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tween England, Austria, and Russia, exe-, they have publicly expressed themselves in cuted on the ulth of April 1805, the æra of their declarations, and also in this louse, the last disastrous 'coalition against France, would have you conceive that the offer of which is signed by lord G. L. Gower; that mediation resulted from the treaty of Tilsit article designates the object of the league, alone, when in point of fact the first offer and what it is proposed to carry into effect of mediation was made in this note of gen. by the concert against France, namely, Budberg, before the treaty of Tilsit had

• The evacuation of the country of Hano-been executed, and not only before the ver, and of the north of Germany; The treaty had been executed, but so many days establishment of the independence of the before that event, and so short a time after republics of Holland and Switzerland; The the signature of the armistice, as to make it re-establishment of the king of Sardinia in impossible that all those plans which are Piedmont, with as large an 'augmentation attributed to Russia and France, of a conof territory as circumstances will admit; cert for the purpose of annoying England, The future security of the kingdom of Na- could have been entered into. When this ples, and the complete evacuation of Italy offer was first made it was unclogged with (the island Elba included) by the French the offensive limitation of time, upon which forces; The establishment of an order of so much stress has been laid The offer things in Europe, which may effectually is conceived in these remarkable words : guarantee the independence of the different “ The Emperor niy master offers his mestates, and present a solid barrier against diation to his Britannic Majesty, to make future usurpations."--The last article is a bis peace with France; having a certainty generality upon which we need not dwell, that it will be accepted by the latter but I think no man in his senses could have power.” (p. 113.] What could be more had in contemplation the accomplishment strikingly amicable on the part of Russia than of any of the former articles, which are spe- such an offer at such a moment, and concific, without at the same time contemplat-ceived in such terms? When the fate of ing the entire demolition of the power of his own empire was at stake; after so comthe French empire. Therefore, Sir, I am plete a defeat, after having evinced his fidemuch surprised to find the expression I have lity by rejecting all counsel which had been quoted in the letter of the noble lord; and given him by the most experienced officers I do not think that with truth and justice it of his army, previous to the battle of Friedcan be said, that the sole purpose of the land, to enter into negotiations with the war made by England has been the obtain- enemy; deaf to their representations, that ing a secure and permanent peace. If it his army was vot in a situation to tight new. had, the war might have been concluded battles; listening only to the call of honour, long ago. Indeed it need never have been and alive only to the sentiments of fidelity to undertaken. This letter of my lord Gran- bis ally!. When his hopes were blasted, ville Leveson is followed by a note from when he was reduced to the necessity of gen. Budberg to his excellency, dated at making a peace, which nothing but necesTilsit on the 30th of June. (p. 111,] I beg sily could have extorted from him! in the the house to remark that this correspond hour of his anguish he thought upon Engence began only eight days after the battle land, and his first consideration was how of Friedland; and that the letter from he should be able to serve her by negociawhich I am now about to quote was writ- tion, having ineffectually tried his strength ten by gen. Budberg, several days before to the utmost in the contests of the field. the treaty of Tilsit was signed. This letter His first conversation with Buonaparte apcontains several reproaches against England pears to have been directed to the welfare for tardiness and want of co-operation in of England, and in the very tirst monients the war.

As I have before said, I will put after the arrival of the king's ambassador, aside for the present, any consideration of he makes him an offer of mediation. Not the justice or injustice of those complaints; accompanied, as has been 'falsely stated, but one cannot help observing, that these with the expression of his belief, ibat France complaints urged on the part of the enipe- would accept that offer of mediation also ; ror of Russia, in the moment of irritation but having obtained a certain knowledge of and disappointment, even if ill-founded, were the acquiescence of the French emperor. excusable, and on the other hand their hav- What ought to have been the conduct of ing been made, is no proof of their being my Lord Granville Leveson at that moment? true. Sir, ministers by the manner in which Do I presume to say that he ought at once

