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affirming of the forger of the two Though he has not retracted the epistles of Hyginus and Joannes II. offensive, and, as I think, very unthat he has thrust out the term san justifiable terms, I am perfectly conguis to make way for that of caro, tent to understand his concession in agreeably to St. Austin. It is not his own sense of it, namely, “ If the sanguis but spiritus, which he advocates of the verse can point out has excluded ; thus restricting the any one authentic and important earthly witnesses, water, blood, and passage of the New Testament, flesh, to the signs of the two sacra. which had been equally passed over ments. I beg likewise to correct in silence by all the Greek and another mistake in my first letter, Latin Fathers, he would admit the in erroneously stating of my copy reasonableness of allowing the verse of the Armenian version, that it to remain in the sacred Canon." had been edited by Lucas, instead I have produced two authentic and of saying, under the episcopate or important passages (1 John v, 20, during the primacy of Lucas, the and 1 Tim. iii. 16.) passed over in metropolitan, patriarch, or general silence by all the Greek and Latin of the Armenians; though there Fathers of the first three Centuries. can be little doubt, however, of its These passages are adduced by the having been edited with bis concur- Fathers of the fourth and fifth Cenrence and approbation, if not at turies, as testimonies to the Divinity his express direction. In some few of Christ. But how does Mr. Oxlee places, too, the sense of my lan- evade the only right consequence of guage has been injured by typogra- his concession ? By opposing his phical errors ; such as edition for opinion of those passages to the citation ; uncollected for uncollated; judgment of the ancient Fathers, then for that ; quarternity for qua. and demonstrating, as he thinks, ternity, &c.; unavoidable in a case that they do not strictly and excluwhere the author himself is not at sively apply to the Divinity of hand to correct the proof sheets. Christ. Mr. Oxlee's opinion of the I beg to remain,

passages is nothing to the present Your obedient serrant, purpose. They were applied to the

JOHN OXLEE. Divinity of Christ by the Fathers of Stonegrove,

the fourth and fifth Centuries, and June 8th, 1822.

yet were wholly passed over in si.

lence by the Fathers of the first To the Editor of the Remembrancer. three centuries. It follows there. SIR,

fore, from Mr. Oxlee's concesMR. OXLEE appears to be dis. sion, that it is " reasonable to do, appointed that he has not been what the Church of England has attacked by the “nest of wasps" done, in allowing 1 John v. 7. to which he mentions in his last letter. remain in the sacred Canon.” But Instead of crushing the wliole swarm, if it be reasonable to retain the as he confidently expected, he will passage, it is most unreasonable to find sufficient employment in an- call it " a foul and scandalous interswering the only individual of the polation.” Such language (I repeat) swarm that has attacked him. My very ill becomes any Clergyman of only object was to afford him an the Church of England to apply to opportunity of retracting the harsh a passage, which was admitted to language, which he had used res- be genuine by Bishop Pearson, and pecting the controverted verse of defended, as such, by Selden, HamSt. Johu, and which, as I conceive, mond, Stillingfleet, Bull, Mill, &e. very ill becomes any Clergyman of &c. the Church to apply to the autho

T. M. rized Version of the Scriptures. June 17.


TICAL HISTORY OF GREAT dence of our primitive Churches, BRITAIN.

he answers, that they were guilty of No. VII.

schism, because they were disobeThe submission of the Saxon Church dient to Christ's vicar upon earth. to the usurped authority of the Thus he makes out his case by a Pope is an event which might be reference to the Pope's authority, announced in few words. But the which is the thing that we contro. effects which it produced upon the vert, and that he undertakes to escivil and religious state of Britain tablish. He cannot shew that the forbid us to dismiss the subject British Christians renounced any hastily; and the statements and article of the Christian faith. They deductions of party writers bave in. were guilty of no crime save that volved the question in an obscurity, of being governed by their own which is not easily dispelled. Po archbishops and bishops : when pish authors, domestic as well as their kingdom was separated from foreign, higb-churchmen who con the Roman Empire, their Church tend that the Church should be ceased to acknowledge the Roman completely independent of the state, Patriarch: and there is no more and prerogative lawyers who set no pretence for saying that they were bounds to the Ecclesiastical autho- schismatics than for denying their rity of the crown, have laid claim, conversion, or even their existence, with one voice, to the support of Nor is the actual independence of Saxon history, and have succeeded the Britons the only point which in perplexing its simple narrative, the Pope's advocates have been The facts of the case are irre compelled to concede.. Gregory concileable with all these systems; the Great, under whose auspices and their respective advocates are Austin landed in Kent, protested at least entitled to the merit of most indignantly against the title of having refuted one another. A universal Bishop, which had been brief review of the events by which assumed by his rival the Patriarch our ancestors were gradually de. of Constantinople; and pronounced prived of their ecclesiastical inde- it not merely improper, but antipendence, will suffice to set the christian, and impious. Of course, question in a proper light.

