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connected. Take these thiugs together, improve. The Archdeacon's argu. and the question is more formidable than ment is more simple, and is restricte it may appear to be on partial views, ed in the which have a real ground perhaps of truth,

ed to the sure grounds upon which and for which cogent arguments are

the bond of union or single sovebrooglit. No argument could indeed be reignty in one state subsists among very formidable, that had not such a mix- us, and binds all things together in ture of truth and reason to commend it.” these realms. P. 6,7

" It is of the nature and essence of all In the judgment of the Archdea

governments, of what kind soever they

e may be, and whatever societies they may con there are but two methods of

include, to have all things subject in some preserving peace and security. The measure to the sovereign authority. From first is a change of principle, a this subjection nothing is exempted but change hardly to be expected in a what belongs indeed to some rule, over Church professing to be infallible, which no control of man can be rightfully and admitting the authority of tradi

exerted; such as the privilege of contion, and the only consolatory ray

science; the duty of self-preservation; of hope is seen in the retraction of

the regard to public welfare, as that forms

the main end of laws and government; the temporal dominion of the Pope.

and more especially the things which are The other means is a change of feels prescribed by express and indubitable ing, of which the promise is far precepts of divine authority clearly and more favourable, although it is the sufficiently made known. With these reunhappy nature of religious divi

strictions the principles of sovereignty in sion, that the sect remains, when its

our own land are applicable to all things

and persons. They have been traced ac. original character is forgotten.

cordingly by our best writers to this fourWithout querulous remarks on

fold ground; to the common right, which past offences, without a timid or an I have just named, ot sovereignty in all angry policy, without indifference to states, and under every dispensation; to the common interest, and with that the pattern of the Jewish state, particupersonal good will to all men,

larly sanctioned as that was by the divine « which is always possible and al

appointment; and displayed in a manner

which was neither local nor peculiar; to ways proper," it is the duty of men

the plain intimation of the will of God, to stand fast in defence of the main

declared on this head in the page of Scripprinciples of union, whenever acci- ture, first in the word of prophecy condental combinations or direct at cerning Christian states and rulers, and tacks may be formed against then, then in the subsequent directions which The ground of union in this land;

were given with immediate reference to under the good care of Providence, derives

the civil power by Christ himself and his its chief stability from that well defined

first witnesses; and to the laws of this and fundamental rule of government, by

realm before they were overborne by fo. which in every state and in every country,

reigo usurpation.” P. 13. things sacred and things civil should be It is the right and duty of Sovesubject to one sovereign supremacy. This

reign Princes to sustain the religious was the first point, which at the dawn of reformation in this land was rescued from

together with the civil interests and the gradual encroachments which had been

obligations of their subjects, for remade by those who traversed rocks and ligion is the foundation of the com, seas, the natural limits of the states of mon welfare, and the bond of peace this world, in order to fix a visionary and order in society. The separathrone of more than magic power and tion of religion from the civil gomystic influence, in the bosoms of far se vernment has no precedent but vered empires.", P. 10.

et in America, which is certainly not The doetrine of the Pope's su- sufficient to counteract the argument premacy has been for ever refuted from its connection with every disin the masterly Treatise of Barrow, pensation which has the sanction of whose reasoning it would be lost la. divine authority. The chief objecbour to attemp to strengthen or tions to this doctrine are two : 1st,


That the civil sovereign can affect goning of Hooker and the best no more than the outward action; writers, and contends for & voluntary but can he always affect the outward compact, in which the Church reaction without the aid of the relisigns her independence upon condi. gious principle? 2d. It is objected, tion of protection, and of which the that power may be abused: but this supremacy of the king in ecclesiasis an objection which would lead to tical causes is the result. the rejection of all government civil " This is the peculiar feature of his as well as religious; it would su- scheme, and constitutes its marked difpersede the authority even of the ference from that of Hooker. It lies open infallible Church : and it would to much inconvenience, and is entangled have operated uuder the government :

with some inconsistency, when he comes

to replace, as he does in every point, the of Jeroboam and the Jewish Princes,

leading principles which he professes to whose sovereignty in religious affairs

neglect; for whoever will look with attenwas not therefore annulled.