and without consulting his court, to have desire; and may without distrust follow accepted the offer of mediation ? That, the bent of his humane and pacific senticertainly would not have been prodent on ments.--Here, Sir, again it may be said, his part. But I think be might bave so and perhaps justly, that the offer of mediaconducted himself, and might have given tion, even accompanied with the guarantee, such an answer, as would bave paved tlır in itself so desirable, could not bave been way, either to the acceptance of the media- accepted without some explauations from tion afterwards; or to the possibility of open- the emperor of Russia; but those explana ing a direct communication with France, if tions miglit have been asked in such a manthe situation of Russia after her signing the ner, as to have left it open to you, either to treaty, should have been found such as to have accepted the mediation immediately, render the acceptance of her offer of media- or failing that mediation to have opened a tion inexpedient. The next paper which direct communication with France. Instead we find is a note from Mr. Alopeus, [p. of this, a cold, formal, and repulsive note is 113.] the accredited minister from the relurned by Mr. Canning demoustrating vo court of St. Petersburg, to Mr. Secretary confidence in Russia, and no disposition to Canning, dated London, the 1st of Aug. peace. It begins with the usual technical 1807, in which Mr. Alopeus offers the me- phraseology, and with the common expresdiation of Russia, in a formal manner; and sions of a desire of the restoration of a geueupon the ground of the thirteeenth article ral peace: boasting the ample proofs of the of the treaty of Tissit. Flere again I beg to disposition to peace recently afforded by remark, that the offer of Mr. Alopeus, is the accession of the king to the convention not accompanied with any communication of Bartenstein, (p. 114.) Sir, I had it in of the limitation respecting time. The 13th contemplation at one time, to have moved article of the treaty of Tilsit, is alluded to for the production of the convention of but not communicated in the note: and the Bartenstein, but I apprehended, and indeed presumption is, that for whatever reason a I had heard that this convention was never limitation of time might have been acceded carried into execution, and therefore it to by the Emperor of Russia, in the treaty could not have been laid upon the table itself, he wished not to offend England, by of the House of Commons. But I should accompanying his offer of mediation with have been glad to have seen it, and I fear the declaration that such mediation must it would have evinced any thing rather than be accepted or rejected within a given a sincere disposition to the restoration of a period. In point of fact Lord Granville, general peace: because, if I am not much Leveson well knew, and the king's ministers, misiuformed, it contained a renewal of those through bim, also knew, that the Emperor chimerical projects which even in the most of Russia intended to pass by that limita- distressing times, and under the most tion of time altogether.—Sir, the offer of me- unpropitious circumstances, have been endiation by Mr. Alopens is conceived in the tered into for the diminution of the French most friendly, the most explicit, and the power; and the restoration of peace is by most satisfactory terms--he declares that a desperate policy deferred till after the the Emperor of Russia is convinced of the accomplishment of objects, which none but disposition of his Britannic Majesty towards madmen would contemplate as possible.peace, that in nuany conversations held with Sir, (after this preamble,) Mr. sec. Canning the Emperor of the French, the Emperor declares to Mr. Alopeus that it is impossiof Russia had had reason to be convinced ble to return a more specific answer to the personally, that the Emperor of the French note presented by him than this, (p. 115.] was sincerely desirous of the re-establish “ that his majesty waits with the utmost soment of a maritime peace, upon equitable licitude for the communications of the and honourable principles; and he not articles of the treaty concluded at Tilsit, only offers his interposition for the attain and for the statement of those equitable ment of so desirable an end; but he volun- and honourable principles upon which his tarily promises the support of all the forces imperial maj. expresses his belief, that of his empire, for insuring the performance France is desirous of concluding a peace of all the stipulations of peace, when once with G. Britain.” Sir, the formal demand mit shall have taken place between France of the communication of the articles of the

