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cere, neque prius sedari, quam virtus eorum famam atque gloriam adaequaverit.” Here History was embodied in a living form, which appealed to the deepest and noblest feelings of the soul. So long as the Roman youth approached those venerable images with reverence their beloved city was empress of the world. Rome is now a heap of ruins. Music and Painting are the only source of pride to the descendants of her once haughty possessors. Degenerate offspring of a noble race ! how long will you groan under the oppressor's yoke ? Look around upon the crumbling monuments of your ancestors' glorious feats! Let your hearts commune with those broken statues and tottering palaces, which record the history of the Past. These awoke Rienzi from his poetic dreamings, and inspired him with the daring of a Brutus. If these speaking witnesses cannot inflame your souls, the slave's lot be your everlasting doom.
History is the proper school for legislators. The knowledge of past events is most valuable, as it enables them to understand the present, and form just calculations in regard to the future. Here are recorded the breakers upon which states and empires were wrecked. Fair. seeming hypotheses are tested by time and found erroneous. The framers of our national constitution were deeply iinpressed with the importance of attentively studying those models contained in the annals of antiquity. In all of them, they found institutions ill adapted to their own times. They then turned to those Republics formed at a more recent period. Each were discovered to be defective. “In Holland, they saw that the people did not participate in the erection of the supreme power; in Poland, the multitude were oppressed by an incubus of monarchy and aristocracy; in Venice, a small body of hereditary nobles exercised a stern sway." (Miss Martineau.) Like a skillful physician, who probes the wound before applying a remedy, they pondered over every clause which might contain symptoms of decay. Having thus examined the subject, they wisely discharged the duties imposed upon them. A representative government, previously considered an anomaly in politics, was reduced to a form which promises to be imperishable. Like meteors, which shoot athwart the vault of Heaven to dazzle and disappear, other Republics have lived their little day, and are now enveloped in eternal darkness. As a star, at first faintly discernible, but gradually growing brighter and brighter, until its efful. gence obscures the pale glimmerings of surrounding constellations, our Republic arose and has eclipsed the glory of Europe's time-honored institutions. Guided by the light of History, the American legislators threaded the labyrinths in which their predecessors were entangled. Conflicting interests and party animosity appear at times to threaten the stability of our government, but when the excited passions are allowed to cool, the danger is removed. Our History contains a more important lesson than can be taught by labored tomes. The example of Washington has made an impression which time can never erase. His virtues are written on the tablets of our hearts. After a limited period he refused the office of Chief Magistracy, which his grateful country besought him to accept. What were his reasons ? History
had taught him that his acceptance would establish a precedent, which some ambitious successor might employ to accomplish his despotic aim. His example will ever live in the memory of his countrymen, and serve as a check for crafty politicians.
“While the heart hath still
One pulse a generous thought can thrill,
Mrs. Hemans, page 179. Other arguments we might adduce to prove the utility of a study of History, but these we deem sufficient. We do not defend those who clog the memory with such a multitude of unimportant facts as to render the mind a perfect maelstrom of confusion. As we before remarked, the only useful knowledge is that which tends to improve our moral faculties. This object may be accomplished by an attentive study of History. Like the bee, which extracts from the flower its sweets alone, in our studies we should cull the choicest truths, and though our learning be less, our knowledge will be more. What we do acquire should be cultivated for practical application. As Pope says:
“ Thus useful arms in magazines we place,
All ranged in order, and disposed with graco :
On! blithe are the hours, and sweet are the flowers
Of Spring in its freshness and glee;
With joy from her thrall to be free.
The Sun and the shower have broken the power
Of Winter's tempestuous reign;
To sport in the sunbeam again.
Gay roses are blushing, pure fountains are gushing
Where Winter's white robe hid the ground;
And waft their rich fragrance arouud.
All Nature is smiling with beauties, beguiling
The mind from each sorrow and blight;
Breathes o'er us a spell of delight.
Hail! type of life's morning, earth's surface adorning
With tokens of Youth's happy days;
All gilded with Hope's brightest rays.
Then pleasures surround us, true friends are around us,
And life is yet budding in Spring;
In freshness is still blossoming.
A fair sky is o'er us, and pictured before us
A flowery vista extends;
And Joy on his footsteps attends.
Alas! fairy vision, a gloomy transition
Is doomed the clear sky to o'ercast;
Are given to sorrow at last.
Then while they are ours, let youth's sunny hours
With Joy's gayest garlands be crowned
And flowers of gladness abound.
Thus Hopo's star will bless us, and friendship caress us,
And when the glad season is o'er,
A balm on our sorrows will pour.
ARCHBISHOP CRANMER. The Romish Church had gradually pressed claim upon concession, till the real sovereignty of all Christian Europe was in its power. Every defeat that it suffered, seemed only to stimulate it to greater efforts, till just previous to the Great Reformation, in the time of Leo X., it reached the very zenith of its power. Though France and Germany had striven spasmodically, and at times gained even the ascendency, yet this great Church, by its unwearying efforts and secret plans, again ruled all with the same unbending law, and accountable to none, seemed indeed the representative of an Almighty power. It is not our intention to follow the Reformation under the conduct of Luther, Melancthon, and Zuingle, in continental Europe, where the efforts of many individual minds, spread over some centuries, appeared to be gathered into a focus, by one monk, and brought to bear upon the sins and errors of the Romish Church with searching effect. In the words of another, “ The Church of Rome is seen under Leo X. in all its strength and glory : a monk speaks—and in the half of Europe the power and glory suddenly crumble into dust."
