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With clamours, who, though lock'd and chain'd Speak, when shall this thy long-usurp'd power in stalls,*

Souse down the walls, and make a passage forth.
Straight summon'd he his several companies
Unto the standard: his grave look appeas'd
The wrestling tumult, and right hand made
silence;

end?
What end of mischief? Sylla teaching thee,
At last learn, wretch, to leave thy monarchy !
What, now Sicilian pirates are suppress'd,
And jaded king + of Pontus poison'd slain,
Must Pompey as his last foe plume on me,
Because at his command I wound not up
My conquering eagles? say I merit naught, +
Yet, for long service done, reward these men,
And so they triumph, be't with whom ye will.
Whither now shall these old bloodless souls
repair?

And thus he spake: "You that with me have
borne

What seats for their deserts? what store of ground

For servitors to till? what colonies

To rest their bones? say, Pompey, are these

A thousand brunts, and tried me full ten years,
See how they quit † our bloodshed in the north,
Our friends' death, and our wounds, our wintering
Under the Alps! Rome rageth now in arms
As if the Carthage Hannibal were near;
Cornets of horse are muster'd for the field;
Woods turn'd to ships; both land and sea
against us.

Had foreign wars ill-thriv'd, or wrathful France
Pursu'd us hither, how were we bested,
When, coming conqueror, Rome afflicts me thus?
Let come their leader whom long peace hath
quail'd,

Raw soldiers lately press'd, and troops of gowns,
Babbling § Marcellus, Cato whom fools reverence!
Must Pompey's followers, with strangers' aid
(Whom from his youth he brib'd), needs make
him king?

And shall be triumph long before his time,
And, having once got head, still shall he reign?
What should I talk of men's corn reap'd by force,
And by him kept of purpose for a dearth?
Who sees not war sit by the quivering judge,
And sentence given in rings of naked swords,
And laws assail'd, and arm'd men in the senate ?
'Twas his troop hemm'd in Milo being accus'd;
And now, lest age might wane his state, he casts
For civil war, wherein through use he's known
To exceed his master, that arch-traitor Sylla.
As brood of barbarous tigers, having lapp'd
The blood of many a herd, whilst with their
dams

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worse

Than pirates of Sicilia? § they had houses. Spread, spread these flags that ten years' space have conquer'd!

Let's use our tried force: they that now thwart right,

In wars will yield to wrong: the gods are
with us;

Neither spoil nor kingdom seek we by these arms,
But Rome, at thraldom's feet, to rid from tyrants."
This spoke, none answer'd, but a murmuring

buzz

Th' unstable people made: their household-gods And love to Rome (though slaughter steel'd their hearts,

And minds were prone) restrain'd them; but war's love

And Cæsar's awe dash'd all. Then Lælius,
The chief centurion, crown'd with oaken leaves
For saving of a Roman citizen,

Stepp'd forth, and cried; "Chief leader of Rome's
force,

So be I may be bold to speak a truth,
We grieve at this thy patience and delay.

⚫ Sicilian] Should be "Cilician."

jaded king] "lassi. . . regis."-Old ed. has, amus ingly enough," And Jaded, king of Pontus," &c. The monarch in question is, of course, Mithridates.

I say I merit naught] Unless we understand this in the sense of say I receive no reward (-and in Fletcher's Woman-Hater, "merit" means-derive profit, B. and F's. Works, i. 91, ed. Dyce,-), it is a wrong translation of "mihi si merces erepta laborum est."

§ Sicilia] Should be "Cilicia."

