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tion which evidently announces inten- | consideration. (Signed) G. L. GOWER. tions hostile towards Denmark. The ties His excellency general de Budberg, &c. of consanguinity and friendship which No. IV.--Extract of a dispatch from Mr. unite his imperial majesty with the king of Secretary Canning to the right hon! Denmark not suffering him to view with lord Granville Leveson Gower, dated" indifference any danger which might me September 27th 1807. nace the dominions or the independence of Sir Robert Wilson arrived here on Sa. that sovereign, the undersigned has receiv- turday the 19th with your excellency's ed commands to invite his excellency dispatches of the 2d instant, which I have lord Granville Leveson Gower, to acquaint laid before the king.--Whatever may have him with the motives which have induced been the motives or the causes of the the cabinet of St. James's to adopt pro- change which your excellency represents ceedings so extraordinary against Den- to have taken place in the tone of the Rusmark. The undersigned, &c.

sian councils, or whatever may be the pro (Signed) A. DE BUDBERG. bability of the continuance of the system (Second Inclosure, referred to in No. 3.) now apparently adopted ; his majesty

St. Petersburgh, 21st August hails with the most sincere satisfaction

(2d September) 1807. the return of those sentiments of friend*** Agreeably to the desire of his excellency ship and confidence on the part of his augeneral Budberg, the undersigned, ambas- gust ally, from which his majesty on his sador of his Britannic majesty, losses no part has never' deviated, and the cultivatime in communicating to the Russian go-tion of which is more than ever necessary vernment the motives which led to the for their common interests. Your excel steps taken by the king's minister at the lency will lose no opportunity of expresscourt of Denmark, and to the subsequenting these sentiments to his imperial maoperations of the British forces against the jesty and his minister. -For forbearance island of Zealand. The British ministry and moderation which your excellency had been a long time in possession of po- has been all along instructed to employ sitive data which left no doubt as to the in all your remonstrances with respect to intentions of the French government'tes- transactions in which the personal characpecting the maritime means of Denmark; ter of his imperial majesty was so immeand the projects against England from that diately concerned, and the reliance which quarter, which were matured by the con- you have not failed to express on the reținental peace, certainly cannot have es- turning sense of what was due to his macaped the penetration of his majesty the jesty's long experienced friendship and emperor of Russia. The Danish fleet des fidelity, accord perfectly with the lantined to cover a descent on the British guage which you are now instructed to use, coasts being therefore an object essential and make the whole of his majesty's confor the accomplishment of the views of duct towards his. imperial majesty uni. France, the king found himself under the form and consistent. And your excel: necessity of securing himself from so im- lency cannot too constantly impress upon minent a danger, by those precautions the Russian minister the topic which you which were adopted with regret, however have so judiciously employed in your late indispensable for the security of his conferences, that in the present state of empire. The ties of relationship which the world, retrospect and recrimination unite the two courts of London and of Co are worse than useless; and that the espenhagen would have inspired the king tablishment of future good understanding with the desire of avoiding such a painful and the concert of measures to be taken extremity, and of respecting, as far as de- with a view to future exertion, are alone pended upon himself, the interests of Den- the proper subjects of discussion between mark; but his duty called equally for the two governments.—Your excellency measures adapted to ward off a danger did perfectly right in declining to conwhich threatened not only the welfare of sider the communication of general Budhis people but the existence of his crown. berg as sufficiently satisfactory to authoThe undersigned, having thus frankly re-rise your acceptance, on the part of his plied to general Budberg's note, will with majesty, of the mediation of the emperor pleasure furnish a more detailed verbal of Russia. The points upon which the explanation, should his excellency desire question of this acceptance turns, are, it; and he avails himself of the opportu- ist, The frank communication of the artinity to repeat the assurances of his high cles of the Treaty of Tilsit, Secret as well

