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name and character more respected and were going to combat for the honour and memorable? In better times, many of the interests of their country. The only quesimportant victories gained by the duke of tion, therefore, which could properly be Marlborough, during the wars of the suc taken into consideration by the house was, cession, were passed over without such a whether they had well performed the distinction, which was only bestowed upon duty assigned to them. If that duty was the more splendid achievements of that well performed, it would not become the great general ; and latterly, the taking of house to refuse their thanks. His lordship the litttle town of Bastia procured for was satisfied in his own mind, that every lord Hood the thanks of that house,although person engaged in that expedition had the same honour was not paid him for the done his duty, and therefore he would capture of Toulon, and of the French fleet give his cordial support to the motion. in that port. It was not, therefore, the Lord Auckland, although no man more magnitude and importance of the service deprecated the deviation of this country that always justified the granting of this from the sanctioned principles of moral honour, but rather the circumstances of and national justice, was still willing to difficulty and danger through which it was give his vote of approbation for the energy, accomplished. It was in this point of view promptitude, zeal, and humanity, with that he objected to a vote of thanks in the which the officers who commanded, had present instance. Had it been proposed executed that sad and melancholy service. only to thank the army, he might, although The Earl of Mulgrave contended, that in some measure objecting to it on the the manner in which the service was exegrounds before stated, have been induced cuted amply deserved the thanks of parto give it no opposition ; but when it was liament. With respect to thanks not be. proposed also to thank the navy employed ing voted to lord Hood, for obtaining posin this expedition, he felt himself compelled session of Toulon and the French fleet in to oppose it, because there was no oppor that harbour, there was in that instance tunity for the display of naval skill." He no opportunity for the display of naval or could not sufficiently impress upon the military skill, the town having been dehouse the great importance of not render-livered up to that noble lord whilst he ing the high and peculiar honour of the was blockading the port, by one of the thanks of parliament too. common : in contending factions in that place which order to preserve its value it ought to be had obtained the ascendancy. He could reserved for great occasions, for brilliant not admit that valour alone was a ground exploits and splended victories, as in the for voting the thanks of parliament; were Roman republic triumphs were never that the case, not a week would pass over granted but for the most splendid achieve his head in the situation which he had ments. In the present instance, he thought the honour to hold, but he should have there were not opportunities given for the to call for the thanks of parliament for display of those qualities, the exercise of exploits of the greatest bravery. It was, which ought to entitle officers to the thanks he contended, the eminent display of skill of parliament; and therefore, viewing the and science, combined with the magniquestion as he did, entirely upon public tude and importance of the object, that principles, he felt himself painfully and more peculiarly deserved that high horeluctantly compelled to oppose the mo nour. ' In the attack upon Copenhagen tion.
skill and science had eminently been disThe Earl of Moira said, that it was with played in the dispositions made for the great regret he felt himself under the ne attaininent of the desired object. The cessity of differing from his noble friend. noble lord (Holland) seemed to think it He approved of the manner in which the possible, that he might have been induced noble secretary had introduced the mo to consent to a vote of thanks to the army, tion. Nothing could have been more im but objected to one to the navy. He proper than to have connected it with the could not, however, see upon what ground political expediency of the attack upon any such distinction could be made. The Copenhagen. It would have been highly most skilful dispositions were made by improper, if the troops employed on any lord Gambier in the distribution of the occasion should exercise their judgment fleet under his command ; that part of it as to the propriety of the object. The entrusted to rear-admiral Keats, was extroops which were sent to Cop hagen tended for 200 miles, and had for its obwent there, under the impression that they ject to cut off the communication between
Zealand and the continent. By this means ment because he had so disposed the men the Danish army in Holstein were prevented of war under his command, as to prevent from passing into Zealand, which, had the enemy from getting out, and consethey been enabled to do, the great object quently surrendering? This no man would of the expedition might have been of say was an occasion worthy of such a doubtful attainment; at all events, it must high honour. When the two cases united; have been rendered a service of difficulty when magnitude of object was combined and danger. The skill, therefore, he con- with difficulty of enterprise--these, intended, of admiral lord Gambier, had deed, were fit subjects for parliamentary been conspicuously manifested; but in any honours. It was far from his intention to case, when the army and navy were con detract in the smallest degree from the jointly employed, to vote thanks to one merits of the officers engaged in the exand not to the other, could tend to no pedition to Copenhagen. They had nopossible 'good; on the contrary, it must thing to do with the justice or injustice tend to excite a jealousy between the two of the service in which they were embranches of our forces. It had, besides, ployed. The only question was, whether always been the practice to unite them in they had done their duty, and whether votes of thanks, where they were jointly that duty was a fit object for the thanks employed.
