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territory, and celebrate their pecu-, writers have given a more magnifiliar worship in Canterbury.. cent account. Austin is represent
Thither they immediately repair- ed as baptizing no less than ten ed, and passed their time, accord- thousand of his converts during the ing to Bede, in imitation of the Christmas which followed his arrival; primitive and apostolic manners, and the entire dominions of Ethelnamely, in frequent prayers, watch- bert, the most powerful Saxon ings, and fastings; preaching to all monarch of his day, were speedily who would listen to them, and re. induced to embrace the religion of nouncing the good things of this the Cross. These narratives, howworld. The innocence of their ever, are accompanied with several lives, and the encouraging nature suspicious circumstances, of which of their doctrine, procured them Bede's silence is not the least; and several converts. They celebrated it is not obvious that their truth their worship in an ancient church would redound to the credit of St. dedicated to St. Martin, the ruins Austin, as the soundness of so of which had survived the invasion rapid and general a conversion may of the Saxons. It had been pre- be reasonably called in question *. viously used by the attendants of But at all events it is certain that queen Bertha, and the missionaries Gregory was highly delighted with commenced a course of regular his missionary's success : he wrote church services, chanting, praying, preaching, and celebrating mass
Jews, and recommended that they should and baptisin. The conversion of
ersion or be bribed as a better method of convertking Ethelbert soon followed, and ing them. The passage in Gregory's Letter procured them a greater liberty of to king Ethelbert, upon which Hume rests building or restoring churches, and his accusation, is this: . of preaching wheresoever they
" Et ideo gloriose fili, eam quam accepleased.
pisti divinitus gratiam, solicità mente cus
todi. Christianam fidem Bede ascribes his conversion to
in populis tibi
subditis extendere festina, zelum rectitudi the pious lives of the missionaries,
nis tuæ in eorum conversione multiplica, and to their consolatory promises, idololorum cultus insequere, fanorum ædithe truth of which was confirmed ficia everte, subditorum mores et magna, by a great number of miracles ; vitæ munditiâ, exhortando, terrendo, blanbut it is remarkable that not one of diendo, corrigendo, et boni operis exempla these miracles is described, or even
monstrando ædifica; ut illum retributorem
invenias in cælo, cujus nomen atque cogspecified, and that he gives us no
nitionem dilataveris in terrâ." account of the doctrines they taught
Hume gives the following account of or the arguments they employed. this passage : “ He exhorted bim to display He contents himself with saying bis zeal in the conversion of his subjects, that the conversion of the natives to exert rigour against the worship of was facilitated by the example of idols, and to build up the good work of their king, who encouraged his boliness by every expedient of exhortation,
terror, blandisbment, or correction." subjects to be baptized. but had
• The baptism of Austin's ten thonsand learnt from Austin that Christ's was
was converts is said to have taken place in the a voluntary service, and that force river Swale; and Fox remarks, that fonts ought not to be employed in the were not yet invented; but the good old promotion of religion *. Other Puritan forgot that Bede bad told another
story, that the authors who speak of the
Swale baptism are not agreed as to whe. Several writers, of whom Hume is ther that river was in Kent or Northummost conspicuous, have attempted to throw berland, and that Gregory's letter to the discredit upon this fact, and to contrast it patriarch of Constantinople, in which the with the declarations of St. Austin's mas- circumstance is related, is inconsistent ter; bat Gregory was not of an intolerant with the documents produced by Bede.teipper, le forbade the persecution of the See Collier, vol. i. p. 68.
him repeated letters of congratula. archiepiscopal sees he fixes at Lontion and advice, declared him arch. don and York, and gives twelve bishop of the whole country; sent suffragans to each. The first archhim a pall from St. Peter's as a bishop of York was to be subject token of his dignity, and recom- to St. Austin, but after his death mended him in the strongest terms that subjection was entirely to to the protection of Ethelbert. cease, and the archbishops to take Bede has preserved the Pope's an- precedence according to the date swers to a set of questions which of their respective consecrations. had been sent to him by St. Austin. About the same time Austin was Many of them are levitical rather cautioned against boasting of his than theological, and they forbid us virtues, his miracles, and his sucto entertain a very favourable opi. cess, and reminded that our Lord's nion of the learning or wisdom of disciples were told not to rejoice the English apostle. Nevertheless because the devils were subject to they make us acquainted with seve- them, but because their names ral peculiar circumstances in the were written in heaven. Gregory primitive Saxon church. Austin is therefore takes it for granted that told that the church property ought miracles were wrought by St. Austin; to be divided into four parts : one yet it is strange that the only direct for the bishop, one for the clergy, evidence of this fact should be conone for the poor, and one for re- tained in an epistle which reflects pairing churches. But as he and so much upon his humility. But his companions were monks, they perhaps the most remarkable of are reminded of the primitive cus. Gregory's letters is that which he tom, of having all things in common, addressed to Melitus, whom he sent
The Saxons were not restricted to to the assistance of Austin. He the use of the Roman missal, but directs him to inform the latter, Austin is left at liberty to select that the temples of idols in England, what lie thought best, from the are by no means to be destroyed ; Roman, the Gallican, or any other but the idols themselves to be service* : he is permitted, from the broken in pieces, holy water to be necessity of the case, to consecrate sprinkled through the temples, al. bishops, without the assistance of tars to be constructed, and relics any other of the episcopal order; which had been sent from Rome for is admonished to claim no authority that purpose, placed therein ; that over the bishops of Gaul, but is the people may assemble at their "permitted to extend his jurisdiction accustomed places of worship, and over all the British bishops, that more easily concur in the new relithe unlearned may be taught, the gion. He adds, that as oxen were weak be strengthened, and the per- formerly sacrified to devils, that verse corrected.