U
they that now thwart right,
In wars will yield to wrong] Is intended to express,-
"arma tenenti
Omnia dat, qui justa negat."
Lælius] Old ed. "Lalius."

blood

What, doubt'st thou us? even now when youthful Under the rocks by crookèd Vogesus;
And many came from shallow Isara,
Who, running long, falls in a greater flood,
And, ere he sees the sea, loseth his name;
The yellow Ruthens * left their garrisons;
Mild Atax glad it bears not Roman boats,t
And frontier Varus that the camp is far,
Sent aid; so did Alcides' port, whose seas
Eat hollow rocks, and where the north-west wind
Nor zephyr rules not, but the north alone
Turmoils the coast, and enterance forbids;
And others came from that uncertain shore
Which is nor sea nor land, but oftimes both,
And changeth as the ocean ebbs and flows;
Whether the sea roll'd always from that point
Whence the wind blows, still forced to and fro;
Or that the wandering main follow the moon;
Or flaming Titan, feeding on the deep,

Pricks forth our lively bodies, and strong arms
Can mainly throw the dart, wilt thou endure
These purple grooms, that senate's tyranny?
Is conquest got by civil war so heinous ?
Well, lead us, then, to Syrtes' desert shore,
Or Scythia, or hot Libya's thirsty sands.
This band, that all behind us might be quail'd,
Hath with thee pass'd the swelling ocean,
And swept the foaming breast of Arctic Rhene.*
Love over-rules my will; I must obey thee,
Cæsar he whom I hear thy trumpets charge,
I hold no Roman; by these ten blest ensigns
And all thy several triumphs, shouldst thou bid

me

Entomb my sword within my brother's bowels,
Or father's throat, or groaning woman's womb,t
This hand, albeit unwilling, should perform it;
Or rob the gods, or sacred temples fire,

Pulls them aloft, and makes the surge kiss heaven;
Philosophers, look you; for unto me,

These troops should soon pull down the church Thou cause, whate'er thou be, whom God assigns

of Jove; +

This great effect, art hid. They came that dwell

If to encamp on Tuscan Tiber's streams,

I'll boldly quarter out the fields of Rome;
What walls thou wilt be levell'd with the ground,
These hands shall thrust the ram, and make them
fly,

Albeit the city thou wouldst have so raz'd
Be Rome itself." Here every band applauded,
And, with their hands held up, all jointly cried
They'll follow where he please. The shouts rent
heaven,

As when against pine-bearing Ossa's rocks
Beats Thracian Boreas, or when trees bow §
down

And rustling swing up as the wind fets breath.
When Cæsar saw his army prone to war,
And Fates so bent, lest sloth and long delay
Might cross him, he withdrew his troops from

France,

And in all quarters musters men for Rome.
They by Lemannus' nook forsook their tents;
They whom the Lingones ¶ foil'd with painted

spears,

* Arctic Rhene] Old ed. "Articks Rhene."-Rhene, i. e. Rhine.

tor groaning woman's womb] Old ed. "or womens groning wombe ".—" "plenæque in viscera partu conjugis." tof Jove] No;- of Juno. "Numina miscebit castren

sis flamma Moneta."

§ bow] Old ed. "bowde."-Here our translator has made two similes out of one.

Il fets] i. e. fetches.

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The Santons that rejoice in Cæsar's love] Marlowe seems to have read here, very ridiculously, "gaudetque amato [instead of "amoto "] Santonus hoste."

Bituriges] Here, oddly enough, we have the name of the people put for that of their country.

** Axon] Marlowe's copy of Lucan had "Axones' (instead of "Suessones").

+ Rhene] Marlowe's copy of Lucan had " Rhenusque " (instead of "Rhemusque").

11 Leuca] A place of Marlowe's own invention. (The original has "Leucus ".)

§§ Averni] Was the reading in Marlowe's copy of Lucan

They whom the Lingones, &c.] Here Marlowe's copy of (instead of "Arverni ").

