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No. VII.--Note from the prince de PAPERS RELATIVE TO RUSSIA,
Starhemberg to Mr. Secretary Can No. I.--Note from General Budberg ning, dated London, Jan. 12, 1808, to his 'excellency lord Granville LeveReceived the 13th.
son Gower, dated June 1807. The undersigned has the honour to in My Lord, Accept my best thanks for form his excellency the secretary of state the promptitude with which you had the for the foreign department, that in conse. goodness to transmit to me the dispatches quence of orders from his court, the pre- which I have received, together with your sent circupistances oblige him to demand excellency's letter of the 11th (23rd) instant. passports for himself and all the individuals The reports which your lordship mentions of the Austrian mission at London. The are well founded. On the oth (21st) inundersigned purposes to make use of them stant, an armistice was concluded, which was as soon as he shall have received from the yesterday ratified by both parties. The French government the passports which he two armies remain nearly in the same demanded by the messenger whom he dis- positions, and hostilities will not recompatched yesterday. The undersigned, &c. mence until a month after the denunLOUIS PRINCE DE STARHEMBERG. ciation of the armistice. Sensible that No. VIII.-Letter from Mr. Secretary is of the uľnost importance to you to
Canning to the prince de Starhemberg, transmit this intelligence as speedily as dated Jan. 13, 1808.
possible to your court, I lose not an inSir, Having received information that stant in re-dispatching the messenger whom Mr. Adair has actually quitted Vienna, in your excellency has sent to me.--In reconsequence of an intimation from the spect, my lord, to the interview which Austrian government; I have the honour of you request of me, it would give me requesting that you will have the good great pleasure to comply with your wishes ness to acquaint me what is the latest date, if it were possible for me to foresee at what at which you have reason to believe that place the emperor will stay even for a few Mr. Adair was still at Vienna. I have, days; but as we are still upon our journey, &c. GEORGE CANNING.
I must wait for the first opportunity of No. 9.-Note from the prince de Star- taking his imperial majesty's conimands, in
hemberg to Mr. Secretary Canning, order to invite you to rejoin me, where I
dated London, Jan. 13, 1808. may then be. I have the honour to be, &c. In answer to the note which the under- A. DE BUDBERG. signed has just received from his excellency No. II.-Note from his excellency lord the secretary of state, he bas the honour Granville Leveson Gower, to general to inform bis excellency, that the last dis Budberg, dated Meniel, 16th (28th) patches which he has received from his June 1807. court, were of the 30th of October, and General,--I have to acknowledge the rethat no mention was made in them of the ceipt of the intelligence of the armistice departure of Mr. Adair. The undersigned which was signed on the 21st of this month, &c. LOUIS PRINCE DE STARHEMBERG. and although I implicitly confide in your No. X.-Note from Mr. Secretary Can- excellency's assurances, I cannot pass over
ning to the prince de Starhemberg, in silence the prospect of a solid and per. dated Jan. 13, 1808.
manent peace, which, from the tenour of The undersigned, his majesty's principal your publick letter to the governor of Riga, secretary of state for foreign affairs, has your excellency appears to believe will be the honour to inclose to the prince de the result of that measure.—The reciprocal Starhemberg, envoy extraordinary and engageinents between the courts of London minister plenipotentiary from his majesty and St. Petersburgh, the known principles the emperor of Austria, the passports which and the firmness of his imperial Majesty, he, has demanded for himself and for the the verbal assurances of the emperor w
which Austrian mission at this court; having it at I have just transmitted to the king my master, the same time in command from the king were so many pledges, that it is not now a his master, to express his majesty's deep question (according to public rumour) to regret, that the circumstances of the time, negotiate for a separate peace, but for a and the orders of his court, should have general one; and whatever doubts I may inposed on the prince de Starhemberg the have entertained on this subject, your excelnecessity of demanding them.--The under- lency's letter to general Buxhovden has comsigued &c. GEORGE CANNING,
pletely done away. The just and enlightened
manner in which your excellency views the was authorized in believing, that by consituation of Europe, convinces me that you tinuing to sacrifice himself for others, be could not expect a peace would be either would ultimately incur a risk of comprofirm or lasting, which did not include every mising the safety of his own empire, withpower at war,and which was not founded up out being enabled to hope that he might on an equitable basis. Mycourt will be ready ever fulfil the original object of this war. to concur in negotiations so formed, since it The conduct which your government has made war for the sole purpose of obtaining a held during these latter times is moreover secure and permanent peace. But your ex of a nature completely to justify the detercellency will nevertheless permit me to ex. mination which the emperor has now taken. press all the regret I feel, at being still The diversion on the continent which Engunable to make known to my government land bas so long since promised has not the basis, upon which it is proposed to to this day taken place; and if even, acground negotiations. At the moment when cording to the latest advices from London, it negotiation is carrying on with the enemy, it would appear that the British ministry has is most essential that unlimited confidence at length decided on ordering the departure should subsist between the allied powers. of 10,000 men to Pomerania, that succour Upon this principle it is that the court of is in no wise proportioned, either to the hopes London has ever acted, and it would be, which we were authorised in entertaining, or superfluous to recall to your excellency the to the importance of the object to which eagerness testified by the British ministry these troops were intended to be destined. last year to communicate to the Russian -The pecuniary succours which England ambassador the whole of the correspond constantly afforded to the powers of the ence with the French government. I wait continent at war with France, might in with impatience your excellency's summons some degree have supplied the want of to repair to his majesty. Nothing can English troops. Not only did the British afford me greater pleasure than to repeat government decline facilitating the loan in person the assurances of the esteem, and which the imperial court had intended to high consideration with which I have the negotiate at London; but when it at length honour to be, &c. G. L. GOWER. decided on offering some subsidy to the No. III.-Note from general Budberg to continental powers, it appeared that the
his excellency lord Granville Leveson sum destined for this purpose, so far from Gower, dated Tilsit, 13th (30th) June meeting the exigencies of the allies, would '1807.
