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ral reading of the Greek text is ex. the purpose than what the present tremely questionable. The Latin version supplies. version, and, I might add, all the There is, I think, a high degree Latin writers, acknowledges neither of inconsistency in the espousers of the article nor the preposition. The the Heavenly Witnesses, when they Æthiopic, according to Griesbach, argue against its possible personififor I have not the version by me to cation of the earthly witnesses in the inspect it myself, has neither the ar. eighth verse, in order to bring in the ticle nor the preposition. The Cop- seventh. The external evidence for tic tongue possesses both the definite the eighth verse is so strong that it and the indefinite article, and is cannot now be rejected. But, if we very regular in the use of them; may not be permitted to personify but in the Coptic version of the the spirit, the water, and the blood, eighth verse there is a preposition, when the seventh ,verse is omitted, indeed, equivalent to in ; but no ar. bow, I ask, shall we be any more at ticle whatever. The same may be liberty to do so when it is actually said of the Syriac version. Though thrust in ? I am aware that the the Armenian tongue has no real learned Bishop of St. David's has prepositive article ; yet, by virtue said, by an attraction; but to that of the final Nu, of the use of which I may reply in one word, that the it is extremely lavish, the Greek pre- Greek tongue acknowledges no such positive article is capable of being attractions as this, nor any other fully expressed : nevertheless, in the tongue whatever, with which I am genuine Armenian text of this verse, in the least acquainted. there is neither article nor prepo There are some other arguments sition. From the consideration, brought forward, on which, with tben, of the state of the eighth verse your permission, Mr. Editor, I shall in all those ancient and celebrated take an early opportunity to ani. versions, which must, at one time or madvert; as I am anxious to leave another, have been severally made nothing unnoticed that may in any from certain Greek manuscripts; I measure contribute to the support conclude that the genuine reading of the falsified text. of the Greek text was not always

I remain, &c. the same with that of Griesbach :

John OXLEE, and, therefore, that no stress ought

Rector of Scawton. to be laid on the existence of the Stonegrove Parsonuge, prepositive article in the present Feb. 13, 1822. Greek copies. To me, however, the sense appears to be the same, whether the article be present or not; its use, as is well known, being to To the Editor of the Remembrancet. point out not only some one indi. vidual person, or particular thing of Sir, the kind: but also the whole kind The Rector of Scawton has, in your itself, taken in its utmost latitude, last Number, ventured to pronounce without any reference whatever to the controverted verse of St. John, one individual more than to another. “a foul and scandalous interpola. Certainly the translators of our re. tion," though he has placed the ceived version were either unable or controversy at an issue, which by uuwilling to perceive, in' this place, bis own admissions, proves the auany definite meaning of the Greek thenticity of the verse. He says, prepositive ; and I call upon those“ if the advocates of the verse can who seem to have penetrated more point out to me any one authentic deeply than others into its mysterious and important passage of the New uses, to give us something more to Testament, which has been equally

passed over in silence by all the Centuries, I mean the twentieth Greek and Latin Fathers, I will ac- yerse, “ This is the true God, and quiesce in the reasonableness of ad- eternal life.” This passage was of mitting the whole verse into the great importance in the many consacred Canon." Your learned cor- troversies respecting the Divinity of respondent assumes here what cannot Christ during the second and third be granted, that all the Greek and Centuries, and yet it was never Latin Fathers have passed over the 'quoted by any of the Ante-Nicene verse in silence. Even the Greek Fathers. Fathers are not without authorities If the Greek text of 1 John v. 7. in favour of the verse; and the was never quoted by any Greek Latin Fathers have several express Father, (which cannot be admitted,) citations of it. But waving this the Latin version was never objected objection to the Rector's premises, to by any Greek or Latin heretic, there is an authentic and very im- nor by the Greek Church in all her portant passage in the same chapter long.continued disputes with the with the controverted verse, which Latin Church. has been more than equally passed

T.M. over in silence by all the Greek and Feb. 14. Latin Fathers of the first three

BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

(Continued.) Isaiah xxi. 7.

ites the children of Israel made them the « And be saw a chariot with a couples

dens which are in the mountains, and caves of horsemen, a chariot of asses, and a

and strong holds." chariot of camels."

1 Sam. xiii. 6. Amongst the Nagay Tartars in “ When the men of Israel saw that they the Crimea, we saw a great many were in a straight, then the people did buffaloes and camels, several of the hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, latter we met drawing, in their two and in rocks, and in high places, and in wheeled carts, a service for which I pits should think them not so well adapt. In returning to Achmetchet we ed as for bearing burdens; and al- stopped to water our horses in the though a chariot of camels is men- steppes, (or plains) where the dwelltioned by Isaiah, I do not remember ings were entirely subterranean. having heard of such a practice Not a house was to be seen; but elsewhere. Rer. R. Heber's Note there were some holes as entrances on Clarke's Travels in the Crimea, in tlre ground, through one of which p. 576.

we descended to a cave, rendered Hebrews xi. 38.

almost suffocating by the heat of a # of whom the world was not worthy,

stove for dressing the victuals of its they wandered in deserts, and in mnoun- poor owners. The walls, floor, and tains, and in dens, and in caves of the roof, were all of the natural soil. earth."