And Vangions who, like those of Sarmata,*
Wear open slops; † and fierce Batavians,
Whom trumpet's clang incites; and those that
dwell

By Cinga's stream, and where swift Rhodanus
Drives Araris to sea; they near the hills,
Under whose hoary rocks Gebenna hangs;
And, Trevier, thou being glad that wars are past
thee;

And you, late-shorn Ligurians, who were wont
In large-spread hair to exceed the rest of France;
And where to Hesus and fell Mercury ‡
They offer human flesh, and where Jove seems
Bloody like Dian, whom the Scythians serve.
And you, French Bardi, whose immortal pens
Renown the valiant souls slain in your wars,
Sit safe at home and chant sweet poesy.
And, Druides, you now in peace renew
Your barbarous customs and sinister rites:
In unfell'd woods and sacred groves you dwell;
And only gods and heavenly powers you know,
Or only know you nothing; for you hold
That souls pass not to silent Erebus

Or Pluto's bloodless kingdom, but elsewhere
Resume a body; so (if truth you sing)
Death brings long life. Doubtless these northern

• Sarmato] Used wrongly for Sarmatia.

↑ open slops] "laxis.. bracis."

:

Nor were the commons only struck to heart

men,

Whom death, the greatest of all fears, affright § With this vain terror; but the court, the senate,
not,
The fathers selves leap'd from their seats, and,
flying,

Are blest by such sweet error; this makes them
Run on the sword's point, and desire to die,
And shame to spare life which being lost is won.
You likewise that repuls'd the Caÿc foe,
March towards Rome; and you, fierce men of That in chain'd troops break forth at every port:

Left hateful war decreed to both the consuls.
Then, with their fear and danger all-distract,
Their sway of flight carries the heady rout,§

Rhene,||

You would have thought their houses had been

Leaving your country open to the spoil.

fir'd,

Or, dropping-ripe, ready to fall with ruin.
So rush'd the inconsiderate multitude
Thorough the city, hurried headlong on,
As if the only hope that did remain
To their afflictions were t' abandon Rome.
Look how, when stormy Auster from the breach
Of Libyan Syrtes rolls a monstrous wave,
Which makes the main-sail fall with hideous

sound,

And where to Hesus and fell Mercury

They offer human flesh, and where Jove seems
Bloody like Dian, &c.] Old ed.;

"And where to Hesus, and fell Mercury (Joue) They offer humane flesh, and where it seemes Blondy like Dian," &c.

That the printer misunderstood the MS., which gave "Jove as a correction of "it" in the second line, is evident from the original;

"Et quibus inmitis placatur sanguine diro

Theutates, horrensque feris altaribus Esus;

Et Taranis [L. e. Jupiter, so called by the Gauls] Scythice non mitior ara Diane." death. affright] See note §, p. 166.

I and you, Aerce men of Rhene, &c.] Here Marlowe, by mistranslating

These being come, their huge power made him bold

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To manage greater deeds; the bordering towns
He garrison'd; and Italy he fill'd with soldiers.
Vain fame increas'd true fear, and did invade
The people's minds, and laid before their eyes
Slaughter to come, and, swiftly bringing news
Of present war, made many lies and tales:
One swears his troops of daring horsemen fought
Upon Mevania's plain, where bulls are graz'd;
Other that Caesar's barbarous bands were spread
Along Nar flood that into Tiber falls,
And that his own ten ensigns and the rest
March'd not entirely, and yet hid* the ground;
And that he's much chang'd, looking wild and
big,

And far more barbarous than the French, his
vassals;

And that he lags + behind with them, of purpose,
Born 'twixt the Alps and Rhene, which he hath
brought

From out their northern parts, and that Rome,
He looking on, by these men should be sack'd.
Thus in his fright did each man strengthen fame,
And, without ground, fear'd what themselves
had feign'd.

*hid] Old ed. "hide."

And that he lags, &c.] In this passage, which is wrongly rendered, Marlowe's copy of Lucan had “Hune inter Rhenum populos," &c. (instead of "Tune," &c.).

northern Even if we pronounce this word as a trisyllable, the line will still halt.

66

§ Their sway of flight carries the heady rout, &c.] quo quemque fugæ tulit impetus, urguet Præcipitem populum; serieque hærentia longa Agmina prorumpunt."