custom must be changed; but that In a subsequent communication on the day of the dedication of the Gregory gives his instructions for church, or the birth-day of the the establishment of two archbi- martyr whose relics it contained, shops and twenty-four bishops. The tents may be pitched round the
- churches, and solemn religious wor* This fact shows that liturgies were ship may be celebrated : that thanks then in use, and the attention which was may be given to God for the anisoon after paid to chanting " is enough,” mals that he has provided, and that says Comber, “ to prove they then prayed while something is preserved for by certain prescribed forms, it being impossible to set arbitrary or extempore woung dengat, the people may
ne bodily delight, the people may yield prayers to notes; which, though some more readily to spiritual joy. King have affirmed liable to be canted, yet none
Ethelbert is also told that the end thought them capable to be chanted." of the world is at hand.
Austin founded a monastery at demands. Those demands were, that Canterbury, and Ethelbert, by his they should celebrate Easter accordpersuasion, built a new church, and ing to the Roman cycle, administer dedicated it to the Apostles Peter baptism according to the rites of the and Paul. He ordained two bi. Roman church, and preach the word shops, Melitus, already mentioned, of God to the English. Their other and Justus, placing the latter at customs, though differing in many Rochester, in the territory of king respects from the whole Church, he Etbelbert, and the former at Lon- was willing to bear. They refused don, which was then the capital of to assent to these terms, declared the kingdom of Essex. The king they would not receive him for their of Essex was nephew to Ethelbert, archbishop, and added, that they and followed his example by embra- were subject to an archbishop of cing Christianity, and laid the foun their own. Austin concluded the dation of the cathedral of St. Paul's. conference by exclaiming, that if
About the same time, with the they were unwilling to be at peace assistance of Ethelbert, St. Austin with their brethren, they might exheld a conference with some bishops pect war from their enemies : a of the British Church. They met prediction said to have been fulfilled in Worcestershire, on the coufines a short time after his death, by the of Wales, and he endeavoured to slaughter of the monks of Bangor persuade them to conform to his during a battle between the British customs, and to make an united and Saxons. effort for the conversion of the Austin died about the year 605, beathen. A long disputation en- having appointed Laurentius his sued, but neither the exhortations, successor. His character is thus the increpations, nor even the mira. summed up by Fuller. “ He found cles of the Apostle, were sufficient here a plain religion (simplicity is to procure their consent to his pro- the badge of antiquity) practised position. They asked time to re- by the Britons, living some of them Hect upon what they had beard and in the contempt, and many more seen. A second synod was con- in the ignorance, of worldly vanivened, at which seven British bi- ties, in a barren country. And shops and many other learned men surely piety is most healthful in appeared: the principal person was those places where it can least surDinooth, abboi of Bangor, a monas- feit of earthly pleasures. He brought tery near Chester, said to contain in a religion spun with a coarser two thousand monks. The bishops thread though garded with a finer had previously consulted a wise and trimming, made luscious to the holy hermit on the propriety of senses with pleasing ceremonies ; so granting Austin's request. He sug- that many, who could not judge of gested the following stratagem, that the goodnesse, were courted with Austin and his companions should the gaudinesse thereof. Indeed, be allowed to arrive first at the the Papists brag, that he was the place of meeting, and that the Bri- apostle of the English ; but not one tish bishops coming in afterwards in the style of St. Paul, neither should judge of his character by from man nor by man, but by Jesus the manner in which they were re- Christ; being only a derivative ceived. Austin had taken his seat apostle, sent by the second hand; before the bishops appeared, and in which sense, also, he was not our did not rise to salute them. Their sole apostle, though he first put in inference was, that he was proud his sickle, others reaped down more and hanghty, that the object of his of the English harvest, propagating coming was temporal power, and the Gospel farther, as shall appear that they ought not to yield to his hereafter. But because the beginnings of things are of greatest con. sending Augustine, Augustine's for. sequence, we commend his paines, wardnesse in preaching here; but condemn his pride, allow his life, above all, let us blesse God's exapprove his learning, admire his ceeding great favour, that that doc. miracles, admit the foundation of trine which Augustine planted here bis doctrine, Jesus Christ, but re- but impure, and his successors made fuse the hay and stubble he built worse with watering, is since, by thereupon. We are indebted to the happy Reformation, cleared and God his goodnesse in moving Gre- refined to the purity of the Scrip. gory, Gregorie's carefulnesse in tures.”
GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMI- II. The management of the said
NARY IN NORTH AMERICA. Seminary shall be vested in a board In our Number for March 1821. of trustees, who shall have puwer to we gave an account of the institu- constitute professorships, and to tion of a Theological Seminary at appoint the professors, and to preNew York, which promised to be scribe the course of study in the reof most essential service to the in. spective schools, aud to make rules terests of Christianity in the United and regulations and statutes for the States of America. We are happy government
government thereof; and generally to have it in our power now to state
te to take such measures as they may that the plan has been materially
deem necessary to its prosperity; enlarged." Iu a Special General provided, that such rules and reguConvention of the Protestant Epis: lations, and course of study, and copal Church which was held at measures be not repugnant to the Philadelphia, in the month of Octo- constitution and canons of the ber 1821, it was resolved to unite
church, and to the course of study the General Theological Seminary
for candidates for orders' which is of the Protestant Episcopal Church
or may be established by the house in the United States of America,
of bishops. The bishops in their heretofore established by the Con
individual and collective capacity, vention with the Seminary at New
shall be visitors of the seminary, York : and the following constitue and see that the course of instruction was unanimously agreed upon.
tion and discipline be conducted
agreeably to the foregoing proConstitution of the General Theolo vision. The trustees shall make re.
gical Seminary of the Protestant port to every general convention of Episcopal Church in the United
their proceedings, and of the state of States of America.
the seminary.' I. The Theological Seminary of III. The board of trustees shall the Protestant Episcopal church in be permanently constituted as folthe United States of America, shall lows:—The bishops of the church be permanently established in the shall be ex-officio members of the state of New York. The trustees board. Every diocese shall be en. of the said seminary shall have titled to one trustee, and one ad. power, from time to time, to esta- tional trustee for every eight clergy. blish one or more branch schools in men in the same ; and to one ad. the state of New York, or elsewhere, ditional trustee for every two thouto be under the superintendance and sand dollars of monies in any way control of the said trustees.
given or contributed in the same to
the funds of the seminary, until the at the requisition of a majority of the sum amounts to ten thousand dol. bishops. lars; and one additional trustee for y . The professors of the General every ten thousand dollars of con- Theological Seminary heretofore estributions and donations, as afore- tablished by the General Convensaid, exceeding that sum. The tion, and the professors in the trustees shall be resident in the Theological Seminary in the diodiocesses for which they are ap- cese of New York, shall be propointed. They shall be nominated fessors in the General Theological by the diocesan conventions respec. Seminary hereby established in that tively, to every stated general con- diocess. vention, who may confirm or reject The board of trustees shall have such nominations. The senior bi- power to remove professors and shop present shall preside at every other officers; but no professor shall meeting of the board of trustees; be removed from office, except at à and whenever demanded by a ma. special meeting of the board called jority of the bishops present, or a to consider the same; nor unless majority of the clerical and lay notice of an intended motion for trustees present, the concurrence of such removal, and of the grounds a majority of the bishops present, thereof shall have been given at a and a majority of clerical and lay previous meeting of the board. The trustees present, shall be necessary nomination of professors shall be to any act of the board. Eleven made at one meeting of the board trustees shall constitute a quorum. of trustees, and acted upon at a The trustees shall continue in of- subsequent meeting; due notice fice until their successors are ap- being given of the object of the said pointed. In the interval between meeting to every member of the the stated meetings of the general board. convention, the board shall have VI. The funds and other property power to supply all vacancies, from and claims to funds or property of The diocesses respectively in which the General Theological Seminary, they may have occurred.
heretofore established by the Geneiv. For the present, and until the ral Convention, shall be vested in, next stated general convention, the and transferred to the General Seboard of trustees shall consist of minary hereby established, as soon the bishops of the church, and of as an act of the board of managers the twenty-four trustees of the ge- of the Protestant Episcopal Theoloneral Theological Seminary, here- gical Education Society, in the tofore established by the General state of New York, shall vest in and Convention, and of fourteen trustees transfer to the same Seminary, all chosen by the managers of the Protheir funds, and other property and testant Episcopal Theological Edu- claims to funds and property-and cation Society in the state of New all engagements and responsibilities York. These trustees shall exer- entered into, or assumed by either cise the powers of the permanent of the said institutions, for the pur. board, as detailed in the foregoing pose of their foundation, consistent article, and agreeably to the pro. with the other provisions of this visions thereof.
constitution, shall be considered as The board of trustees shall al. binding upon the General Seminary, ways meet in the diocess where the so established within the state of seminary is established, at such New York. stated periods as they may deter- VII. This constitution shall be mine; and special meetings may be unalterable, except by a concurrent called by the bishop of the said vote of the board of trustees, and of diocess, and shall be called by him the General Convention.