and England; he goes on to say, that by treaty of Tilsit, appears to me to have been this guaranty his Britannic - viajesty will unnecessary, because in the event of the oblain that which he has ever appeared to acceptance of the mediation; or even with

out the acceptance of the mediation, the ar reasoning, after the overthrow of her greatticles of the treaty of Tilsit would certainly ness she still displayed her affection towards have been made known to the king. A state- you, by thinking of your welfare, at the ment of the equitable and honourable prin- time of her bitterest misfortunes. True it ciples upon which his imperial maj. ex- is that she had entered into engagements presses his belief that France was desirous with France, which might be inconsistent of concluding a peace with G. Britain, was with your interest, but those engagements, not only unnecessary but repulsive. What imposed by force, were not calculated to explanation could be given of equitable and extinguish the feelings of affection towards honourable principles? the words equity this country, by which she had been ever and honor carry with them their own actuated, On the contrary, they must meaning, and admit of no explanation. I have · rather conduced to augment and think, therefore, that the whole of the de- heighten them, and therefore (as I should mand, made by the Secretary for foreign say) she would have been a most partial affairs of Mr. Alopeus, previous to his giv mediator, so far as her disposition went, ing a more specific answer on the subject for this country ;-in the common acceptaof the negotiation, was conceived, not in the tion of the word slie was a mediator posspirit of confidence or conciliation towards sessing strict impartiality, and on that Russia, which if you had any, the most account could vot be rejected. Moreremote intention of eventually accepting over, supposing she were not impartially lier offer of mediation ought to have been disposed at the period of her making the manifested, but in the spirit of distrust and offer of mediation, by what means could cavil, inconsistent with the fidelity she had she be rendered impartial? If therefore you displayed towards you. The expression of could not accept the emperor of Russia as Mr. Alopeus was, that the emperor of an impartial mediator at that time, and Russia,“ had had reason to be convinced under all the circumstances of the case, that the emperor of the French was sin- why not end the matter at once, in terms cerely desirous of the re-establishment of a of decorun and civility ?-The second set maritime peace;" [p: 113.) the expression of papers begins with a dispatch from lord of gen. de Budberg was, that he was Granville Leveson to the secretary of state, certain that the emperor of the French dated the 2d of Sept. 1807. [p. 195.). would accept of the mediation of Russia ; His lordship informs Mr. Canning that he and this was artfully interpreted into a had held a conference with gen. Budberg, mere expression of belief for the purpose who was already apprised of the answer of the more readily escaping from the offer given by the secretary of state to Mr. of mediation.-Sir, before I proceed to the Alopeus of the conditional acceptance by second part of the papers which have been the court of London of the proffered laid before us, it may be necessary to say mediation of Russia. Sir, I beg leave to some words


the character of a media remark that no conditions had been specitor. We bave been told that strict impar- fically stated in Mr. Canning's note to Mr. tiality is necessary to that character, but it Alopeus, upon which conditions the court may be permitted to ask what, at the out- of London would accept the mediation of set, do you mean by impartiality? It is Russia. Mr. Canning said, that his maj. was not, I presume, that you would be stoically waiting with solicitude for the cominunicasevere, and really be displeased that there tion of the articles of the treaty of Tilsit, should be a leaning in the mind of the me- and the statement of those equitable and diator towards yourself?. All that you honourable principles upon which France would require would be, that there should was desirous of concluding a peace; but he be no bias in his mind towards your ene no where states the conditions upon which my; but it is necessary to make allow- England would accept the mediation of ances, and there must be a distinction Russia; and it is lord Granville Levison drawn between those feelings upon which himself, who in this note for the first time partiality is founded, and that combination states those conditions. In the conference of circuinstances which may lead to actions with gen. Budberg he tells the general, directly contrary to the line of conduct to that he is instructed in the first instance to which the affections of the mind would request the communication of the secret point. Now Russia had manifested to the articles of the treaty of Tilsit; and a frank latest moment her sincere friendship to. declaration of the general views and intenwards this country. If I am correct in my tions of the court of Petersburgh. Upon