The pilot from the helm leaps in the sea,
And mariners, albeit the keel be sound,
Shipwreck themselves; even so, the city left,
All rise in arms; nor could the bed-rid parents
Keep back their sons, or women's tears their
husbands:

men

Despair of day; as did Thyestes' town,
Mycenæ, Phœbus flying through the east.
Fierce Mulciber unbarrèd Ætna's gate,
Which flamèd not on high, but headlong pitch'd
Her burning head on bending Hespery.
Coal-black Charybdis whirl'd a sea of blood.

O gods, that easy grant men great estates,

But hardly grace to keep them! Rome, that Fierce mastives howl'd. The vestal fires went

flows

They stay'd not either to pray or sacrifice;
Their household-gods restrain them not; none
linger'd,

As loath to leave Rome whom they held so dear:
Th' irrevocable people fly in troops.

With citizens and captives,* and would hold
The world, were it together, is by cowards
Left as a prey, now Cæsar doth approach.
When Romans are besieg'd by foreign foes,
With slender trench they escape night-stratagems,
And sudden rampire rais'd of turf snatch'd up,
Would make them sleep securely in their tents.
Thou, Rome, at name of war runn'st from thyself,
And wilt not trust thy city-walls one night:
Well might these fear, when Pompey fear'd and
fled.

Now evermore, lest some one hope might ease
The commons' jangling minds,† apparent signs

arose,

The ocean swell'd as high as Spanish Calpe
Or Atlas' head. Their saints and household-
gods

Sweat tears, to show the travails of their city:
Crowns fell from holy statues. Ominous birds
Defil'd the day;t and wild beasts were seen,
Leaving the woods, lodge in the streets of Rome.
Cattle were seen that mutter'd human speech;

Strange sights appear'd; the angry threatening Prodigious births with more and ugly joints

Than nature gives, whose sight appals the mother;

gods

Fill'd both the earth and seas with prodigies.
Great store of strange and unknown stars were

seen

Wandering about the north, and rings of fire
Fly in the air, and dreadful bearded stars,
And comets that presage the fall of kingdoms;
The flattering sky glitter'd in often flames,
And sundry fiery meteors blaz'd in heaven,
Now spear-like long, now like a spreading torch;
Lightning in silence stole forth without clouds,
And, from the northern climate snatching fire,
Blasted the Capitol; the lesser stars,
Which wont to run their course through empty
night,

At noon-day muster'd; Phœbe, having fill'd
Her meeting horns to match her brother's light,

Struck with th' earth's sudden shadow, waxed
pale;

Titan himself, thron'd in the midst of heaven,
His burning chariot plung'd in sable clouds,
And whelm'd the world in darkness, making

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out;

The flame in Alba, consecrate to Jove,
Parted in twain, and with a double point
Rose, like the Theban brothers' funeral fire.
The earth went off her hinges; and the Alps
Shook the old snow from off their trembling
tops.*

And dismal prophecies were spread abroad:
And they, whom fierce Bellona's fury moves
To wound their arms, sing vengeance; Cybel's

priests,

Curling their bloody locks, howl dreadful things.
Souls quiet and appeas'd sigh'd from their

graves;

Clashing of arms was heard; in untrod woods
Shrill voices schright; § and ghosts encounter

men.
Those that inhabited the suburb-fields
Fled foul Erinnys stalk'd about the walls,
Shaking her snaky hair and crooked pine
With flaming top; much like that hellish fiend

* Shook the old snow from off their trembling tops] Old ed. " their trembling laps."-"veteremque jugis nutantibus Alpes," &c

+ Defil'd the day] Qy. "The day defiled"? But perhaps some word has dropped out; for the original gives,—

silvisque feras sub nocte relictis

Audaces media posuisse cubilia Roma."

Cybel's] Old ed. "Sibils."

§ schright i. e. screaked, shrieked.