as avowed. 2dly, A distinct explanation for eventual, in which the interests of this of the basis upon which France proposes country or its allies are in any degree conto treat, and which appeared to his impe- cerned. - In the same formal manner a rial majesty at Tilsit 80 just and honour communication should be required of the able. These are the conditions directly basis of peace proposed by France; upon stipulated in my note to M. Alopeus, and which the Russian Minister does not apwithout which an acceptance of any me- pear to have offered any explanation.diation by his majesty could be nothing The other two points are not so strictly else than a complete surrender of his ho- connected with the question of mediation. nour and his interest into the hands of the But it is nevertheless perfectly reasonable mediator, if not of the enemy.-But to that his majesty should require some osthese are reasonably to be added, if not tensible proof of the good will of his auas conditions without which it would be gust ally, to counteract the general imimpossible to consent to treat under the pression which must have been created by auspices of Russia, at least as those which late events, of a difference and disunion his majesty has a right to require from a between them; before his majesty can friendly power, before he commits him with a good grace accept those offices at self to its guidance in a question affecting the emperor of Russia's hands, of which the immediate safety and the future wel- | impartially should be the essential characfare of his dominions; Ist, A disclosure ter. No proof could be selected, at once so of the general views of policy of the em- easy for his imperial majesty to give, so peror of Russia; and of'any engagements grateful to his majesty to receive, so nainto which he may have entered with res tural in the eyes of the world, and so litrect to the different powers in whose for- tle liable to exception on the part of France, tunes his majesty takes an interest ; and as the renewal of the Treaty of Commerce. 2dly, Some plain and decisive proof of -With respect to the remaining point, the good understanding subsisting between which your excellency is instructed to his majesty and his august ally; such as urge—a communication on the part of shall satisfy, not his majesty only, but the Russian government of its general Europe and the world, of the impartiality views and policy for the future,—you will with which his imperial majesty has un observe, that his imperial majesty himself dertaken, and proposes to administer, the annexed to his conditional acceptance of duties of his office as mediator.-With res the mediation of the emperor of Austria, pect to the first of the two points which a similar demand of the communication I have stated as absolutely indispensable, of the general views of the court of Vienna general Budberg appears as yet to have respecting the future state of Europe. gone no farther than to give a verbal as In the treaty of Bartenstein, concluded besurance that there is not any article, tween his imperial majesty and the king among the secret articles of the Treaty of of Prussia, and offered by them to the acTilsit, stipulating for the shutting of the ceptance of other powers as the basis of a Russian ports against Great Britain.-But co-operation for the purpose of producing it will immediately have occurred to your a general pacific arrangement, a distinct excellency that a distinction might pro- and detailed exposition was entered into bably be taken in M. de Budberg's mind with respect not only to the powers inbetween a stipulation for the immediate / tended to be comprehended as parties to and unconditional execution of a purpose, the treaty, but to all the other powers of and the agreement to resort to it eventu- Europe in whose fate any one of the prinally, under circumstances which may not cipal powers could be supposed to be inyet have occurred; and that, supposing terested. These examples of what his imthe former only to be the sense of M. de perial majesty has done, and what he has Budberg's assurance, that assurance might required, would sufficiently authorize his be literally true, without in fact convey- majesty's solicitude to obtain a similar exing any thing essentially satisfactory - The planation on the present occasion.-But inference to be drawn from this circum- there are other grounds for it in the very stance is, that the Russian minister should state and circumstances of Europe, as arisbe called upon by your excellency in an ing out of the Treaty of Tilsit, and the official note, not for a simple disavowal stipulations annexed to it; some of which only of any single article, but for the com stipulations are already carrying into exemunication of the secret articles them- cution in a way to excite his majesty's selves, or at least of any agreement actual apprehensions, if not for his own interests,

war,

for those of his allies.--Is it possible that general Budberg's note on the subject of his majesty should not think it essential to the operations at Copenhagen. I enclose be informed whether the public article of to your excellency a copy of the Declarathe Treaty of Tilsit, which recognizes the tion which his majesty has caused to be French king of Naples, only as king of published on that subject, in which your Naples, is, in effect, contradicted by a se excellency will find the principles upon cret article, which adds to this title that of which his majesty has acted, clearly laid the two Sicilies ? The movements in the down; and in which the disposition of his Mediterranean, and the surrender of Corfu, majesty to limit the measures of hostility naturally give rise to a variety of appre- to which he has unfortunately found himhensions, which it would be for the inte- seif compelled to have recourse, is anrest of both countries to quiet, or at least, nounced with that frankness and moderato reduce within the bounds of truth.- tion which characterize his majesty's conHas not his majesty the right to require duct. In conversing upon this subject some explanation of the intentions of with the Russian minister, your excellency, Russia with respect to Turkey ; a power in addition to the arguments so correctly with whom his majesty finds himself at stated in your note, and to those with