the first of these two conditions I have to sincerity of the power which offered you observe, that I think it was absolutely im- her mediation. The noble lord continues,

possible for Russia to accede to it. The that impartiality was the first requisite in very word secret implies that there was the character of a mediator;" upon which something to be withheld by the two point I have already touched. He then very powers; the revealing of which would be truly asserts, "that it is essentially necesa violation of the very conditions of the sary England should be placed with regard articles themselves. I refer you for the to the mediating power on an equal footing justice of my remark to what has recently with France.” But, Sir, this assertion is passed between this country and Portugal. superfluous, because it could not be previI asked in this house for a communication ously supposed to have been in the conof the treaty which had been executed templation of Russia, that there should be between the two powers previous to the any inequality between the two powers; departure of the court of Lishou to the and her intention of making any inequality. Brazils. The answer nade to me was, betiveen them, could only be shewn by her “ England is bound to keep that treaty conduct in the progress of the mediation ; secret; and it cannot be disclosed without any preliminary assurance, therefore was in the consent of Portugal.” The answer was the nature of the thing perfectly unnecesirresistible,and I immediately desisted from sary.—The noble lord proceeds to state my enquiry. But does that apply to Eng " that uneasiness bad been excited in England alone? And is not the rule of honour land, by the confidential intercourse which for England the rule of honour for France, had taken place between the two emperors for Russia, and for all the rest of the world ? at Tilsit; and that he could not conceal How then was it possible for the king's from gen. Budberg, that the period peministers to demand a communication of remptorily prescribed to his Majesty for the the secret articles of the treaty of Tilsit? acceptance of the Russian mediation had It might indeed be very proper' to ask created in London a very unfavourable whether there existed any secret articles at impression against the intervention of his all, and if the answer was that such articles imperial majesty." [p. 196.] What uneadid exist, it might also be proper for Eng. siness could have been excited by the mere land to say, if you are under secret engage circumstance of those two great potentates ments to France, we cannot accept of your conferring together upon the interests of mediation. It appears to me that the their respective empires, I am at a loss to repeated assurances of Russia respecting conceive; and I am sorry that lord Granthe immoxious nature of the secret articles ville Levison introduced any observation in relation to England, might have been upon the limitation of time for the acceptrelied upon with a degree of confidence ance of the mediation, because I have sufficient to justify the acceptance of the reason to know that at the moment when mediation, if otherwise desirable; because he wrote this letter, he had been informed in the course of the negociation, England by lord Hutchinson,

" that the emperor might have proposed and insisted upon any had declared to him in a communication provisions to secure those interests which which took place between lord Hutchinson she suspected to be in danger from the and the emperor of Russia on the 23d of operation of tlie secret articles. But to ask Aug. and which was communicated to lord for a communication of such articles was Granville Levison, that the emperor of insulting to Russia, and it was manifestly Russia did not intend that the limitation of impossible for Russia to make it. As to time should have any

effect whatever.-I the general views of the court of St. Peters am sorry, sir, that the house refused to adburgh they were sufficiently disclosed by dress his majesty to lay before us the letter the offer of mediation itself. The decided of lord Granville Levison to Mr. Canning, opinion of the court of St. Petersburgh was, containing an account of the conversation, that a general peace was necessary for the for it is most material that it should be interests of mankind; after having made before th: public. But I know, that such a the experiment of war as far as that experi- conversation did take place: and I know his ment could possibly be carried. There imperial majesty stated to lord Hutchinson, was no occasion, therefore, to ask what the " that he had offered his mediation to Eng. general views of the court of St. Peters- land; that he attached no false vanity to burgh were: and it was an unnecessary the acceptance or rejection of that mediaexpression of an ill-founded doubt of the tion, but that it was his most sincere wish