Clarke's Travels.
Judges vi, 2.

See also an account of the cau And the band of Midian prevailed verns of Inkerman by the same auagainst Israel, and because of the Midian- thor, p. 491 ; but these, from their construction, appear to have been they never come, and which, therethe work of a later period than the fore, are the refuge of the cattle. above. The bisliop represented The name of the insect is, in Arabic, them as having been the retreats of zomb; and Providence, it would Christians in the earliest ages. seem, from the beginping had fixed

The following description of a its habitation to one species of soil, subterranean village may be found being a black fat earth ; extraordi. in Parson's Travels in Asia and Darily fruitful as it was, it seems, Africa, p. 38.

from the first, to have given a law At eleven we arrived on the plain, to the settlement of the country. It and a better road, but being exces- prohibited absolutely those inbabitsively hot, and seeing a village with ants of the fat earth, called mazaga, many low houses, or rather huts, domiciled in caves and mountains, we struck out of our path, and from enjoying the help or labour of arrived there about noon; when, any beasts of carriage. It deprived instead of houses, we found them to them of their flesh and milk for food, be caverns dug in the earth, and and gave rise to another pation vaulted, with only the upper part whose manners were just the reverse appearing above ground. The peo- of the first. These were the shepple received us kindly; both men herds, leading a wandering life, and and horses descended into one of preserving their immense herds of the largest of them, and immediately cattle, by conducting them into the felt such a comfortable coolness as sands beyond the limits of the black was extremely delightful. . The ca. earth, and bringing them back again vern which we were now in was when the danger from the insect more than one hundred feet in length was over. For as soon as this and near forty wide, entirely vaulted plague appears, and their buzzing the whole way, and very lofty; it is heard, all the cattle forsake their was divided into apartments on each food, and run wildly about the side, in some of which were grain, plain, till they die worn out with in others flour, in others oil, all in fatigue, bunger, and thirst. Shaw's very large jars, buried half-way in Zoology, vol. viii. p. 368. from the earth; in oiber divisions were Bruce's Travels, vol. i. p. 388. vol. roosts for poultry, in others cows v. p. 188. were kept, in some goats and sheep, In Ethiopia, above Egypt, near and some served as places to sleep to the river Asa, inhabit a people in; the middle part was kept clear called Rizophages, who, though lic as a passage to each room, or divi- ving in plenty and constant peace sion.

with one another, yet are miserably Isaiah vii. 18, 19.

infested, and often fallen upon by “ And it shall come to pass in that day,

the lions that abound in those parts. that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is For the air being scorching hot. in the utterniost part of the rivers of they come out of the desert into the Egypt. And they shall come, and shall country of the Rizophages, both for rest all of them in the desolate vallies, and shelter from the heat and to hunt in the holes of the rocks, and upon all the lesser beasts for prey: so that thorns, and opon all bashes.”

when the Ethiopians come out of By the expression of resting in the marshes they are torn in pieces the desolate vallies, &c. Mr. Bruce by these ereatures. And the whole understauds the Prophet to mean, nation would certainly be utterly that they shall cut off from the cat. destroyed, if Providence had not tle their usual retreat to the desert, provided a remedy in this case : by taking possession of those placesfor about the beginning of the dog and meeting them where ordinarily days, when there is not the least wind, there comes forth such a mul- their biting and stinging, and partly titude of goats, larger than those terrified with their humming and that are commonly seen, that the buzzing, run far away out of the inhabitants are forced to fly into country. Diod. Sic. b. 3. c. 2. the marshes, and so avoid them; p. 94. and the lions, partly tormented by

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.

one occasion he bitterly regrets his REMARKS ON THE LIFE OF

pride, and selfishness, and party spi. BRAJNERD.