tion through the work of Bishop WarburThe Archdeacon confirms his own ton, will find, that after much shew of vareasoning by an appeal to the au. riation from preceding writers, and some thority of the judicious Hooker. marks of contempt too for their judgment, who shews that although there is a

he replaces one by one, in remoter parts

of bis treatise, every stone, which he pronecessary separation perpetual and

fesses to cast out from the first foundapersonal between a Church and tion of his own desigo. There is this main commonwealth, and although they inconvenience in his scheme, that what be differently defined and distinct rests upon no fixed ground of common in nature, yet are they not in sub- right, may be disputed without end." stance perpetually severed, but one P. 20. and the same person may in both The benefit, and even the indis. bear perpetual sway. It was thus pensable necessity of this civil proamong the Heathen, and it was thus tection of the Church by the civil among the Jews, and some sufficient government, are admitted by Warreason must be assigned why it burton, at the same time that he should be otherwise in the Church denies its divine origin and appoint. of Christ; why Christian Kings ment: and although its practical should be deprived of the weightiest influence has been restricted at one part of their sovereignty; why in- time, and not restored at another, fidels should possess power in reli. and although the uncontrolled pas. gion, which believers should not sions of men will lead them to oppossess; and why in respect of re. pose the ends of government, the ligion they should be in subjection principle nevertheless retains its either to their own subjects or to a pristine force, uninjured and unimforeign power. It is the record of paired; and it is of chief moment all history from the time of Con. to defend this principle, and to restantine, that kings have exercised' gulate the points of favour and inthis authority; and “ if it be de. dulgence by this standard. Mr. manded by what right from Constan- Hooker does not deny that there are tine downward the Christian em. peculiar laws of divine appointment perors did so far intermeddle in the for the government of the Church, Churches' affairs, we must therein and powers, which the spiritual condemo them as being over pre- pastor alone can exercise; and he sumptuously bold, or else judge that lays down the just distinction, that they did it by a law which is termed it is the province of the Sovereign regia, that is to say, regal.”

to maintain, and not to counteract This was the reasoning of Hooker, these laws and institutions of the but Warburton whose character it Church. was, that he would never tread in “ He draws this conclusion, that for any man's steps, opposes this rea- the received laws and liberties of the Church, the King hath supreme authority, cost a bitter strife for their recovery. The but against them, none.'

value of things once yielded is ill learned “ In a word, the personal union of the by the loss itself which takes place, and by Church and Commonwealth, where the the consequences which epsue.” P. 27. same individuals compose both, cangot be denied : but this does not destroy the

It will naturally be conceived, natural distinction of societies, or cancel that the charge occupies a small those rights which belong essentially to aud disproportionate part of the voeach The spiritual pastor retains his pri- lume, and is followed by a consi. vilege of which he cannot be divested, and derable bulk of supplemental matthe sovereign power keeps its supremacy ter: an arrangement for which the within those limits which the word of God and the known ends of government must J

i just apology on the present occaalways put. It is impossible to deny that. sion is ils unavoidable necessity. . this supremacy may be exercised in things “ A prejudice arises at the first view, relating to religion by the sovereign power and operates unfavourably, when a short in Christian states, unless we will take discourse is coupled with a considerable one of these opinions, either that the Chris- bulk of supplemental matter. The porcla tiap character itself includes all such do- and the building, in such cases, have no minion, or restrains it to a fancied reign natural proportion, and the first impresof Christ on earth, distinct from his uni. sion is not advantageous. But, in the preversal rnle; or confines it to his ministers sent instance, this inconvenience conld alone, or vests it in some supposed vicege- not be avoided, since the Dissertations rent, to whom it is thouglit to be derived. and Collections, which are now subjoined, All these notions have had their turn in could not make part of a discourse conthe world, and are most opposite to Scrip. fined to narrow limits; whilst the suggesture, reason, and the judgment (conform- tions which were furnished in the Charge able to both) upon which the model of itself made it necessary to produce some our own happy and well settled govern-proof of what had been intimated. This ment in Church and State, hath been esta- a longer investigation of the subject has blished,

succeeded to the first address. It will be “ Thus by defending the capacity and found, however, that these additions, alprivileges of Sovereign powers to bear thoughthey assume the form of an Appensway in all causes, that are left free to dix, contain a connected prosecution of discretion, and by shewing at the same the chief objects of consideration." Pretime the perpetual exception as to things face. P. v. vi. determined and provided by divine autho. rity, Mr. Hooker has for ever overthrown

