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not attained the age of thirty-eight, and could scarcely even then have presented the portly and venerable appearance displayed in the picture.

Mr. Planché describes the portraits as representing the descendants of Liulph for fourteen generations, in various military or civil costumes, some exceedingly picturesque, and all bearing strong evidence to the fact that the robes and armour were painted from authorities of some description, and not from the fancy of the artists. They were executed about 1600, when various histories and chronicles were printed and published in Germany, Holland, and Flanders especially, illustrated by very spirited engravings representing the sovereigns and princes whose reigns or biographies were included in them. A great similarity exists in the styles of drawing and the character and costume of all these figures,—the dress and armour of the earlier personages being invariably of the fifteenth century. Mr. Planché was therefore struck by the strong general resemblance the paintings at Lumley Castle bear to the aforesaid engravings.

We have not space for further details ; but to add, that among the discrepancies should be noted the portrait of Theoderick the first Count of Holland, who lived in the ninth century, in armour and dress of the fifteenth century; his shield has on it an heraldic lion rampant, some 300 years before the earliest appearance of heraldic devices. Mr. Planché, in conclusion, considers the pictures to have been painted by Richard Stevens, a Dutchman,

mentioned by Walpole as “an able statuary, painter, and medallist.'

Surtees considers the connection of Liulph, a southern noble' (grandfather of William de Lumley, Baron of the Bishopric), ‘as asserted in the pedigree, with the blood of Syward and Waltheof (Earls of Northumberland), is confirmed by evidence not very usual in claims of such high and splendid antiquity.' Pennant relates that when James I., on

his south, visited Lord Lumley in his castle, William James, Bishop of Durham, expatiated to the king on the pedigree of their noble host, and wearied him with a long detail of the family ancestry to a period even beyond belief. Oh, mon !" said the king, “gang na farther; let me digest the knowledge I ha' gained; for, by my saul, I did na ken Adam's name was Lumley."

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See the able paper by Mr. Planché in the Journal of the British Archæological Association, March 1866, p. 31.

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EW of the historical villages of England possess

such interest as Fotheringhay, celebrated as

the peculiar seat of the House of York, the birthplace of Richard 111., and memorable as the place where Mary Queen of Scots was condemned to close on the scaffold a life of captivity and sorrow. Fotheringhay lies in the eastern division of Northamptonshire, on the north bank of the river Nen; and though now reduced to a small village, it formerly held the rank of a markettown; had its royal castle and market cross, its college, nunnery, hermitage, and other votive buildings, in addition to its collegiate church of highly enriched architecture.

The Castle of Fotheringhay, not one stone of which remains upon another, was originally built by Simon de St. Liz, or by the second Earl of Northampton, at the close of the eleventh or early in the twelfth century; the manor having been granted by the Conqueror to his niece Judith, from whom it descended by marriage to the above Earl. It was in the possession of the Crown in the reign of Edward I.,

who granted it to his nephew, John de Britain Earl of Richmond, who in the second year of Edward 11. obtained a grant of the castle to himself and his heirs, and seven years later was certified to be Lord of Fotheringhay. He dying without issue, the castle and manor reverted to the Crown, and were granted to Mary de St. Paul, daughter of Guido de Chatillon, Comte de St. Paul in France, by Mary, daughter of the Earl of Richmond aforesaid. She was Baroness de Voissu and Montanzi, and married to Andemare de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who fell in a tournament on the day of their nuptials; whence she is characterized by Gray as the

"Sad Chatillon on her bridal morn,

That wept her bleeding love.' She passed the greatest part of her life in the exercises of religion, and employed her estate in founding Denny Abbey, near Ely; and Pembroke Hall, in the University of Cambridge. Her residence at Fotheringhay is thus described : “ The castle, with a certain tower, is built of stone, walled in, embattled, and encompassed with a great moat. Within are one large hall, two chambers, a kitchen and bakehouse, built all of stone, with a porter's lodge and chambers over it, and a drawbridge beneath. Within the castle walls is another place called the manor. The site of the whole contains ten acres.'

Upon the death of Mary of Valence, the castle and manor again reverted to the Crown, and were granted by Edward 11. to his fifth son, Edmund of Langley, then a

minor. The castle had fallen into decay, and on his taking actual possession, was so much dilapidated as to induce him to rebuild the greater part of it, the ground plan being in the form of a fetterlock ;' and the fetterlock, enclosing a falcon, was afterwards the favourite device of the family of Edmund of Langley. He also, having projected the building of a college at Fotheringhay, began to fulfil his intention by erecting 'a large and magnificent choir' at the east end of the old parish church. After his death, the building was carried on by his son, and completed by his grandson Richard, whose body was in 1466 buried there, under a handsome shrine on the north side of the high altar. The agreement for the buildings was with “William Howard, a freemason of Fotheringhay;' but they were not completed till the time of Edward iv., who erected the fair cloister, and the shrine already mentioned, which Leland describes as 'a pratie chapelle,' and Camden as 'a magnificent monument.' The college

Mr. Planché (Rouge Croix), setting aside the old origin of this badge, traces it, by aid of the Promptorium Parvulorum (a Latin and English dictionary of the fourteenth century), to langelyn, 'to bind together ;' and, according to Mr. Halliwell, langele is still used in the north to signify hopling or fettering a horse. Without asserting that a fetterlock was actually called a langel, there is quite enough similarity of sound between langelyn or langele, “to bind or fetter,' and Langley, the name by which he was known to suggest its adoption for his badge, the object being to typify the name or title of the bearer. The falcon may have been added as a token of descent by his grandson Richard, the said falcon being described by itself as “falco imagine Ricardi Ducis Ebors.' See a paper ‘On the Badges of the House of York,' Journ. Brit. Archaol. Association, 1864.

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