and left alone in the war, for no other which his inajesty's Declaration will furthan Russian interests, and from a quarrel nish you, will not hesitate to appeal to espoused by his majesty for the sake of his the Russian government itself for reaally ?– These topics your excellency will sons in justification of the measures to urge in your conferences with M. de Bud- which his majesty has been under the neberg with all the earnestness which their cessity of resorting.--You will remind geimportance requires, but at the same time neral Budberg, not as matter of reproach, carefully avoiding a strain of reproach ; but as matter of fact merely, that from the and even when you are obliged to confess conclusion of the peace of Tilsit down to the suspicion of engagements having been the hour at which your excellency's disentered into such as his majesty cannot patches by sir Robert Wilson were received but disapprove, conducting your inquiry in here, the British government were without such a manner as shall lead M. de Budberg one word of assurance as to the amicable to believe that his majesty is anxious ra- intentions of Russia towards Great Britain. ther to find the means of preventing or The offer of mediation, under all the cirremedying the evil, than to discover the cumstances which belonged to it, was calcugrounds of complaint againt Russia. Upon lated to excite any other feeling rather than the whole, your excellency will collect that of confidence in the emperor's goodfrom these instructions, that his majesty will; and every account that was received is as much desirous, as ever, to cultivate here of the temper in which that proposal the friendship and alliance of the emperor was made, and of the light in which it of Russia ; that he conceives the only was viewed by the enemy, justified the bechance of safety for what remains of Eu- lief that it was intended' by Russia rather rope to depend upon the renewal of a good as preparatory to hostility consequent upon understanding between them; that his his majesty's refusal, than as likely to lead majesty has never, even under appear to a pacific result through his acceptance. ances the most unfavourable, altogether In the mean time, the publication of the despaired of such a recurrence, on the Prussian peace, and the concealment of the part of the emperor, to the counsels which Russian, and the intelligence of the plan are best calculated for his own glory, and brought forward in the conferences of for the security of his own doininions, as Tilsit for a general confederacy againt this it is now hoped has taken place; and that country, in which the navies of Denmark his majesty, upon such a change, is eager and Portugal were destined to co-operate to forget all that has passed of a nature intelligence since confirmed by a frank contradictory to those counsels, or incon- and friendly communication from Porsistent with them.

tugal herself of such a proposal having No. V.—Extract of a Dispatch from been actually made to her by France, and

Mr. Secretary Canning to the Right enforced with threats of instant and deHonourable Lord Granville Leveson structive hostility in case of her declining Gower, dated Sept. 28, 1807. to comply with it), these circumstances,

Foreign Office, Sept. 28, 1807. coupled with the actual preparation for His majesty entirely approves of the the reception of a large French force at answer returned by your excellency to Hamburgh, formed together such a body

of evidence not only of the designs of Bo- whole situation of affairs with respect to naparte, but of the connivance, if not of Denmark. His majesty is perfectly wil. the participation, of Russia, that his ma- ling that the pacification with the court of jesty would have been wanting alike in Denmark should be wholly the work of what he owed to his own dignity and to the emperor of Russia: that it should orithe security of his dominions, if he had ginate in his imperial majesty's counsels, not taken the most ettectual steps for be conducted under his auspices, and conbreaking through the combination that cluded under his guarantee. The situation was collecting round him: and it would of his imperial majesty, as the natural prohave been idle, under such circumstances, tector of the north, obviously points him to have waited the consent of Russia to out for such a task; which even France measures calculated to repel a danger, of could not refuse to. assign him, unless which Russia herself formed so large a France were ripe for breaking with the part. It cannot be disguised, therefore, court of Petersburgh. Denmark has un. that the want of communication on the questionably applied to the emperor of part of the Russian government has been Russia for protection. How can that apin no small degree the cause of the very plication be better answered than by the mischief which that government now la- emperor of Russia's engaging to bring ments. Confident as his majesty is in the Great Britain to an arrangement upon such justification of the vigorous and decisive terms as are stated in the inclosed papers ? steps to which the necessity of self-pre- and to such engagement on the part of servation obliged him to resort, he would the emperor of Russia, the emperor is beyet more willingly have been spared the forehand assured of the consent of his mapainful task of acting upon that necessity; jesty. had Russia been in a state to offer her No. VI.-Extract of a Dispatch from guarantee of the neutrality of Denmark, the Right Honourable Lord Granville instead of affording such strong ground of

Leveson Gower to Mr. Secretary suspicion that she was prepared to coun C'anning, dated St. Petersburgh, Sept. tenance, if not to instigate, her hostility. 19, 1807. Received Oct. 7. But it is useless as well as painful to dwell I have the honour to inform you,

