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hanc eandem carnem non sacro corpus de virginis carne sumpsisse.” Mariæ virginis corpore adsumptam Vigil. contr. Eutych. Lib. III. ad sed de cælo dicat (juxta infandum init. Valentini et Marcionis errorem) The substance of these extracts, fuisse deductam ; ita pertinaciter and the inferences deducible from • Verbum carnem' adserens ' fac- them, were submitted to the reader tum,' ut per virginem ac si aqua at the close of my first letter. After per fistulam transisse videatur, non adducing testimonies thus full, ex. tamen ut de virgine aliquid quod plicit, and apposite, I should deem nostri sit generis adsumpsisse cre. it an abuse of time, to waste andatur; optimum duxi hanc impie- other word on a controversy, which tatem veritatis assertione destruere has been uselessly protracted. ..... maxime quod multum ad

I have the honour to be, utriusque naturæ confessionis veri

&c. &c. tatem proficiat divinis approbare

FRED, NOLAN. testimoniis, Filium Dei humanum June 18, 1822.


TICAL HISTORY OF GREAT was sent forward on his road to BRITAIN.

Rome, with every token of esteem No. VIII.

and friendship. WILFRID's journey to Rome was

Coenwald, an emissary of Arch

bishop Theodore, had reached Rome not deficient in adventures. In

before Wilfrid, and Pope Agatho stead of taking the direct road, he

had been made acquainted with the went round by Friesland, in order to avoid the snares which had been

nature of the dispute. The Pope

assembled a synod containing more laid for him by his enemies; and into which another traveller of a

than fifty bishops and priests, and

said that he wished them to enquire name nearly similar to his own,

into the dissension which had sprung Wulfrid, Bishop of Lichfield, fell.

up in the British Church. Two of The Frieslanders had not yet been

his bishops observed, that by his converted to Christianity, but Wil

own orders they had already perused frid preached to them with so much

the accounts transmitted by Theosuccess, that nearly all the chief

dore, as well as listened to his mesmen, and many thousands of the

sengers and to Wilfrid, who appealed common people were baptised.

against his decision. They found Theodoric, a king of the Franks,

that, according to the strict letter offered the Frieslanders a consider

of the Canons *, Wilfrid had not been able sum of money, if they would

'convicted of any crime, and theresend Wilfrid to him, either dead or alive. The proposal was rejected

fore had not been canonically de

posed : nor were his accusers willing with indignation, and Wilfrid pro.

to give evidence of any wickedness ceded on his journey in the ensuing

which merited degradation, On the spring. From Dagobert, another king of the Franks, he experienced

“Neque secundum sanctorun Canovery friendly treatment. The bishop- mum subtilitatem convictum de aliquibus rick of Stra»bourg was offered to facinoribus, et ideo non canonice dejectum him, if he would continue in that reperinius.” Eddius. xxix.

contrary, he had not seditiously cree in the most insolent manner, witbstood the power by which he and * even proceeded so far as to was oppressed, but bad humbly ap. say that it had been obtained by pealed to the Pope-- to the authority bribery. Wilfrid was thrown into of whose Apostleship it properly prison by the king, with the consent belonged to determine this question. and approbation of the bishops in Wilfrid himself was then admitted, possession of his diocese. The and presented a petition which tal. monarch and his courtiers did not lies most suspiciously with the pre- conceal their indignation : the friends ceding speech. He dwells upon his of the prisoner were refused all uncanonical deposition : states that access to him ; the queen plundered Theodore and other bishops invaded him of his reliques, he was loaded his See, and intruded into it three with chains, and placed for nine bishops, not canonically promoted : months in solitary confinement. At that he made no tumultuous resist. last the queen fell ill, and an abbess ance or opposition, but repaired at having persuaded the king that her once to the Apostolic See-that he sickness was sent as a punishment was now ready to submit, with all for the ill treatment of Wilfrid, he humility, to its decision, hoping that was set at liberty, and departed into it would perceive that he had been Mercia. Here Berthwald, King unjustly deprived-but at the same Ethelred's nephew, offered him an time willing to consent to a division asylum ; and a monastery was foundof his diocese, if the present bishops ed forth with. But the king was in were expelled and others regularly alliance with Ecgfrid, and insisted appointed in their stead. This pe- upon the immediate departure of tition was most favourably received, the banished bishop. He repaired and Wilfrid was especially commen- therefore to the West-Saxons; but ded by the Pope for seeking the hence also he was speedily driven canonical assistance of the succes- by the power and interest of his sor of St. Peter. The Synod re- enemies, and the territory of the solved aud decreed that Wilfrid should be restored to his bishoprick; Mr. Lingard, Anglo-Saxon Church, but that his diocese should be divi. p. 488, gives a most uncandid account of ded into three parts, and two new this affair: omitting the first part of Elbishops regularly elected and con. dins's sentence, and asserting that the only secrated for the service of the parts

