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and in tears declared this was the heaviest hour of his life.

No so to me,' said Mary. 'I now feel, my good Melville, that all this world is vanity.' "When you speak of me hereafter, say that I died firm in my faith, willing to forgive my enemies, conscious that I never disgraced my native country, and rejoicing in the thought that I had always been true to France, the land of my happiest years. Tell my son'—and here she burst into a flood of tears—'Tell my son I thought of him in my last moments, and that I said I never yielded, by word or deed, to aught that might tend to his prejudice : tell him to remember his unfortunate parent ; and may he be a thousand times more happy and prosperous than she ever was.' The sentence was then read to her; and, says Camden, she heard it attentively, yet as if her thoughts were taken up with something else.' She then made a short speech, in which she repeated the words so frequently in her mouth, 'I am queen born, not subject to the laws ;' and declared that she had never sought the life of her cousin Elizabeth. She then began to pray. Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough, offered his services, but she declined them, and prayed in Latin with her servants (from the offices of the blessed Virgin) ; she also prayed in English for the church, for her son, and for Queen Elizabeth, and forgave the executioner ; then, having kissed her women, and signed the men with the sign of the cross, she prepared for death, and had sufficient command of herself to comfort her weeping attendants. Having covered her face with a linen handkerchief, and laying herself down on the

block, she recited that psalm, 'In Thee, O Lord, do I trust; let me never be confounded.' Then stretching forth her body, and repeating many times, 'Into Thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit,' her head was stricken off at two strokes, the dean crying out, “So let Queen Elizabeth's enemies perish!' the Earl of Kent answering 'Amen, and the multitude sighing and sorrowing.

Nichols tells us that the executioner at two strokes separated her head from her body, saving a sinew, which a third stroke parted also. When the fatal blow was struck, 'her face was in a moment so much altered that few could remember her by her dead face; her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off' (Ellis). The executioner that went about to pluck off her stockings found her little dog had crept under her coat, which, being put from thence, went and laid himself down betwixt her head and the body, and being besmeared with her blood, was caused to be washed.

In her last moments, the Scottish queen exhibited a religious dignity, resignation, and apparent serenity of conscience, that tend greatly to counteract the popular impression regarding her guilt. We are at a loss to believe that one who had not lived well could die so well.

Heretofore the strange conduct of Elizabeth towards her unfortunate cousin had not tended to exculpate her from authorizing the Fotheringhay tragedy. But it now appears that she really did not give the final order for the act, but that the whole was managed, without her consent, by Burleigh, Walsingham, and Davison; the signature to the warrant being forged, at Walsingham's command, by his secretary Thomas Harrison (Strickland's Lites of the Queens of England, vii. 465); so that the queen's conduct to these men afterwards was not hypocritical, as hitherto believed. A fortnight and a day elapsed before King James, while hunting at Calder, was certified of the event. It put him into a very great displeasure and grief, and well might; and he much lamented and mourned her many days.'

Walpole says of her portrait: 'At the Duke of Devonshire's, at Hardwicke, there is a valuable though poorly painted picture of James v. and Mary of Guise, his second queen: it is remarkable from the great resemblance of Mary Queen of Scots to her father-I mean in Lord Morton's picture of her, and in the image on her tomb at Westminster, which agree together, and which I take to be genuine likenesses. In a very old trial of her, which Walpole bought from Lord Oxford's collection, it is said she was a large, lame woman. (See note at page 39, ante.)

The beauty, accomplishments, and hard fortune of this extraordinary princess, who was a captive eighteen years, have given such an interest to the place in which she suffered, that the stranger is apt to imagine he shall find some relic on the spot to gratify his curiosity. He will regret that the ground on which it stood, with the surrounding moats, and small fragments of the walls near the river and on the east of the mound, are the only marks of this

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block, she recited that psalm, 'In Thee, O Lord, do I trust; let me never be confounded.' Then stretching forth her body, and repeating many times, 'Into Thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit,' her head was stricken off at two strokes, the dean crying out, “So let Queen Elizabeth's enemies perish!' the Earl of Kent answering 'Amen,' and the multitude sighing and sorrowing.

Nichols tells us that the executioner at two strokes separated her head from her body, saving a sinew, which a third stroke parted also. When the fatal blow was struck,

her face was in a moment so much altered that few could remember her by her dead face; her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off' (Ellis). The executioner that went about to pluck off her stockings found her little dog had crept under her coat, which, being put from thence, went and laid himself down betwixt her head and the body, and being besmeared with her blood, was caused to be washed.

In her last moments, the Scottish queen exhibited a religious dignity, resignation, and apparent serenity of conscience, that tend greatly to counteract the popular impression regarding her guilt. We are at a loss to believe that one who had not lived well could die so well.

Heretofore the strange conduct of Elizabeth towards her unfortunate cousin had not tended to exculpate her from authorizing the Fotheringhay tragedy. But it now appears that she really did not give the final order for the act, but that the whole was managed, without her consent, by

Burleigh, Walsingham, and Davison; the signature to the warrant being forged, at Walsingham's command, by his secretary Thomas Harrison (Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England, vii. 465); so that the queen's conduct to these men afterwards was not hypocritical, as hitherto believed. A fortnight and a day elapsed before King James, while hunting at Calder, was certified of the event. It put him into a very great displeasure and grief,' and well might; and he much lamented and mourned her many days.'

Walpole says of her portrait : “At the Duke of Devonshire's, at Hardwicke, there is a valuable though poorly painted picture of James v. and Mary of Guise, his second queen : it is remarkable from the great resemblance of Mary Queen of Scots to her father-I mean in Lord Morton's picture of her, and in the image on her tomb at Westminster, which agree together, and which I take to be genuine likenesses.' In a very old trial of her, which Walpole bought from Lord Oxford's collection, it is said • she was a large, lame woman.' (See note at page 39, ante.)

The beauty, accomplishments, and hard fortune of this extraordinary princess, who was a captive eighteen years, have given such an interest to the place in which she suffered, that the stranger is apt to imagine he shall find some relic on the spot to gratify his curiosity. He will regret that the ground on which it stood, with the surrounding moats, and small fragments of the walls near the river and on the east of the mound, are the only marks of this

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