not even bave covered the indispensable exSir,' and Ambassador, I have received pences of Prussia. In fine,the use which has the letter which your excellency did me the been made of the British forces in the Medihonour of addressing to me yesterday; and, terranean has not been more conformable having laid it before the emperor, my au- than the rest to the unity and the connecgust master, I hasten to transmit to you the tion with which it was indispensable to act answer which his imperial majesty has com in the operations of Russia and England. manded me to return to it.—The firmness In lieu of attempting an expedition on the and perseverance with which his majesty continent of Italy, with a view of reconquerduring eight months maintained and de- ing the kingdom of Naples, or else in lieu fended a cause which he bad reason to of uniting these forces to those of Russia suppose common to all sovereigns, are the which were designed to compel the Porte most certain pledges of the intentions which to a reasonable peace, one part of the animated him, as well as of the loyalty and English troops stationed in Sicily directed purity of his principles.- Never would his their course towards an entirely different desimperial majesty have thought of deviating tination, which the British government had from that system which he has hitherto not even judged proper to communicate to pursued, if he had been supported by the court of Russia. It is a point not to a real assistance on the part of his allies. be contested, that, by following -But having, from the separation of Aus- other of the courses which I have just cited, tria and of England, found himself re- the English troops in the Mediterranean duced to his own forces, having to con would have been of an infinitely greater bat with the forces of France united to utility to the common cause, by compelling the immense means of which she has the the enemy to divide his forces, which would disposal, and in the critical position at have enabled Russia to have sent to her which affairs had arrived, bis majesty main army those reinforcements, which she
one or the
was under the necessity of employing on, all the stipulations of peace, when once it the Danube, to support her army destined shall have taken place between England and to make head against the Turkish forces France. By this guarantee, his Britannick which might be collected in that quarter.— majesty will obtain that which he has ever From this statement, I am willing to believe appeared to desire, and may without disthat your excellency will be persuaded, trust follow the bent of his humane and that in such a conjuncture, it only remained pacifick sentiments.-The undersigned, in for the emperor my master to look to the requesting Mr. Canning, principal secretary glory and to the security of his empire, of state of foreign affairs, to apprize him as and that if the present crisis does not pro- soon as possible of the determination which duce every result which might be expected, the cabinet of St. James's may judge exif the powers equally interested bad dis-pedient to take in consequence of this offer played vigour in the same proportion as of mediation on the part of his august they have exhibited tardiness and irresolu- master, avails himself of the opportunity of tion in all their operations, no blame can on renewing to his excellency tle assurances of this account be attached to Russia.—But, bis highest consideration. M. ALOPEUS. at the same time, the emperor my master No. V.-Note from Mr. Secretary Canoffers his mediation to his Britannick na ning to M. Alopeus, dated 5th Aujesty to make his peace with France, having gust 1807. the certainty that it will be accepted by the The undersigned, his Britannick majesty's latter power. I have the honour to be, secretary of state for foreign affairs, has &c. A. DE BU DBERG.