therefore, this Pope (the first who The most courageous asserters of subscribed himself a servant of serthe Pope's supremacy have not vants,) could lay no direct claiin to ventured to maintain that he had a paramount authority over the any actual authority in Britain du- British or Saxon Christians. And ring the age which preceded the the interview between Austin and arrival of St. Austin. Baronius the Britons which has been forand his followers admit that the merly described, did not produce an British, Welsh, Scotch, and Irish open but an implied assertion of Christians were without the pale of power *.. the Church of Rome; but he contends that this separation amounted The real character and merits of Ans. to schism. His proof therefore of tin have been already summed up in the the universality of the Pope's power

eloquent words of Fuller. Olher histoinvolves an assumption of the very

rians have been less iinpartial. Arch.

bishop Parker is inclined to question the point in dispute. He contends that

fact of his having made any material addi. the Pope was supreme, not only de tion to the Christian Church; and denies jure, but also de facto. When met that he is even said to have preached the

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The new converts, as might have ter. Diuma, a Scot, was the first been expected, manifested great Bishop of that kingdom, and his deference and respect for the Pope, bishoprick was fixed at Lichfield. by whose instrumentality they had Three-fourths of the Saxon territobeen called out of darkness into ries are thus proved to have derived light. But even by them his direc- their Christianity from Churches tions were not punctually obeyed. who professed no obedience to Gregory desired, that the Saxon Rome. And at the date of Theo. territory should be divided into two dore's advancement to the archprovinces, of which the Metropoli- bisboprick of Canterbury, viz. in fans were to be fixed at London and the year 668, Popery was almost York, and each was to have twelve confined to the kingdom of Kent. suffragan Bishops. In direct dis- In every other part of the country obedience to this ordinance, the such establishments were adopted southern Archiepiscopal chair was as best suited each particular case. fixed at Canterbury, the possessor No kingdom had at first more than of wbich see became Primate, not one see; the Bishop was indepenmerely of his own province, but of dent, and owned po Metropolitan; all England. The northern Arch- and with the advice of their clergy bishoprick was in like manner re- and people, the princes founded, or moved, for a time, from York to removed, or divided episcopal sees, Lindisfarne, and never extended its as seemed most advantageous to the suav over twelve dinceses. This is interests of religion. This practice a plain and undisputed instance of extended even to districts which bad non-compliance with the commands been converted by missionaries from of Rome. The alterations in Gre- Rome. The West-Saxons received gory's scheme may have proceeded Christianity from Birinus, whose either from ecclesiastical or civil see was fixed at Dorchester ; but authority ; but they clearly esta. after his death the king divided the blish the fact of domestic interfe. West-Saxon territory into the two rence, and are fatal to all claims of bishopricks of Dorchester and Wina foreign jurisdiction. . chester, and declared them both

The kingdom of Northumber- independent of any Metropolitan land, as was formerly shewn), re- whatsoever. ceived the Gospel froin the Scotch. In these dioceses, as well as in The East-Saxons, originally con- the kingdom of Kent, it is probable verted by Mellitus, relapsed into that the Romish rites prevailed ; Paganism, and were recovered by but in all the other Saxon provinces Chad, a Scot, with the support and we are certain, that a considerable encouragement of Oswy, king of portion of those rites were rejected. Northumberland. About the same There are good grounds for sup. time the Mercians were converted posing, that the Liturgies of the by missionaries from the same quar- İrish and Scotch were very different

from that which was established by Gospel. Antiquit. Brit. Eccles. p. 53. Pope Gregory, and introduced into This declaration is completely at variance England by St. Austin. The genewith Bede, I. 26. Joriin likewise in bis ral character of the ancient British Remarks, thinks proper to call Austin a Churches was plajper and less splensunctified ruffian, a most audacious and did than the fashion subsequently insolent monk. Fox writes in a better imported from Rome. The time of spirit; pointing ont and condemning the

celebrating Easter was different in pride of the Missionary, but admitting at the saile tiine that the Britons ought to

the two communions; and we have have assisted him in vis attempt to con

Austin's authority for believing, vert their Saxon invaders.

that there were many other points

of striking and important dissimi. fred had been previously disposed larity. It is impossible, therefore, to prefer the Romish to the Scotch to reflect upon this complete and communion, and Wilfrid not only sudden union without some feeling confirmed this prepossession, but of surprize, and the means by which succeeded, after some delay, in such an event was brought about, converting Oswy likewise. are worthy of attentive considera. For this purpose he availed himtion.

self of the old dispute, respecting In Eugland, as in all other un- the time of observing Easter. The civilized countries, every thing then Scotch thought, that it ought to be depended upon the qualifications kept on the first Sunday after the and talents of individuals. The thirteenth day of the equinoctial power of the kingdoms of Nor- moon. The feast, therefore, fell thumberland, Mercia, and Kent, occasionally upon the fourteenth, rose and sunk according to the from which the followers of this abilities of their respective kings, custom obtained the names of and the ecclesiastical community Quarto-decimans. The Latins, on was influenced by similar causes, the other hand, maintained that the The first Northumbrian Bishops, fourteenth day must be completed Aidan and Finan, were men of before Easter could be duly obsuperior merit; and during their served; and their feast was, therelives the advocates of the Pope fore, fixed upon the first Sunday were unable to overturn the form of after the fourteenth. This differworship which had been received ence produced much confusion in from the Scotch. But Colman, the the court of king Oswy, whose wife successor of Finan, was of an in- had been brought up in the Latin ferior character; and as the Roman Church, and followed the Latin party happened to be conducted by forms. And it happened, occaa leader of eminent ability, the cionally, that while one of them was contest was terminated in their celebrating the Easter festival, the