of that house. But, would it be said, that Earl Grey (late lord Howick) rose and the services performed, and particularly addressed the house for the first time. by the navy, were of that character ? He observed, that no one felt more There were frequent instances of large strongly than he did the propriety of fleets undergoing great privations for abstaining from any discussion of the ge- weeks, nay for months, and yet he never neral measure on this occasion. Nothing heard thắt such services obtained the could be more unbecoming a man than to thanks of parliament. As to any difficulty mix any party feelings with the question. in the enterprize, the house had the auThe manner in which the debate had thority of ministers that there was none. been conducted afforded an example, that Had they not said, in one of their declait was possible to discuss a subject arising rations, or proclamations, that they sent out of a great political question, without such a force into the Baltic as rendered introducing invidious or personal obser- any resistance impossible? It was most vation. He rose for the purpose rather painful for him, rising as he did for the of expressing his approbation of the prin- first time in that house, to oppose the ciples laid down by his noble friend motion. He did it, however, on public (lord Holland), than in the hope of add- grounds. He would again repeat, that ing any thing to the arguments by which he had no fault to find with the conduct they were supported. They, as his ar of the expedition; but he did not think guments in general were,
that it was of that importance, or that it ; swerable. To the conduct of the expe was attended with that danger or diffidition, or to the merits of the officers em- culty, which entitled those who were employed, he had nothing to object. They ployed in it to the thanks of that house. had done all that was expected or re The Resolution was then put and carquired of them, and they would have done ried. After which, a discussion took place more if more had been required. What on that part of the Resolution, which thankhe, as well as his noble friend, contended ed adm. Gambier for fitting out the Danish for was, that the object of the expedition navy. It was opposed by the duke of tò the Baltic was neither of sufficient Norfolk, earls Grey and Lauderdale, and magnitude, nor attended with sufficient lord Holland; and supported by lords difficulty, to entitle those engaged in it Mulgrave and Hawkesbury; and carried to the thanks of that house. He could by in the affirmativè. Resolutions to the no means accede to the principle laid subordinate officers, and to the troops and down by the noble secretary of state, that sailors employed, similar to those passed the magnitude of an object was of itself this day in the house of commons, were sufficient grounds for the approbation of also agreed to. parliament. Suppose a Russian fleet, greater than that of Denmark, in a British port, and that orders were sent down to
Thursday, January 28. the port admiral to take possession of it, [AMERICAN TREATY Bill.] Mr. Rose
as he to receive the thanks of parlia- moved the order of the day, for going Vol. X.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.
into a committee on the Act of last session sure he proposed to renew, was to continue regulating the Trade between this country the provisions of the act of 1794, in conand the United States of America.
sequence of the failure or omission of Mr. Eden regarded this motion with making an arrangement under the 12th pleasure, so far as it went to prove a dis article of the treaty of 1797, in the time position to conciliate and maintain good stipulated. In consequence of that omiswill and amity with the American States; sión, it became necessary to pass the Inand it
him still farther satisfaction, tercourse act of last session, to prevent the inasmuch as it seemed to indicate a hope trade with the United States from falling on the part of his majesty's ministers, that to the ground. That act would expire in the existing differences would be recon about four weeks. It would take three ciled and done away. He was however, weeks to pass a bill to renew it, and theresurprised, under the circumstances now ex fore no time was to be lost. If America isting in America, to find the provisions had precipitately taken measures hostile of the act of 1797, made to carry into ef- to this country, it became us to show an fect the Treaty of commerce and amity example of the dignity and moderation, with the United States, now proposed for that became a great and upright nation. renewal, without any reserve or modifi- He hoped America would profit by so incation. If the right hon. gent. would structive an example, and if she should not, look to the preamble of the act, he would he should still find a satisfaction in thinkfind that it was framed on the principle of ing, that this country had erred rather on a reciprocal freedom of commerce between the side of forbearance and deliberation the two countries. But now, when the than of anger and precipitancy. His hon. non-importation act was renewed by the friend should be aware, that under the American legislature in all its strictness, provisions of the Navigation act no Ameand when an embargo was laid in the rican vessel could enter the ports of this American ports, was it a time for Great country, unless special provision were Britain to l'enew without reserve, all the made by act of parliament to that effect. indulgences of the periods of most amica- To make that provision was one of the ble relation. The act now in existence objects of the measure now proposed.. had five weeks of its period still to run ; There was no reason why American ships was it not proper to pause, at least for a should be excluded from bringing the propart of that time, in order to ascertain duce of their country to our ports, any whether the arrival of our envoy extraor more than the ships of any other nation. dinary in America, and the arrival of the As to giving a power to the king and intelligence, that must have nearly at the council, why should that be done by the same time been received, of the unjust king and council, which could be done by proceedings of France, night not, on more the legislature, particularly at a time when mature consideration, have taught the parliament was sitting? He proposed to American government to adopt a more limit the duration of the bill to the period wise and moderate system of conduct? If of the present session of parliament, with the embargo should be taken off, and the a power to repeal or alter it at any time Non-importation act repealed, his objec- that it might be thought necessary. Some tions would no longer exist. But if the regulation was indispensably necessary, American government should be so unrea and this measure was the most reasonable sonable as to overlook the outrages of that he could think of.—The house then France, and to require from us conces went into the committee. After which, leave sions beyond all reason, a very different was given to bring in a bill to continue course would become us.