Wickliffe, in England, seems to be the first that boldly attacked many of the errors and abuses of the Romish Church, and by translating the Bible into the vernacular tongue, gave to the people the power of examining for themselves the justice of the claims made upon them by their priests. Punished for his presumption, by being deprived of all ecclesiastic power, he died, leaving behind the Lollards, to foster and urge forward the truths that he had spent his life in disseminating. Slowly and gradually, but surely, the little leaven pervaded the whole nation, till in the reign of Henry VIII. the Reformation dared to show itself openly, and challenge the unavoidable contest with Rome.
Henry VIII., combining in himself the claims of the white and red roses, seated firmly on his throne, took upon himself to vindicate the Church of Rome from the arguments and attacks of Martin Luther; for which service he received from the Pope the title of “Defender of the Faith.” But a weak defender to the Popish faith did he prove! Few years had elapsed, when he chose, from certain motives, to doubt the legality of his marriage with Catharine, and to wish to divorce her. We say “ certain motives," as by far, do those ascribed by friends and foes, differ. The former asserting, that the early death of his offspring caused him to reflect upon the nature of the marriage, and the consultation of the pages of Thomas Aquinas, convinced him, that great as might be the Pope, he had not the power to annul the laws of God. He himself asserts, that he ceased to cohabit with the Queen in 1524; though not till 1527 did he take any open measures to destroy the marriage. His enemies declare, that his conscience troubled him not, till he saw and loved Anne Boleyn, to whom he was married in 1533. It was in connection with these events—the divorce of Catharine and the marriage to Anne—that we first read of the subject of our sketch, Dr. Thomas Cranmer. Born in 1489, and educated for the Church, he is first brought into notice by the advice that he gave to certain friends of the King, concerning the legality of his marriage ; which advice was, to take the opinions of the Universities of England and the Continent as to the command in the Levitical law ; thus taking his stand on the Bible, and denying the right of the Pope to abrogate the command of the Alınighty. Here he took the first step from Rome, and broke the first of the bands that bound him to his Church, and though on looking at his future course we may see that some chains yet held him, let us bethink ourselves, that truth opens upon the mind gradually, that it is not day when the first gray light is seen in the east, but first comes dawn-day-break-morning.
His conduct in this instance raised him to the summit of ecclesias. tical power in the Church. The intervening time was spent in advan
cing the Reformation, in which his whole soul was engaged. He spread copies of the Bible over all the land, corrected the abuses of the clergy, advocated the founding of asylums and hospitals, besides various other works, all tending towards the civil and religious liberty of the English people, i. e. urging the freedom of schools to all, and forming almost alone the book of Common Prayer.
His character has been freely discussed by Mr. Macaulay, in an article upon Hallam's Constitutional History, where for some reasons he judges of his acts in a manner that seems to us very far from just. Our readers will excuse us if we notice a few of his remarks. He first says, “ Cranmer rose into power by serving Henry, in the disgraceful affair of his first divorce.” The fact we grant, but all history conspires to prove that Cranmer acted conscientiously. Henry had wed his brother's widow. He believed the marriage to be incestuous, but could find no way of withdrawing from the connection. Cranmer pointed out one : did he then do wrong? He only advised the King to ask of the Universities of Europe their opinion. “He served the King,” but only because their decision of the question coincided with that of Henry.
Secondly. “He promoted the marriage with Anne Boleyn, and on a frivolous pretence pronounced it null and void.” That Anne Boleyn was most unjustly murdered, we fully believe ; but that Cranmer was concerned in it, is incorrect. So far from this, the King, knowing the opposition that he should meet, in condemning her, were Cranmer near, ordered him to Lambeth, and not to present himself at Court. But he could not thus quiet the Archbishop. From thence he wrote letters of remonstrance, asserting his belief in her innocence ; but all in vain-she was condemned. In his official capacity as primate, his duty was to pronounce the divorce, and this he was compelled to do, as Anne had confessed a pre-contract which would justify a divorce. It has been conjectured that from her conduct Shakspeare drew the example of love shown by Desdemona. “ Emilia.
0, sweet mistress, speak.
O, who hath done
Nobody; I myself; farewell." Thirdly. “ He attached himself to Cromwell, while the fortunes of Cromwell flourished, and voted for cutting his head off, when the tide of royal favor turned.” Yes : Cranmer did attach himself to Cromwell, and he was the last to desert him, when under censure ; but Cromwell had been guilty of treason, or what was treason in those days, and Cranmer, as judge, could give no other decision. So long as hope could encourage, he wrote and plead to the King for him, till his enemies began to hope that the sinking of one would draw the other in its vortex. And is this the faithless friend Macaulay would have us believe him?
Fourthly. “While Henry lived he condemned to the flames those