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that England would make peace; as he cannot be accepted; but lie desires prelimwas sure that it was his interest and also inary marks of good will on the part of that of Europe, and our interest that we Russia, and particularly the renewal of the should restore tranquillity to the world." treaty of commerce; than which surely, no Lord Hutchinson answered to his imperial request could be more unreasonable. The majesty, “ that he had not given sufficient treaty of commerce had espired, and fretime for England to accept or reject his quent attempts had been made by the last mediation, because a much longer period administration to obtain the renewal of it, than a month must elapse before any all of them unsuccessful, even during the answer could be received, and though the time of warlike co-operations. Was it disposition of his mind inclined towards then a reasonable thing to ask such a mark peace, neither he nor any other man would of good will on the part of Russia at such accept it but on conditions the most rea a moment ? and was it not rather. adding sonable and honourable: and that as far to the existing difficulties, and creating disas England was concerned the events of gust in the mind of Russia when it ought the war had been highly favourabie;" to to have been our object to sooth, to conciwhich his imperial majesty replied “that liate, and to appear almost implicitly to the time allowed was of no importance : confide? Gen. Budberg answered, “ that because we might take three or four months there did exist secret articles in the treaty if we pleased to accept or reject his me- of Tilsit,” and then comes an expression in diation; but his anxious wish and desire the letter of a very equivocal nature, “there was that we should make peace. That were some, he said, which in no way conhe had a perfect knowledge of the feel-cerned the interests of England.” (p. 196} ings and character of the people of England; Sir, I am bound to suppose that lord Granthat he had been made acquainted by Buo- ville Levison received an equivocal answer naparte with the conditions of peace in from gen. Budbery, because he has exprestended to be offered; and, lie had no doubt sed himself in an equivocal manner. but lord Hutchinson himself would con- suspicion however of intentional duplicity sider thein highly reasonable and hopour seems to have arisen in the mind of lord able.” (p.351.] Now, sir, with a knowledge Gra: ille Levison to the prejudice of gen, of this conversation, held by a person of Budberg during this conference, or at least unsullied honour, and the greatest talents, a none is expressed, I conclude that there man respected by all Europe ; and justly were no secret articles in the treaty of Tilsit, in the confidence of the emperor of Russia, which in the estiination of gen. Budberg, both on account of his high inilitary a had any relation to England whatever. I chievements, and his indisputed integrity; should do so the rather after having read who had been deputed by the preceding the following sentence, in wbich gen. Budadministration as the accredited minister berg says, “ that lie could assure lord Granto the court of Prussia, and had attended ville Levison, and as an honest man he the Russian armies in the latter part of their would not say it, if it were not truth, that disastrous campaign; whose communica- there existed vo secret article whatever tion with the emperor, if lord Granville which stipulated the shutting the Russian Levison had not expressly desired, he bad ports against the British commerce."[p. 196] unequivocally concurred in :-with a per- Lord Granville Levison bowever, “having fect knowledge, I say, of all these facts and found it impossible to consider the answer circumstances, how came my lord Cranville given by gen. Budberg as sufficiently satisLeveson to dwell so much and with such factory to authorise him to accept the Russerious importance upon a point which besian mediation, gen. Budberg said he must have known to have been entirely would request the permission of the empewaved ; it was throwing an ill-timed obsta for to communicate without reserve the cle in the way of the acceptance of the secret articles of the treaty between Russia mediation, it was irritating to the emperor aud France; and to be empowered to conwho had expressed himself so satisfactorily tinue negotiations, and conclude a treaty of upon the subject, and it was undignitied as commerce with G. Britain. (p. 197.) So far laying that stress upon a comparatively tri- it appears that the Russian minister conductvial circumstance which was due only to ed himself with perfect moderation ; and, matters of real and essential moinent. Fur- without doubt, if the secret articles of the ther, lord Granville Levison not only states treaty of Tilsit had been in his opinion preconditions without which the mediation judicial to England, gen. Budberg would Vol. X.


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