rit in times past, while he attempted to David Brainerd was sent, A.D. promote the cause of God, and says 1745, by the Scotch Society for he saw his desert of hell upon this propagating Christian Knowledge, account; a reflection which may be as a Missionary to convert the In- recommended to some of the condians of New Jersey and Pennsylva- troversial writers of his party. On nia ; he was a rigid Calvinist, and another occasion he heard some his Memoirs were published by meo talking freely about secular Jonathan Edwards, President of the affairs on a Sunday, and his remark College there, and the great cham- is, “Oh I thought what a hell it pion of Calvinism: the only doctrine, would be to live with such men to however, of that school conspicuous eternity." His journal very much in this work, is the incorrigible de resembles Wesley's, especially in the pravity of human nature, and the effects he attributes to his discourses, utter exclusion of all hope of Salva- and in belief of a special Providence, tion, except by the mere influences sometimes interposing in his behalf. of grace; these opinions tincture his As Wesley intimates that he was whole life with their sombre colour- once miraculously protected from a ing, and added to a temperament shower of rain, when he was preach. singularly melancholic produce such ing in the open air, so Brainerd an agitation of inind as may well seems to have imagined, that three suggest a suspicion of mania. In deer were brought by the hand of his private journal, where the sen- God to be shot by his Indians, that sations of almost every day are mi- they might not be dispersed in quest nutely recorded, he speaks continue of food, and lose the benefit of his ally of the desperate wickedness of instructions. The superstitious tenhis heart, the distressing sense of dency of his mind cannot well be bis unspeakable depravity, his ex. doubted, when speaking of some ceeding vileness, sinfulness, impurity Indian conjurors, he says, “ he sat at and corruption : who would guess the distance of about 30 feet from from these confessions, that he was them, undiscovered, with his Bible a man of most exemplary life and in his hand, resolving if possible, to extraordinary piety? but it was une spoil their sport, and prevent their fortunately part of his religion to receiving any answers from the inuse the slang terms of Calvin's fernal world." p. 349. The influSchool, and therefore the reader is ence of an invisible and supernatural tired to death with his experiences power was indeed so familiar to his and convictions of sin and wrestlings thoughts, and the persuasion of it in prayer; the singular and some- so continually predominant in his times amiable tenderness of his con- mind, that in every incident he was science is frequently exemplified; on apt to discover some mysterious agency, just as a coward in the dark the shock of this surprising opera. apprehends danger in every object. tion. Old men and women, who The influence of the Holy Spirit, had been drunken wretches for slowly as it developes its character many years, and some little children to less sanguine eyes, was repeatedly not more than six or seven years of visible to his optics, in the instan- age, appeared in distress about their taneous effects it produced upon the souls, as well as persons of middle nerves of his auditors: it must be age; and it was apparent that these confessed, however, it is the more children, some of them at least, necessary to look for some super- were not merely frighted with seeing natural cause of the tears, and sobs, the general concern, but were made and groans, which are plentifully sensible of their danger, the badness sprinkled up and down his journal, of their hearts, and their misery since no‘natural cause can well be without Christ." In one instance, assigned; there was no room for he seems himself a good deal surany pathetic appeals to the heart, prised, and unable to account for or impassioned bursts of eloquence the emotions of his converts, excited in his preaching; there could be no as they were without any adequate working upon the passions or ex- or rational cause; but the influence citement of the feelings; for every of the Spirit is a salvo for every sentence he uttered, every doctrine thing; Deus ecce Deus. p. 335. he propounded, was to be translated “While I was conversing, near night, into the Indian tongue, by a man with two or three of the awakened who scarcely understood the sub- persons, a divine influence seemed ject, and whose errors could not be to attend what was spoken to them, corrected. The facts may be true, in a powerful manner; they cried at least in part; for the narrator out in anguish of soul, although I was unquestionably a conscientious spake not a word of terror; but on man; but the explanation is pro- the contrary, set before them the bably to be found in that direction fulness, and all-sufficiency of Christ's of Horace, Si vis me flere, dolendum merits, and his willingness to save est primum ipsi tibi, to see any one all that come to him: their cry was in great distress of mind, is suffi- soon heard by others, who, though cient to draw tears from the tender scattered before, immediately ga. hearted ; at all events it is plain that thered round; I then proceeded in he deceived himself, and though the the same strain of Gospel invitation, observations of a good man's mind till they were all melted into tears are not fit subjects for ridicule, yet and cries, except two or three, and it is impossible not to smile at the seemed in the greatest distress to seriousness, with which he transfers secure an interest in the great Rehis own deep convictions and deemer.” His was the persuasion, mournings, to infants not more than common to that sect, that without a six or seven years old. “I stood total change of heart operated sponamazed,” says he, p. 332. “ at the taneously by the immediate power influence which seized the audience of God, without any reference to almost universally, and could com- human agency, or the will of the pare it to nothing more aptly, than recipient, no one can be a true the irresistible force of a migbty Christian; and also, that sensible torrent or swelling deluge, that with notices of that change are impressed its insupportable weight and pres. upon the feelings of each convert: sure, bears down and sweeps before but Mr. Brainerd's eagerness carried it, whatever is in its way. Almost him a step farther, and being at a all persons, of all ages, were bowed loss how to reason upon a subject, down with concern together, and from which reason was excluded, scarcely one was able to withstand he assumed, as nine out of ten in

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