that upon what might have been the course of on Tuesday last general Budberg gave up events, if the emperor of Russia had not the portfeuille of the foreign affairs to unwaringly delivered himself over to the count Soltykoff. I took an early oppora counsels of France, at a moment when it wunity after this notification of seeing was of all others the most essential that a count Soltykoff, and recapitulated to him good understanding should be kept up be- what had passed in my last conference tween Russia and Great Britain. Your with general Budberg; I reminded him excellency will therefore dwell on these the promise made by his predecessor to topicks no longer than may be necessary bring under the immediate consideration to impress upon the mind of the Russian of the emperor the points upon which I minister, the conviction that the supposed had been instructed to obtain an answer unfriendliness of Russia must of itself have from this court, before I could signify the prevented his majesty from communicat- acceptance of his majesty to the proposed ing with his imperial majesty on the sub- offer of mediation. I observed that the ject of Denmark, before he proceeded to tardiness of this government upon this those strong but necessary measures, the subject ill accorded with the anxiety exresult of which has dispelled all appre- pressed by his imperial majesty for the hension of danger from that quarter. It conclusion of peace between England and remains, now, according to the principle France. Count Soltykoff answered that wisely established in your excellency's he would on the following day take the late conferences with general Budberg, to emperor's orders with respect to the comlook forward to the probable consequences munication of the secret articles of the of what has taken place, and to endeavour treaty of Tilsit ; that without seeing his to turn them to such account as may be imperial majesty he could take upon himmost beneficial both to Russia and Great self to say that the Russian government Britain, and to that cause which their re was well disposed to enter into a negotiaunion might yet afford a hope of conduct- tion upon the treaty of commerce; and. ing to a favourable issue. "After the pe- he repeated what I had heard before from rusal of the papers which I inclose, your general Budberg, that the Projet de Traité excellency will be fully informed of the transmitted by M. Alopeus must in the

first instance be submitted to the conside- / whom his majesty had not been able to ration of the department which it pecu- obtain any mark whatever of friendship liarly concerned. In the course of our and confidence? I added, that I was the conversation he gave me many general as more surprised at this conduct, because, surances of the amicable disposition of this notwithstanding the grounds of dissatisfaccourt towards England, and of the satis- tion which the published articles of the faction he should feel in contributing to treaty of Tilsit afforded to his majesty, the establishment of a footing of friendly such was his partiality towards bis august snd confidential intercourse between our ally, that he had been disposed to look two governments. Count Solty koff being upon them as forced upon his imperial in the country yesterday, my endeavours to majesty by the unfortunate circumstances see him were unavailing; but I this morn- of the moment; and I had, even since the ing obtained a conference, when, after knowledge of these public articles, been some expressions of regret, at his first authorized to give fresh assurances of the communication with me being of an un- desire of his majesty to renew the intipleasant nature, he told me, that he was macy and confidence which had before authorized by the emperor to inform me, subsisted between the two courts. Count that his imperial majesty did not think Romanzow answered, that the emperor's proper to coinmunicate the secret articles. friendship for his majesty had been proved It is not, he said, on account of their con- by his anxiety that peace should be cons taining any stipulations prejudical to Eng- cluded between England and France, and land; but having once determined that that his impartiality had been manifested these articles should not be made public, by his offer of mediation; impartiality the emperor sees no reason for receding being the necessary attribute of a medias from his determination.

tor. After giving the obvious answer to No. VII.-Extract of a Dispatch from his novel mode of reasoning, I expressed

the Right Honourable Lord Granville my hope that the union of the two departLeveson Gower to Mr. Secretary ments of commerce and foreign affairs in Canning, dated Saint Petersburgh, the same person would accelerate the ne

9 Sept. 1807. Received Oct. 7. gotiation of the treaty of commerce. My last dispatches to you had scarcely Nearly a month had elapsed since the arleft Petersburgh, when I received informa- rival here of a projet of a treaty transmittion that the emperor had named count ted' by M. Alopeus, and yet I have not Romanzow, minister for foreign affairs. been able to obtain an answer whether the This appointment was officially made stipulations of that projet of a treaty were known three days afterwards to tħe corps approved of here, or even whether the diplomatique by a circular note. 1 Russian government were disposed to enthought it my duty to lose no time in see ter at all into negotiations upon this subing count Romanzow; and the state of sus-ject, Count Romanzow assured me that, pence in which I have been so long kept he never heard of this projet but from sir with respect to the negotiation of the re- Stephen Shairp; that since he had receivnewal of the treaty of commerce, justified ed the portefeuille of the foreign aflairs, me in requesting an immediate conference he had enquired for it, but it could not be with the new minister. After the usual found, and that he supposed it must be compliments upon his appointment, I ex- among the papers of the emperor. I propressed to him the regret I felt at the ex- posed to send him a copy; which he detraordinary reserve of his court towards clined to accept, saying, that he would, in that of London, and my extreme disap- the first instance, acquaint the emperor pointment at the refusal which had been that I had requested an answer from this signified to me by count Solty koff to com government upon the question of the remunicate to me the secret arrangements newal of the treaty of commerce. I took concluded at Tilsit. I observed that this this opportunity of observing to him that refusal made it impossible for the king my M. Alopeus had asked for this project; master to avail himself of his imperial and that therefore, unless a perfect change majesty's offer of mediation; for how, had taken place in the friendly dispositions said I, could it be expected that his ma of this court, the emperor would certainly jesty would accept the mediation of a so approve of our entering into negociation vereign, between whom and Bonaparte upon it, though it might happen that some there was every appearance of intimate of the provisions of it might possibly be union and secret understandıng, and from considered here as not wholly free from

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