The Collections and Dissertations both the wild suggestions of Erastian theo which are subjoined to the Charge rists, and the groundless claim of a per- are exhibited in seven sections, and petaal empire in the Church, independent

comprise a faithful abstract of the even in Christian countries on the Sove. reign power." P. 24.

most distinguished treatises on civil

and ecclesiastical goverpment, inThe Arcdeacon makes his last terspersed with appropriate obserappeal to the testimony of Arch. vations, as these treatises corrobobishop Wake, in establishment of rate or impair the argument, which the doctrine for which he contends, it is the purpose of the Archdeacon and concludes bis charge with that to maintain. These collections are judicious moderation and true can- highly valuable, not only ip guiding dour, which distinguishes his cha- the researches of the inquisitive sturacter.

dent, but in presenting to the ge" Whatever may be the wish of any neral reader the substance of large man to grant indulgences, for wbich no volumes, which could not be colman feels more heartily inclined than I do, lected without considerable expence, even to the utmost point beyond which it nor studied without uninterrupted may be impossible to go further, and at leisure. Froin their nature, howthe same time to preserve the limits which

ever, they do not admit of analysis, have been so bardly won from inroad and encroachment, yet let us look well to

and it is not in our power to do fixed and laid principles, for if they more, than to specify the materials should be weakened and conceded, it may of which they consist.

In the first section, the doctrine that its author has not taken the civil siof sole supremacy, for which the premacy entirely from its old foundations, Archdeacon contends. is sustained though he builds after his own fashion.

* Allowing him liis privilege, we find that upon the authority of Whitgift,

Me he is never far from the truth, as it subBancroft, Jewell, Bilson, Andrews, sists in practice ; and when he seems to Carleton, Bramhall, J. Taylor, decline acknowledged principles, it is by Falkner, Barrow, Usher, King means which have a ground of truth, and Charles I. and Mason. These are inay be usefully applied. He abounds the Fathers of our Church, and we with excellent remarks, and has made owe them reverence: to their testi. good, in the main, a vigorons defence of

the establishment against many different monies are subjoined those of others

8 kinds of adversaries. What has been said of our own country, unhappily di- has not beeu inarked, I trust, with disrevided from us in communion, but spect or any want of deference for supe bearing a like suffrage in this re. rior talents, but has had for its aim to spect, namely, the London minis guard against the mischiefs of departing ters in 1647, Baxter, Prynne, Nye,

from those solid and consistent principles, Marshall, and Firmin. His first

the grounds of which the learned prelate

could not but admit. Iu attempting this, collection is concluded with the tes.

I sball not, I hope, be taxed with arrotimonies of the distinguished lay

gance or indiscretion, when I have kept men, Sir R. Twysden and Lord Cla- closely to authorities, which even Warburrendon.

ton might bave been well satisfied to folHaving supported his principal low, and which he certainly has not been position of a single supremacy by a able to supersede." P.99. host of witnesses, the Archdeacon To the testimonies of British, the proceeds in his second section to Archdeacon adds the testimony of examine the arguments of those foreign divines, which he introduces who have advocated the opposite with the arguments of Grotius on doctrine, or drawn the same con. the plenitude of the sovereign power, clusion from different and less its universality and necessity, under stable premises. In this investiga. proper restrictions, in conjunction tion a cursory notice is taken of the with his refutation of the pretence remarks of Blackstone, but the au- of the Romanist, that the emperor thor's principal attempt is to expose is within, not above the Church. the inconsistencies of Warburton, in The low opinions which Grotius upholding upon one argument, what entertained, or rather his total dehe professes to destroy by another; nial of ecclesiastical authority, are, and to refute the reasoning of Mr. with the usual discrimination of the Plowden, in opposition to the eccle- Archdeacon, placed in a strong con. siastical supremacy of the civil so- trast with his irrefragable argument vereign, and in defence of the full in defence of Episcopacy. indefeasible authority, in all religious Grotius is supported in the folmatters, of the spiritual pastor. This lowing section by Puffendorf, whose important and elaborate investiga argument is abundantly sufficient to tion is conducted by the Archdea- establish the civil supremacy on the con with a singular discretion, and grounds which our writers have with exemplary temper and libe- maintained, and who gives his testirality, taking advantage of the mony, as what could not be denied ingenuity of his adversaries, to or avoided, and whose suffrage is strengthen the cause for wbich he therefore the more valuable. Pufpleads, at the same time that he re- fendorf is followed by Burlamaqui, futes the sophistry by which that than whom few writers have excause is opposed.