ground of objection to the papal decree

was that "it had been purchased by mnoso divided-to the exclusion of those

ney." Eddius subsequently states that the who had been instituted during Wil king offered Wilfrid a part of his diocese, frid's absence. The oppugners of " si jussionibus el censuris ejus acquiesthis decree, were, if of episcopal or cere voluisset, et statuta canonica quæ ab priestly rank to be deprived, if lay- Apostolicà sede missa sunt eligeret denemen, or even kings, to be probibited gare vera esset.” Mr. L. quotes the last from partaking of the Sacrament of

clause of this sentence to convict Carte of the Lord's Supper.

falsehood, in saying that “the king offered

Wilfrid a part of his diocese if he would Wilfrid returned to England in

renounce the authority of the papal mantriumph, taking with him a fresh

date,” and declares the real condition to supply of reliques-carrying the be “ if he would acknowledge the papal decree as the symbol of bis victory, mandate to be a forgery.” This may be and shewing it to Eegfrid, king of the meaning of the word vera, although it Northumberland, to the princes, and to the nrinces and is irreconcileable with the preceding and

subsequent history. But to say that it to all the clergy of the neighbour.

was the sole condition, is an act of gross hood in Synod assembled. . The unfairness ; and Mr. Lingard's History is contents being disagreeable to some distigured by many similar impositious of the party, they rejected the de. upou his readers or upou himself,

South-Saxons, over which Ecgfrid's restored to him the Monastery and influence did not extend, was the endowments of Hexham. Subse. first place in which he found per quently he also gave him the bishop.. manent shelter. Ethelwald, king of rick of York, and Monastery of Rithe country, together with his court pon : and Wilfrid, after so great a and all his subjects, were still hea variety of fortune, was placed for thens, and Wilfrid's character rises a brief space in his original See. in our esteem when we find bim a se. But there was nothing stable or cond time preaching the Gospel to ido. stationary in the life of this extralaters, and converting them, in great ordinary man. He soon began to numbers, to the truth. The Monas. disagree with King Alfred, and after tery of Selsey was founded by Etbel. several quarrels and reconciliations wald, under the direction of his the Bishop was once more banished spiritual guide, and endowed with from the Northumbrian territory, the munificence which characterised Mercia, as on former occasions, otthe age. Shortly after, Wilfrid's fered him a place of refuge, and the advice and assistance were requested bishoprick of Leicester having beby Cedwal, who claimed and ob- come vacant by the death of Sex. tained the West-Saxon throne, and wulfus, Ethelred conferred it upon did not fail to reward the Prelate the fugitive, with many tokens of who had befriended him during his regard. In a short time however troubles. The royal gratitude was Alfred, with Berthwald, the new declared by the appointment of Archbishop of Canterbury, assemWilfrid to the office of counsellor- bled a Synod at Onestretield, or and gifts without end or number Osterfield, consisting of nearly all were bestowed upon him. While the English Bishops, and summoned things were in this situation, Theo. Wilfred to appear. They charged dore, Archbishop of Canterbury, him with having disobeyed Theofound his life drawing to a close, dore's Canons respecting the suband expressed a wish to be recon- division of the diocese of York, ciled to Wilfrid, and to appoint him and he answered by reproaching his successor in the primacy. The them with their disobedience to the latter freely accepted the offer of Pope, and asking how they could friendskip, and availed himself of presume to prefer the Canons of Theodore's good offices in the re- Theodore to the solemn judgment covery of his lost preferment, but of the Court of Rome, especially with a degree of prudence and mode as the former had made these Canons ration which be had never before at a time of alienation and discord, exhibited, postponed the consider- The Bishops pressed him to declare ation of the archbishop's successor his readiness to abide by their deci. to a future opportunity.