lost no time in laying before the king his No. 1V.-Note from M. Alopeus to Mr. master the official note presented to him
Secretary Canning,dated London, 20th by M. Alopeus, minister plenipotentiary
of his majesty the emperor of all the RusThe undersigned, minister plenipoten- sias; in which M. Alopeus, by order of his tiary from his majesty the emperor of all court, notifies to the British government the Russias to his Britannick majesty, has the conclusion at Tilsit, on the 25th June received the orders of his court to notify (7th July) of a treaty of peace between Rusto the British ministry, that a treaty of sia and France, and announces at the same peace was concluded at Tilsit on the 25th time, the offer of the mediation of his imJune (7th July) between Russia and France. perial majesty, for the conclusion or a treaty -His imperial majesty of all the Russias, of peace between Great Britain and France, having on this occasion, proposed his media and the acceptance of that offer by the tion, for the purpose of negotiating and French government. The undersigned has concluding likewise a treaty of peace be- it in commaud from the king his master tween England and France, and the emperor to declare, that the emperor of Russia does Napoleon having, by the 13th article of the justice to the sentiments of the king, wlien afore-mentioned treaty of peace, accepted bis imperial majesty expresses his reliance that mediation, the object of the present on the king's disposition to contribute to pote is to offer it in like manner to his the restoration of a general peace, such as majesty the king of Great Britain.-Long may ensure the repose of Europe. Anple since acquainted with the pacifick senti- proofs of that disposition have recently been ments of bis Britannick majesty, the emperor afforded by his majesty, as well in the anof all the Russias flatters himself the inore, swer returned, in his majesty's name, to that he will embrace this opportunity of re
the offer of the mediation of the emperor storing peace to all nations, and of insuring of Austria, as in the willingness expressed Tepose to the present generation; since that, by his majesty to accede to the convention in many conversations which his imperial concluded at Barteniein, on the 23d of majesty bas held with the emperor of the April, between the emperor of Russia and French, he has had reason to be convinced, the king of Prussia, and in the instructions ibat he is sincerely desirous of the re-estab- which the undersigned transmitted by his lishment of a måritime peace, upon equi- majesty's command, upon the first intellitable and honourable principles.The en gence of the late disastrous events in Poperor of all the Russias not only offers his land, to his majesty's ambassador at the interposition for the attainment of so desi court of St. Petersburgh, by which instrucrable a result; but he would even be ready tions that ambassador was directed to sigto promise the support of all the forces of nify to the ministers of the emperor of his empire, for insuring the performance of Russia, his majesty's perfect readiness to Vol. x.
enter in concert with bis august ally, into be found in the commanding and indispenany negotiation which the emperor of Russia sable duty, paramount to all others amongst might think it expedient to open for the the obligations of a sovereign, of providing, restoration of a general peace. These sen while there was yet time, for the immediate timents and tbis disposition bis majesty con- security of his people--His majesty had tinues invariably to maintain.--The under received the most positive information of signed is, therefore, commanded by his the determination of the present ruler of majesty, to assure M. Alopeus, that his France to occupy, with a military force, majesty waits with the utmost solicitude the territory of Holstein:—for the purpose for the communication of the articles of of excluding Great Britain from all her acthe treaty concluded at Tilsit, and for the customed channels of communication with statement of those equitable and honoura- the continent : of inducing or compelling ble principles, upon which his imperial ma the court of Denmark to close the pássage jesty expresses his belief that France is of the Sound against the British commerce desirous of concluding a peace with Great and navigation; and of availing himself of Britain.- His majesty trusts that the cha- | the aid of the Danish marine for the inracter of the stipulations of the treaty of fvasion of Great Britain and of Ireland. Tilsit, and of the principles upon which confident as his majesty was of the auFrance is represented as being ready to thenticity of the sources from which this negotiate, may be found to be such as to intelligence was derived, and confirmed in afford to his majesty a just hope of the at the credit, which he gave to it, as well by tainment of a secure and honourable peace. the notorious and repeated declarations of In that case his majesty will readily avail the enemy, and by his recent occupation himself of the offer of the emperor of Rus- of the towns and territories of other neusia's mediation. But until his majesty shall tral states, as by the preparations actually have received these important and necessary made for collecting a hostile force upon
the communications, it is obviously impossible frontiers of his Danish majesty's continental that the undersigned should be authorized dominions, bis majesty would yet willingly to return a more specific answer to the have forborne to act upon this intelligence, note presented by M. Alopeus.—The un- until the complete and practical disclosure dersigned, &c. GEORGE CANNING. of the plan had made manifest to all the
world the absolute necessity of resisting it. DECLARATION OF THE KING OF GREAT BRI His majesty did forbear, as long as there
TAIN, RELATIVE TO THE WAR WITH DEN could be a doubt of the urgency of the MARK, DATED SEPT. 25, 1807.
