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and there is in existence a warrant from the queen for putting two of the Duke's servants to this torture. The body of the warrant is in the handwriting of Lord Burghley, and the torture was actually inflicted.

The Duke was arraigned for high treason, 16th January 1571 ; and being condemned, his execution was deferred until June 2 following, when he was beheaded upon a scaffold on Tower Hill. There can be little doubt that efforts then making to procure the liberty of the Queen of Scots, and re-establish the supremacy of Catholicism, had much influence over his fate ; for it is known that no fewer than four warrants which had been issued for his execution were successively revoked by Elizabeth. Her last revocation, entirely in her own handwriting, is preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Elizabeth wrote, soon after her discovery of the Duke's entanglement in the Queen of Scots' scheme, the following lines :

• The doubt of future woes exiles my present joy;
And wit me warns to shun such snares as threaten mine annoy ;
For falsehood now doth flow, and subjects' faith doth ebb,
Which would not be, if reason ruled, or wisdom weaved the web.
But clouds of toys untry'd do cloak aspiring minds,
Which turn to rain of late repent, by course of changed winds.
The top of hope supposed, the root of ruth will be ;
And fruitless all their graffed guiles, as shortly ye shall see.
Those dazzled eyes with pride, which great ambition blinds,
Shall be unsealed by worthy wights, whose foresight falsehood binds.
The daughter of Debate, that eke Discord doth sow,
Shall reap no gain, where former rule hath taught still peace to flow.
No foreign banish'd wight shall anchor in our port :
Our realm it brooks no stranger's force ; let them elsewhere resort.

Our rusty sword with rest, shall first the edge employ
To poll their tops that seek such change, and [thereto) gape with joy.'

Granger mentions an extremely rare print of the above nobleman, in which he is represented under an arch, whilst under a correspondent arch are displayed thirty coats of arms quartered in one shield. All his honours became forfeited; but his eldest son Philip inherited, in right of his mother, the feudal Earldom of Arundel, as owner of Arundel Castle in Sussex, and was summoned to Parliament as Earl of Arundel ; but being attainted in 1590, he was committed to the Tower in 1595. He was styled the Renowned Confessor;' and we find of his life an impressive narrative, edited from the original mss. by Henry Granville, fourteenth Duke, and published in 1857. The Earl's piety was remarkable. He constantly rose in the morning at five o'clock; and as soon as he was risen out of bed, he fell down upon his bare knees, and breathed forth in secret his first devotions to Almighty God, his eyes and hands lifted up to heaven. With his kneeling in that manner then and at other times, his knees were grown very hard and black.' . . . . In those times which were allotted to walking or other recreation, his discourse and conversation either with his keeper or the lieutenant, or his own servants, was either tending to piety or some profitable discourse, as of the lives of holy men, of the sufferances and constancy of the martyrs of ancient times, from which he would usually deduce some good document or other, as of the facility of a virtuous life after a man had once, overcome his sensuality; of the happiness of those that suffered anything for our Saviour's sake, with such like ; to which purpose he had writ with his own hand, upon the wall of his chamber, this Latin sentence: Quanto plus afflictionis pro Christo in hoc sæculo, tanto plus gloriæ cum Christo in futuro. [The more affliction we endure for Christ in this world, the more glory we shall obtain with Christ in the next.]

The Earl's last moments are thus pathetically described. The last night of his life he spent, for the most part, in prayer, sometimes saying his beads, sometimes such psalms and prayers as he knew by heart; and oftentimes used these holy aspirations: O Lord, into Thy hands I commend my spirit

. Lord, Thou art my hope and life. Very frequently, moreover, indicating the holy names of Jesus and Mary.

Seeing his servants in the morning stand by his bedside, weeping in a mournful manner, he asked them what o'clock it was.

They answered that it was eight, or thereabout. “Why then,” said he, “I have almost run out my course, and come to the end of this miserable and mortal life ;” desiring them not to weep for him, since he did not doubt, by the grace of God, but all would go well with him. Which being said, he returned to his prayers upon his beads again, though then with a very slow, hollow, and fainting voice, and so continued as long as he was able to draw so much breath as was sufficient to sound out the names of Jesus and the glorious Virgin, which were the last words he was ever heard to speak.

“The last minute of his last hour being now come, lying on his back, eies firmly fixt towards heaven, and his long, lean consumed arms out of the bed, his hands upon his breast laid in cross, one upon the other, about twelve o'clock at noon, in which hour he was also born into this world, arraigned, condemned, and adjudged unto death upon Sunday the 19th of October 1595 (after almost eleven years' imprisonment in the Tower), in a most sweet manner, without any sign of grief or groan, only turning his head a little aside, as one falling into a pleasing sleep, he surrendered his happy soul into the hands of Almighty God, who to His so great glory had created it.

Some have thought, and perhaps not improbably, that he had some foreknowledge of the day of his death ; because, about seven or eight days before making certain notes, understood only by himself, in his calendar, what prayers and devotions he intended to say upon every day of the week following, on Monday, Tuesday, etc., when he came to the Sunday on which he dy'd, he there made a pause, saying, Hitherto, and no further : this is enough; and so writ no more, as his servants, who then heard his words and saw him write, have often testified.'

In the chapter following occurs this curious record : ‘I forgot to note in the due place, that upon the night precedent to the Earl's arraignment and condemnation, a

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nitingale was heard to sing with great melody in a jessamine tree all ye night long in the garden of Arundel House [in the Strand, London], where his Countess and children did then remain ; the which may seem the more strange, in regard the like was neither before nor since that time ever heard in that place. Another thing as strange did happen in the Tower soon after his death ; for two tame stags, which the lieutenant kept there for his pleasure, falling into a fury, never desisted knocking their horns against the wall, till, their brains being beaten out, they dy'd.'

This nobleman's son, best known as the Earl of Arundel, who in 1621 was constituted Earl Marshal of England for life, fell under the displeasure of King Charles I., on account of the marriage of his eldest son, Henry Frederick Lord Maltravers, with the Lady Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Esme Stuart, Duke of Lennox; whose hand, as his own ward, his Majesty had intended to bestow on Lord Lorne, afterwards Marquis of Argyle. For this offence the Earl and his Countess were at first restricted to their seat at Horsley, in Surrey; and afterwards committed to the Tower, but shortly after liberated. This Earl's successor adhered steadily to Charles I. at the time of the Civil Wars, and served in his army as a volunteer until he was sent for to Padua, on the illness of his father in 1646. During his absence the Parliament took possession of his estates; and on his return to England he found it difficult to subsist; the composition of his estates, £6000, was paid for

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