sion; but this he refused, pretend. Ecgfrid, king of Northumberland, ing that it was merely a snare, and had fallen in a battle against the that he must insert a salvo for the Picts, and to Alfred, his successor, antient canons, and the authority of and to Ethelred, king of Mercia, the Pope. This conduct had nearly Theodore now addressed letters in called down upon him a sentence of recommendation of Wilfrid's claim complete deprivation ; but it was and character. They were attended determined at the instance of the with complete though not immediate King and the Archbishop, that Ri. success. Ethelred complied en- pon should be allowed him for his tirely with Theodore's request- abode and maintenance, on condiadmitted Wilfrid into his territory, tion that he should promise to reand bestowed upon him several main there in tranquillity, to disMonasteries. Alfred likewise in-charge no part of his sacred func vited him into Northumberland, and tions, and to resign his episcoparank. This proposal was received of the Pope's request", Pope John with indignation and disdain. Wil. acquitted Wilfrid, and dispatched fred exclaimed, “I have been forty an epistle to the kings of Northumyears a Bishop, I brought back this berland and Mercia, commending country from the Scotch mode of their faith, and desiring them to observing Easter, I taught your assist him in terminating the dissenmonks to shave their heads in the sion in the English Church by shew. circular form. I introduced the ing themselves maintainers rather primitive custom of chaunting with than despisers of the Pontifical de responses from alternate bands; crees. He relates the first appeal and I was the first to regulate the under Agatho, to which he asserts monastic life by the rule of the holy that Archbishop Theodore was obeSt. Benedict; and shall I now pro- dient: and adds that he has admo. nounce a false sentence of condem- nished Berthwald to hold a Synod, nation against myself? I appeal to in company with Wilfrid, in which the Apostolic See, and let him who the partition of the diocese of York would degrade me accompany me is if possible to be amicably settled; thither to my trial.”

but if the parties cannot agree they This speech would have cost him are to refer the matter again to his life, if the Bishops had not re- Rome. He concludes by denounc. minded the King that he came to ing every description of evil against the assembly with a safe conduct. those who are disobedient to his Reproaching him therefore for pre- commands. ferring the opinion of the Romans to In spite of this success Wilfrid that ot his countrymen, they suffered was unwilling to return home, and him to return unhurt to the court would gladly bave passed the re. of King Ethelred. Thence he soon mainder of his life at Rome. But departed for Rome, accompanied the Pope was well aware of the with messengers from the Mercian value of his services, and required King. Berthwald also dispatched him to follow up his appeal, by cara ambassadors to the same quarter, rying the sentence back to Britain. praying that the Pope would hear bis Upon Berthwald, Archbishop of accusation against Wilfrid. There Canterbury, and Ethelred, King of appears to have been something Mercia, the Papal thunders promore yearly resembling a trial upon duced the desired effect, and they the present than upon the first ap- promised to pay implicit obedience peal. But the argument on Wil- to the commands of the Apostolic frid's side was precisely the same as See, But Alfred, King of Norbefore, viz. that he was ready to thumberland, who was the person submit without murmuring to the chiefly concerned, for Wilfrid's dioApostolic decree; and that he bad cese was in bis dominions, and Wilonly refused to obey his national frid bimself was his subject, received synod and national metropolitan on the Bishops' messengers with great the points in which they differed respect, and answered to the followfrom the Canons and the Popes. He ing effect. “Ask favours for yourprayed in the first place that the selves, and I will readily grant them. original decree of Agatho might be But let me never hear another word renewed, and that John, the reign. respecting Wilfrid. His cause was ing Pope, would intercede with Al- decided by the Kings, my predeces. fred to carry it into effect. But if this should be thought too much, he

