the same as the Germ. selig, having successively meant (1) blessed, (2) innocent, (3) harmless, (4) weakly, foolish. See Trench, Select Glossary.

70. empfahen is poetical and archaic instead of empfangen.

72. das Zugegensein is a somewhat awkward expression, denoting 'presence,' Gegenwart.

75. spaltet zertheilt, dissevers.

76. heidnisch is the adverb.


Louis the Pious (called le débonnaire by the French), the son and successor of Charlemagne, reigned from 814-840. The latter part of his reign and life was disturbed and made wretched by the renewed rebellions of his unnatural sons, Lothar, Pepin, Louis, and Charles. When, in 838, Louis (surnamed the German) had raised his arms against his father, the old Emperor's heart broke, and full of sorrow and misery he concluded his life in an island in the river Rhine, not far from Ingelheim.

I. For the construction see n. on 5, 191.

6. In prose: weich gebettet.

10. die Au(e) is here used in its original sense of an island surrounded by water on all sides. In M.H.G. ouwe means water' = O.H.G. aha Lat. aqua. The more usual sense of this word in modern

German is a well-watered district.' The word is, however, now almost confined to the poetical style or an elevated composition.

12. The plural die Lüfte is exclusively used in the sense of 'breezes.' 21 sq. The construction des Rheines Welle rauscht mir ein sanftes Schlummerlied is poetical, instead of das Rauschen der Wellen des Rheins Elingt mir wie ein sanftes Schlummerlied.

24. Observe the position of the adjectives after the noun.


26. His word was fulfilled' means 'his request was carried out. 28. Inselport, an unusual word probably not registered in many dictionaries, 'the landing-place of the island.' A safe place of anchoring is called Port in the elevated style, and Hafenbucht or Bucht in familiar language. Comp. the lines quoted by Sanders, Deutsche Synonymen. p. 127:

Mit leichtem Muthe knüpft der arme Fischer
Den kleinen Nachen an im sichern Port,
Sicht er im Sturm das große Meerschiff stranden.

The island in which Louis died ('in quadam insula contigua Magontiacae civitati' is the expression of a contemporary historian) is now called Petersau. Louis possessed a villa in this secluded spot.

35. Of the palace of Charlemagne at Ingelheim a contemporary poet employs the expression 'alta domus centum perfixa columnis.' There are no remains left now of this building.

36. The palaces of the Emperors were often styled Saal; comp. der Saalhof at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, erected by the Emperor Lewis the Pious, when Charles the Bald was born.

38. Meine Stunde schlägt=' my hour is come.'

44. The suffix ling denotes 'sonship.' Hence Karolinger, the descendants of Karl (Charlemagne). The last Carlovingian who united once more the whole Empire of Charlemagne, was Louis's grandson, Charles the Stout (Karl der Dide), who was, however, deposed by the German vassals at Tribur in 887; the last Carlovingian who reigned in Germany was Louis the Child (Ludwig das Kind), who died A. D. 911. In France, the Carlovingian dynasty maintained itself on the throne until the year 987, when Hugo Capet was elected king.

46. Observe the expressive alliteration in this line.

48. vatermilk, "mild (kind), like a father.'

54. Umglänzt is formed like umstrahlt, 'surrounded with a lustre.'flüchtig, transitory.'

55. Lothar was Emperor until 855. The country of Lothringen (Lorraine) still bears his name.

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