pressed themselves with more clear.

ness and simplicity, although, in “ Enough then has been produced from " this able and ingenious work, (the Alli- the conclusion of his argument, he ance between Church and State,) to show has neglected to mark the true and

necessary distinction between & and very able writer, and deserve the civil jurisdiction, and the spiritual character which Archbishop Tillotson has authority which has its foundation

given, as having exhausted the subject, and limitation in the word of

and said enongh to silence the controversy

concerning the Pope's supremacy for ever, God.

and to deter all wise men, on both sides, The circumstances under which from meddling any further with it.' I De Marca wrote in defence of the shall leave that branch of the subject, liberties of the Gallican Church, therefore, to the reference of those who were peculiar, and it was a point of may find in it such complete and copious no ordinary difficulty to secure his

information ; but it may not be unaccept

able to the reader, nor inconsistent with own interest in the Bishopric of

the chief design of these collections, to Conserans, and to conciliate the fa

produce some testimonies, which lie scatvour of the Pope, without forfeiting tered in the treatise and discourse, and to the favour of his rightful sovereign. suhjoin them to what has been already furHis great work was the bulwark of nished on the subject of Church governthe liberties of the Gallican Church,

ment and the civil sovereignty, in doing and was but partially weakened by

which, it will appear sufficiently that this

acute and excellent divine did not leave the concessions and retractions

the Church without its rightful powers, which he was required to make in

and just authority, when he exposed and accommodation to the will and in utterly destroyed the false pretensions of obedience to the authority of the the Papal Sovereignty." P. 251. See of Rome.

The extracts from Barrow are il“ Yet notwithstanding this embarrass- lustrated and confirmed by the aument, which De Marca felt on every side, thority and arguments of Archbishop and which might almost discourageus Uslier and Dr. Hammond, in which from wading through a large folio written

is incidentally contained a view of under such impressions, and with such

the origin and primitive indepenprovisions made for stifling or dissembling, what was stubborn and intractable, we dence of.

dence of British Episcopacy, a shall find him establishing, with sufficient point which has been recently arclearness, many grounds of truth upon this gued by Dr. Hales and the Bishop subject. He affirmed enongh, indeed, to of St. David's, and which it is not draw him into great difficulties from which

more important than interesting to he could not extricate biniself without some

sustain. sacrifices, of no advantage to his own name,

The last section exhibits the senor to the cause which he had undertaken." P.212.

timents of Mr. Charles Leslie, a The substance of his treatise is

view of the antient form of episco.

pal government retained in the redrawn out at considerable length in

formed Churches of the Continent, the fifth section, and the reader

and of the acknowledged right of will not only “excuse," but be

the civil sovereignty in thankful for the pains taken in trac


Churches, extracted from the Oxing the opinions of so eminent a

ford Papers, a collection now not person, and will not neglect to im.

easy to be met with : and the arguprove the obvious and important

ments of Bishops Bull and Stillinglessons which he teaches, nor refuse to subscribe the powerful conviction which is the result of his dis “ The labour has not been light to trace course.

this subject. Its application to the cir“I have reserved for this" (sixth) “ gec

cumstances of our day is no otherwise

material than as the want of right contion some connected extracts from the

ceptions of the principles, at any time treatise of the learned, accurate, and judi. cious Barrow. It had not his last hand,

under discussion, may lead to very mis

chievous determinations, and to consebut, together with the piece by which it is attended, the Discourse on the Unity of

quences no less injurious in their influences

and effects." P. 336. the Church, was published after his death. They display the powers of an eminent The doctrine of the king's supre


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