* The words of Eddius are," rt Regen requested that the monasteries of Alfridum, &c. tranquillissimis monitis Hesham and Rippon might at least obsecretis ;" and again,“ per testra petibe restored to him by the assistance tionis auxilium."

sors, and the Archbishop and their ceses with their Abbotts, the Archcounsellors; and that decision has bishop of Canterbury with all his been confirmed by inyself, with the Suffragans, and Wilfrid. The Pri. consent of an Archbishop, approved mate read and explained the Papal of by the Apostolic See, and of mandates, but the Bishops shewed nearly all the Bishops of Britain ; no disposition to obey them. They por will I ever consent to reverse repeated the unanswerable arguthe judgment in deference to your ment of King Alfred, that the deciletters from Rome *.” These words sion of domestic synods and domesfurnish a complete proof of the in- tic princes ought not to be set aside dependence of the English Church; by a foreign authority. The Abbess and the spirit by which they were Elleda, King Alfred's daughter, dictated seemed sufficient to secure was alone prepared with a reply it: but shortly after his dismissal She affirmed: that Alfred had of Wilfrid's messengers, the stout- repented on his death-bed of his hearted King Alfred died. His suc- contempt for the Pope, and had cessor commenced his reign by re- charged his heir, in the most solemn newing the sentence against Wilfrid, manner, to reverse the sentence but that reign continued only two against Wilfrid. Berechtfrid, the months—the new king was expelled nearest of kin to young Osred, and from the throne which he had the regent of his kingdom, credited usurped, and the crown descended this statement, and commanded the to Osred, the son of Alfred, who Assembly to conte to terms with was only eight years of age, and Wilfrid. They agreed that he should under the immediate guardianship retain the monasteries of Hexham of Wilfrid. A tempting opportunity and Ripon, with all the property was thus afforded for reconsidering attached to them; and on this the Appeal to Rome. A Syuod mutual understanding, peace was was held in the neighbourhood of finally concluded : Wilfrid residing the river Nidd, at which were pre- partly at Ripon and partly with his sent the young king and his court, old and most intimate friends the three Bishops of the Northern Dio- Mercians. He died in the pos

session of enormous wealth, and $“ O Fratres mei ambo venerabiles, was buried with characteristic petite a me vobismet ipsis necessaria et pomp at Ripon. ego propter reverentiam vestram donabo Such is the history of the first vobis. De causa vero Wilfridi Domini Saxon appeal to the Pope, as revestri nolite me ab hoc die diutius flagi. lated by Eddius, the friend of the tare. Quia, quod ante prædecessores mei Reges et Archiepiscopris cum consiliariis appellant, and the companion of

his second journey to Rome. suis censuerunt et quod postea nos cum

It is Archiepiscopo ab Aposlolica sede emisso obvious that Wilfrid failed to accom. cum omnibus pæne Britannice vestre plish his purpose. Neither on his gentis Præsulibus judicavimus ; hoc in- first nor on his second return, was quam, quamdiu vixero propter Aposto- he put in possession of the See of licæ sedis, ut dicitis, scripta nunquam which he had been deprived by an volo mutare." Eddius Ixi. It is to be observed that the phrase ab Apostolicâ English Synod. . The Pope prosede emissus, which Mr. Lingard and nounced the deprivation illegal and others translate an emissary of the Apos- unjust; but the effect of his sentence tolic See, can only bear the signification was, in the first instance, the imassigned to it above, for Berthwald was prisonment and exile of the man in not sent from Rome like Theodore, whose favour it was pronounced ; but was an Englishman by birtis, aud and in the second

th, and and in the second, the restoration of his bomination to the See of Canterbury

two monasteries and their revenues. was domestic. REMUMBRANCER, No. 44.

3 P

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