the acts passed for carrying into effect the wby he was averse to the renewal of the Treaty of Commerce and Amity between act, was the refusal of the American go- his majesty and the United States of Amevernment to ratify the treaty concluded rica. last year. Many of the provisions of the (VOTE OF THANKS.--EXPEDITION TO act were incorporated in that treaty, and COPENHAGEN.) Lord Castlereaghrose, when the American government refused pursuant to notice, to call the attention of to accept them in the shape of a national the house to the late services of his macovenant, why should we grant them, with ty's army and navy in the Baltic. Whatout any reciprocal consideration, in the ever difference of opinion there might be shape of an act of parliament ?
as to the political character of the ExpediMr. Rose said, the object of the mea tion in this house, he flattered himself that
no difference would exist on the proposi extent of the means employed, or the retion he was about to submit. It had al sult of the enterprise was considered, ways been the custom to consider the there would hardly be found in the history services rendered by his majesty's army of this country, an enterprise in which the and navy in carrying into effect the orders exertion of naval and military skill and with which they were entrusted, distinctly power had been put forth with so much and separately from the merits of the energy and effect. He allowed the expolicy by which his majesty's ministers | ceptions which the hon. gentlemen opwere actuated in issuing those orders. This posite had to the expedition, in a moral being the established custom, he should and political point of view, might in certainly not be the first to deviate from their eyes take from the value of the 80 wise and proper a practice. It was a service rendered to the country. But, so justice due to the army and the navy, who large a naval force not only rescued from were never called upon to decide as to the hands of the enemy, but added to our the propriety or impropriety, nor to mix own naval power, could not surely be their conduct with that of those by whose considered in any other light than as an impulse they acted, and who alone were accession of strength that called for a responsible for the prudence, justice, wis- just tribute of approbation and acknowdom, and policy of the plans they directed ledgment to those by whom it was obto be carried into execution. It was, tained. It was a more natural question therefore, due to the army and navy to to examine whether the difficulties opposed look only to the execution, which was to our force were of such a nature and the distinct service that fell to their charge. amount as to constitute a claim to a very But it was not to the army and navy alone high degree of credit for having overthat this distinct consideration now was come them, and on this head he conceived a point of justice, but also to the gentlemen that he observed a sort of scepticism on in the house who might differ from his the other side, and to some, though not majesty's ministers as to the propriety of any considerable extent, out of doors. the plans that might be carried into effect. It was argued by those persons, that the Those gentlemen would naturally wish to operation had been so easy, so simple, so bear testimony, as warmly as any others. little attended with opposition or difficulto the meritorious conduct of his majesty's ty, that the army and navy were not army and navy; but they would find dif- entitled for its accomplishment, to that ficulty in doing so with satisfaction, if the mode of thanks which, on other occasions, merits of the army and the navy were it was usual to bestow on them. He, not submitted in a shape wholly distinct however, knew well, that there had been from the conduct of ministers. The only difficulties of very serious magnitude to question that could be entertained on the overcome. It was certain, that his majesparticular service for which he proposed ty's ministers, when they had been deto ask the thanks of the house was, whe- termined on the painful duty of underther, taking the whole character of the taking this expedition, at a very critical achievement, the difficulties that were conjuncture, had at the same time, felt it overcome, and the manner of surmounting incumbent on them to prepare such a them, the conduct of the army and navy force, as, by taking away all hope of in the whole of the proceedings was such, effectual resistance, would force Denmark as to call for the greatest reward a grateful to a quiet submission to the demands nation could bestow—the thanks of the made in his majesty's name, or enforce country by the organ of its representative compliance, with the least possible loss body. He submitted this motion, with a to his majesty's forces and to the Danes, full consideration of the jealousy with whose blood it was equally a matter of which parliament ought always to guard desire and of feeling to spare. On this against giving the distinguished sanction principle, the force that was already in of its approbation to services, not of an the Baltic for the purpose of co-operating amount sufficient to entitle them to this with the king of Sweden, was ordered high reward. With respect to the nature to meet the force that was sent directly and amount of the service performed at from this country, and never, certainly, Copenhagen, there could be but one opi- did a more efficient army appear in any nion as to its being of the highest impor- part of the world to assert the cause tance. Whether the magnitude of the of this country. Now, as to the opposiobject that called forth the exertion, the tion this army had to encounter, it was