danger, or a hope of an effectual couuteråcHis majesty owes to bimself and to tion to it, in the means or in the dispositions Europe a frank exposition of the motives of Denmark.-But his majesty could not which have dictated his late ineasures in but recollect that when, at the close of the the Baltick. His majesty has delayed this former war, the court of Denmark engaged exposition only in the hope of that more in a hostile confederacy against Great Briamicable arrangement with the court of tain, the apology offered by that court for Denmark, which it was his inajesty's first so unjustifiable an abandonment of a neuwish and endeavour to obtain ; for which trality which his majesty had never ceased he was ready to make great efforts and to respect, was founded on its avowed inagreat sacrifices; and of which he never bility to resist the operation of external inlost sight even in the moment of the most fluence, and the threats of a formidable decisive hostility., Deeply as the disap- neighbouring power. His majesty could pointment of this hope has been felt by his not but compare the degree of influence, majesty, he has the consolation of reflect- which at that time determined the decision ing that no exertion was left untried on his of the court of Denmark, in violation of part to produce a different result. And positive engagements, solemnly contracted while he laments the cruel necessity which but six months before ; with the increased has obliged him to have recourse to acts of operation which France had now the means hostility against a nation, with which it was of giving to the same principle of intimidahis majesty's most earnest desire to have tion, with kingdoms prostrate at her feet, established the relations of common inter- and with the population of nations under est and alliance ; his majesty feels confi- her banners.-Nor was the danger less imdent that, in the eyes of Europe and of the ininent than certain.-- Already the army orld, the justification of his conduct will destined for the invasion of Holstein was
assembling on the violated territory of neu- | too far advauced towards ils accomplishtral llamburgh. And, Holstein once occu- nient, of subjecting the powers of Europe pied, the island of Zealand was at the to one universal usurpation, and of combinmercy of France, and the navy of Denmark ing them by terror or by force in a conat her disposal.--It is true, a British force federacy against the maritime rights and might bave found its way into the Baltick, political existence of this kingdom, it beand checked for a time the movements of came necessary for his majesty to anticipate the Danish marine. But the season was the success of a system, not more fatal to approaching when that precaution would his interests than to those of the powers who no longer have availed; and when bis ma were destined to be the instruments of its jesty's fleet must have retired from that execution. It was time that the effects of sea, and permitted France, in undisturbed that dread which France has inspired into security, to accumulate the means of offence the nations of the world, should be counagainst his majesty's dominions.--Yet, even teracted by an exertion of the power of under these circunstances, in calling upon Great Britain, called for by the exigency of Denınark for the satisfaction and security the crisis, and proportioned to the magniwhich bis majesty was compelled to require, tude of the danger.-Notwithstanding the and in demanding the only pledge by which declaration of war on the part of the Dathat security could be rendered effectual nish Government, it still remains for Denthe temporary possession of that fleet, mark to determine, whether war shall conwhich was the chief inducement to France tinue between the two nations.
His mafor forcing Denmark into hostilities with jesty still proffers an amicable arrangement. Great Britain ;-His majesty accompanied He is anxious to sheathe the sword which this demand with the offer of every condi- he has been most reluctantly compelled to tion which could tend to reconcile it to the draw. And he is ready to demonstrate to interests and to the feelings of the court of Denmark and to the world, that having Denmark. It was for Denmark berself to acted solely upon the sense of what was state the terms and stipulations which she due to the security of his own dominions, might require.—If Denmark was apprehen- he is not desirous, from any other motive, sive that the surrender of her fleet would or for any object of advantage or aggranbe resented by France as an act of conni- disement, to carry measures of hostility bevance ; his majesty had prepared a force yond the limits of the necessity which has of such formidable magnitude, as must produced them. have made concession justifiable even in the estimation of France, by rendering re DECLARATION OF THE KING OF GREAT BRIsistance altogether unavailing.-If Den
TAIN AGAINST RUSSIA, DATED DECEMBER mark was really prepared to resist the de 18, 1807. mands of France, and to inaintain her inde The declaration issued at St. Petersburgh pendence ; his majesty proffered his co- by his majesty the emperor of all the Rusoperation for her defence - naval, military sias, las excited in his majesty's mind the and pecuniary aid; the guarantee of her strongest sensations of astonishment and European territories, and the security and regret.--His majesty was not unaware of extension of her colonial possessions. That the nature of those secret engagements the sword bas been drawn in the execution which had been imposed upon Russia in of a service indispensable to the safety of the conferences of Tilsit. But his majesty his majesty's dominions, is matter of sincere had entertained the hope, that a review of and painful regret to his majesty. That the transactions of that unfortunate negothe state and circumstances of the world | tiation, and a just estimate of its effects are such as to have required and justified upon the glory of the Russian name, and the measures of self-preservation, to which upon the interests of the Russian empire, his majesty has found himself under the would have induced his imperial majesty necessity of resorting, is a truth which his to extricate himself from the embarrassmajesty deeply deplores, but for which he ment of those new counsels and conuecis in no degree responsible.- His majesty' tions which he had adopted in a moment has long carried on a most unequal contest of despondency and alarm ; and to return of scrupulous forbearance against unrelent
, to a policy more congenial to the principles, ing violence and oppression. But that for which he has so invariably professed, and bearance bas its bounds. When the de- inore conducive to the honour of his crown, sign was openly avowed, and already but and to the prosperity of bis dominions.