other was engaged in the austeriThis leader was Wilfrid, by birth ties of the Lent fast. Oswy there, an Englishman, and educated ori. fore, consented to call a synod upon ginally in Northumberland. But the subject, at which Wilfrid and his studies were afterwards prose- Colman played the principal parts, cuted in France, and at Rome, and Colman attended by Hilda, Abbess he returned to his native country, of Lindisfarne, and a large assem. in the prime of life, a devoted and bly of his clergy, appealed in de. most useful adherent of the Pope, fence of the Quarto-decimans, to the His history has been handed down practice of his wise and holy preto us, with unusual minuteness, by decessors, and asserted, that their Eddius, his friend and companion, practice was derived from St. John. in a work whicb has more internal Wilfrid, and Agilbert, Bishop of marks of authenticity and truth than the West-Saxons, denied the cor. any other of that date, and from rectness of this last fact, and mainwhich Bede's account of Wilfrid is tained that their cycle was adopted evidently and not very fairly abridged. by all the Churches throughout He was distinguished ou his return the world, and originated with St. to England by the sanctity of bis Peter, to whom the keys of heaven life, and the extent of his learning; were consigned. Oswy having been and he speedily formed and culti- told, that no such authority was vated a friendship with Alfred, given to the Scotch Saint, Columba, whose father, Oswy, king of Nor- exclaimed, “ Then I will observe thumberland, was the most power the practice of the door-keeper of ful Saxon: prince of his day. Als heaven, lest when I go and knock


there, he should not let me in." and having gained the friendship Thus terminated the famous synod and confidence of Wulfer, king of of Strenaeshalch or Whitby; the Mercia, the second person in the result, and probably the object, of heptarchy, he exercised his episco.. which was not merely the adoption pal functions throughout the extenof the Roman Easter, and the Ro. sive dominions of that prince; and man Tonsure, but the expulsion of seized the opportunity of a vacancy Colman from his bishoprick, and in the archbishoprick of Capterthe election of Wilfrid in his place, bury, to confer the same favour under the title of Bishop of York. upon Ethelbert, king of Kent. By Eddius and Bede agree in describ- these means Wilfrid's power and ing Colman's retreat as voluntary ; consequence were so much exbut their partiality to liis successor, i tended, that his opponents were and the subsequent events of the once more driven from the field. history may induce us to distrust Oswy was dead, and Alfred was his their report.

particular friend. Theodore, the By the exaltation of Wilfrid, his new Primate, gave all the influence real character was disclosed. He of his rank and learning to the refused to accept of consecration Popish cause; and in the course from any English Bishop, alleging, of a visitation which he held at that they were either Quarto.deci York, Ceadda was persuaded to mans and schismatics, or had de vacate that bishoprick, on condition rived their episcopal authority from that Wilfrid's ally, Wulfer, should those who had been so. He passed give him the bishoprick of Lich. over, therefore, into Gaul, and was field, a diocese which then com. consecrated with great splendour by prehended the greater part, if not, the Catholic Bishops of that .coun. the whole of the kingdom of Mer. try. But he had taken this step. cia. The advocates of Wilfrid, who with too little precaution, and dura was now reinstated in the see of ing his stay in Gaul, king Oswy. York, describe this event as a comyielded to the remonstrances of the plete victory ; but upou looking Scotch Christians, and Ceadda,ʻa into the particulars of Eddius's Scot, was installed Bishop of York. story, it turns out to be little more Eddius bears testimony to the ex. than a compromise, very cunningly emplary virtues of this new prelate; obtained by the wit of one Bishop but expressly attributed his eleva from the simplicity of another. tion to the machinations of the Wilfrid was now at the highest Quarto-decimans, and this circum. point in his career. His monasstance furnishes a clue to the re. teries of Ripon, and Hagulstad or verses by which the life of Wilfrid Hexham were rebuilt in the most is distinguished. He was engaged sumptuous style. His Churches were in a series of struggles in favour of adorned with marble pillars, cothe authority of the Pope. At lumns and porticos; the othiciating times he was successful, and was priests were robed in cloth of gold; rewarded with riches and honour; and endowments poured in upon at times the English triumphed over them from all quarters of the counhim, and he was disgraced and try. He obtained grants of all the banished..

Church-lands, which had been posWhen he returned from France, sessed by the British Clergy before and found bis see occupied by the Saxon conquest. This muniti. Ceadda, he retired for the space of cent gift was solemnly appounced three years to Ripon, where he had from the Altar at the dedication of founded and endowed a monastery, the Church at Ripon: the ceremony But be was unable to limit his am- was concluded by a splendid feast bition within such narrow bounds, which lasted three days: and Wil.

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