a false notion that Denmark was wholly had taken place before the grand attack. unprepared to resist on the side of Zea- The most favourable conditions were offerland. It was not the fact, that the whole ed, and it was not till the Danes refused to military force of Denmark was collected come to any terms, that a single gun was in Holstein. From the best inquiry, it fired. No one lamented more than he did had been ascertained, that exclusive of the fatal effects of the attack;but if the place the citizens and peasants who formed was to be reduced at all, the mode of effectirregular corps, there were not less than ing that object that had been resorted to was 35,000 men who had been trained and certainly the best. A regular siege would accustomed to bear arms in the service have been attended with more loss on the of the king of Denmark, including regu- part of the British, as well as of the Danes. lar and militia forces, seamen and marines. Nothing but the smallness of the loss susThe garrison of Copenhagen was 15,000, tained by the British could be pleaded in that of Cronenburg 4,000, and the force diminution of the success obtained by the in the country, attacked and dispersed British. This arose, not from any want of by sir Arthur Wellesley, was 16,000, means on the part of the enemy to do inmaking altogether 35,000. This force jury. The killed and wounded on our part was always open to increase by rein were no more than 300 men. But the forcements from the other islands. The small loss sustained was a circumstance to Belt could not be always sufficiently add to, rather than to take from, the meguarded to prevent such reinforcements rit of our commanders. When the whole from being thrown in, and they had, in character of the transaction, the number fact, been thrown in to some amount. of men the enemy had in arms, their faciThe town of Copenhagen, so far as its lities of receiving reinforcements, the diffiextent admitted, was equal to any for- culty of reducing so large a place at so tress, and from the nature of the works late a period of the year, and the imposby which it was surrounded was incapa- sibility of effecting the reduction by any ble of surprise. The works towards the other sort of attack than that described; sea were, in fact, invulnerable; and on when all these things were considered, he the land side, the nature of the ditch had no hesitation to say, that the
army and rendered it extremely difficult and dan- navy had atchieved a service as great as gerous, if not impossible to approach. any that had ever been performed by a These difficulties were not to be estimated British force ; they had atchieved that serat nought, though they ultimately gave vice in the most effectual manner, and the way to a bombardment, against which humanity and generosity which distinit was impossible to hold out. With re- guished the whole of their conduct, both spect to the time in which the service in hostility and in victory, shed a fresh was accomplished, it was of the utmost lustre over their glory. On this last point importance that every expedition should certainly there could be but one opinion, be used ; and when gentlemen consi- both within doors and without. Having dered the difficulty of landing and bring- thus far endeavoured to do justice to the ing up heavy ordnance to the extremity merits of the army, he should not satisfy of a line which extended four miles from his feelings if he did not do a similar justice the landing place, and when it was consi- to the other departments. It was not dered, that the whole of this difficult and usual for 'parliament to take notice of the arduous, and important preparation was merits of the departments that were concompleted between the 18th of August cerned in the outfit of expeditions; and and the 2d of Sept. when the town was the persons'employed in those departments summoned to surrender, the zeal and dili were as little disposed to take merit to žence with which this part of the service themselves. The time at which the exhad been executed would be found deserv- pedition was sent out, and the effectual ing of the highest commendation. The dis- manner in which every part of the prepaposition on which the British commanders ration, naval and military, was brought in had acred, was evinced in the summons aid of the object, called for a share of acsent when they were ready to commence knowledgment to all the co-operators. If the bombardment. It was certainly right, it was wise to undertake the expedition at that no desultory attacks should be allow- all, it was doubly incumbent to lose no ed, till the great operations, which could | time. Delay would have increased the diffinot be resisted,were arranged: except mere culty and the eventual loss to this country engagements of defence, no other actions and to the Danes. There was not only the