Which made the stern Lycurgus wound his thigh,

Or fierce Agave mad; or like Megæra
That scar'd Alcides, when by Juno's task
He had before look'd Pluto in the face.
Trumpets were heard to sound; and with what
noise

An armed battle joins, such and more strange Black night brought forth in secret. Sylla's ghost

Was seen to walk, singing sad oracles;
And Marius' head above cold Tav'ron* peering,
His grave broke open, did affright the boors.
To these ostents, as their old custom was,
They call th' Etrurian augurs: amongst whom
The gravest, Arruns, dwelt in forsaken Luca,+
Well-skill'd in pyromancy; one that knew
The hearts of beasts, and flight of wandering
fowls.

First he commands such monsters Nature hatch'd

Against her kind, the barren mule's loath'd issue,
To be cut forth and cast in dismal fires;
Then, that the trembling citizens should walk
About the city; then, the sacred priests
That with divine lustration purg'd the walls,
And went the round, in and without the town;
Next, an inferior troop, in tuck'd-up vestures,
After the Gabine manner; then, the nuns
And their veil'd matron, who alone might view
Minerva's statue; then, they that keep and read
Sibylla's secret works, and wash § their saint
In Almo's flood; next, learnèd augurs follow;
Apollo's soothsayers, and Jove's feasting priests;
The skipping Salii with shields like wedges;
And Flamens last, with net-work woollen veils.
While these thus in and out had circled Rome,
Look, what the lightning blasted, Arruns takes,
And it inters with murmurs dolorous,
And calls the place Bidental. On the altar
He lays a ne'er-yok'd bull, and pours down wine,
Then crams salt leaven on his crooked knife:
The beast long struggled, as being like to prove
An awkward sacrifice; but by the horns
The quick priest pull'd him on his knees, and
slew him:

No vein sprung out, but from the yawning gash, Instead of red blood, wallow'd venomous gore.

Ta'ron] i. e. Anio.

↑ Luca] Old ed. has "Leuca," with a marginal note,or Laina."

I cut forth] i. e. cut out from the womb. But this is not warranted by the original.

wash] Old ed. "wash'd."

These direful signs made Arruns stand amaz'd, And searching farther for the gods' displeasure, The very colour scar'd him; a dead blackness Ran through the blood, that turn'd it all to jelly, And stain'd the bowels with dark loathsome

spots;

The liver swell'd with filth; and every vein
Did threaten horror from the host of Cæsar;
A small thin skin contain'd the vital parts;
The heart stirr'd not; and from the gaping liver
Squeez'd matter through the caul; the entrails
peer'd;

And which (ay me!) ever pretendeth * ill,
At that bunch where the liver is, appear'd
A knob of flesh, whereof one half did look
Dead and discolour'd, th' other lean and thin.†
By these he seeing what mischiefs must ensue,
Cried out, "O gods, I tremble to unfold
What you intend! great Jove is now displeas'd;
And in the breast of this slain bull are crept

Th' infernal powers. My fear transcends my

words;

Yet more will happen than I can unfold:
Turn all to good, be augury vain, and Tages,
Th' art's master, false!" Thus, in ambiguous
terms
Involving all, did Arruns darkly sing.

But Figulus, more seen in heavenly mysteries,
Whose like Ægyptian Memphis never had
For skill in stars and tuneful planeting,

In this sort spake: "The world's swift course is

lawless

And casual; all the stars at random range; §
Or if Fate rule them, Rome, thy citizens
Are near some plague. What mischief shall
ensue?

Shall towns be swallow'd? shall the thicken'd air
Become intemperate? shall the earth be barren?
Shall water be congeal'd and turn'd to ice?||
O gods, what death prepare ye? with what
plague

* pretendeth] Equivalent to portendeth. See note 1. p. 162.

t

whereof one half did look Dead and discolour'd, th' other lean and thin] Very imperfectly rendered:

"pars ægra et marcida pendet, Pars micat, et celeri venas movet inproba pulsu." t and tuneful planeting] numerisque moventibus

astra."

§ range] Old ed. "radge."-" et incerto discurrunt sidera motu."

|| Shall water be congeal'd and turn'd to ice ?] But the original is,

"Omnis an infusis miscebitur unda venenis!" Qy. could Marlowe have read ". - unda pruinis"?

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