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BREG. and the ground converted into gardens. There is an elegant Ducal castle, but few other public buildings worthy of notice. The Government of the Principality has been held here since 1756. Brieg has some manufactures, and a considerable commerce, with nearly 9000 inhabitants. About 24 miles east of Breslau.

BRIEG is also the name of one of the largest, and most handsome towns in the Valais. It is situated on the Rhone, nearly thirty miles east of Sion, and was greatly damaged by an earthquake in 1755. The baths of the same name, which were formerly in so much repute, are about a league from the town. The French were defeated here by the Austrians in 1799.

BRIEL, or BRIELLE, a town of the Netherlands, situated on the north side of the island of East Voorn, near the mouth of the Maese. The harbour is large and commodious, and many of the inhabitants are employed in the fisheries, or in piloting vessels up the river. The town is in general well built, and strongly fortified; but was much more populous formerly than it is at present; the number of residents not much exceeding 3000. It is distinguished in the history of Dutch independence, as being the place where the confederates laid the foundation of the Dutch Republic in 1572. The patriots having been expelled from the lower countries by the Duke of Alva, took refuge in England, where they fitted out a small fleet under the command of William de Lumai, and sailed towards the coast of Holland. But the wind being unfavourable, carried them to Briel, which surrendered without resistance, and became the asylum of Dutch liberty. Briel was also one of the towns which was given up to Queen Elizabeth in 1585, as pledges for the supplies with which she furnished the Republic; but was restored about thirty years afterwards. It was the birth place of the celebrated and heroic Admiral Van Tromp, who was killed in the engagement off the Texel, with the English fleet, under the command of Admiral Blake, on the 8th of August, 1653. The inhabitants of Briel rose upon the French garrison in 1813, and drove them from the town, which was soon afterwards taken possession of by a detachment of English marines. It is nearly thirteen miles south-west of Rotterdam, in latitude 51° 54' north, and longitude 4° 10 east.

BRIENNE, a town of France in Upper Champagne, department of the Aube, and the head of a canton. It has a considerable manufacture of stockings, and some other articles. It stands about twenty-two miles east of Troyes, and formerly contained a military school, in which Buonaparte received part of his education. The population does not exceed 2000.

BRIENE, ST. a town of France, the Capital of the department the Côtes du Nord. It stands at the bottom of a bay, on the north coast of Upper Brittany, called Anse de St. Briene, and though only about a mile from the main sea, its view is intercepted by the mountains amidst which the town is situated. It is, in general, well built, and has a small, but secure harbour at the village of Legné, where a trade is carried on in the products and manufactures of the surrounding districts. A part of the inhabitants are also engaged in the fisheries. Population 8750; distance west of Paris, 200 miles. Latitude 48° 31′ N., and longitude 2° 44' W.

BRIER, A. S. brær. Benson gives the A. S.
BRIERY. Sabryran, pungere, to prick. And Somner

says abryrd, (i. e. abryr'ed, the past participle) contrite, BRIER. broken, bruised, pricked, (as it were with briers.} Thise ben the newe shepherdes, that let hir shepe wetingly go BRIGAND. renne to the wolf, that is in the breres and de no force of hir owen governance. Chaucer The Persones Tale, v. ii. p. 347.

But that that is brynginge forth thornes and breris is reprenable and next to curs, whos endyng schal be unto brennyng.

Wiclif. Ebrews, ch. vi. But that grounde which beareth thornes and bryars, is reproued, and is nye vnto cursynge whose end is to be burned.

Bible, 1551.

Thus still I toyle, to till the barraine land,
And grope for grappes among the bramble briers,
I strive to saile and yet I strike on sand,
I deeme to liue, yet drown in deepe desires.
Gascoigne. A Louer often warned.

It taketh no rote in a briery place, ne in marice, neither in the sande that fleeteth awaye, but it requireth a pure, a trymme and a substauncial grounde. Udall. James, ch. i

I wonder he hath soff'red been
Upon our common heere,

His hogges doe root our younger treen,
And spoyle the smelling breere.

Browne. The Shepheard's Pipe, Eclogue, 2.

If we thought ye would through malice, conspiracie, or discention leane vs your friendes in the briers and betray vs, wee could as well sundry wayes foresee and prouide for our owne safegards, as any of you, by betraying vs can doe for yours.

Stow. Anno, 1552. Edward VI.

How much more comfortable it is to walk in smooth and even paths, then to wander in rugged ways, overgrown with briars, obstructed with rubs and beset with snares. Barrow. Sermon xxx. v. 1.

But, Venus, quite abandon'd to despair,
Her locks dishevell'd and her feet all bare,
Flies through the thorny brake, and briary wood,
And stains the thicket with her sacred blood.
Fawkes. On the death of Adonis, Idyll 1.
Some harsh, 'tis true,
Pick'd from the thorns and briers of reproof,
But wholesome, well-digested.


gether." Cotgrave.

Cowper. Task, book vi. Ital. brigata; Fr." brigader: to accompany, or associate one another, to troop, or keep company to

Duchat thinks it is derived from the Ger. brecken, to break. The brigade supposes a great body of troops, from which it has been detached; broken away. The verb is in use in common speech.

There stood a hill not far whose griesly top
Belch'd fire and rowling smoak;

Thither wing'd with speed

A numerous brigad hasten'd.

Milton. Paradise Lost, book i.

Cupid, survey thy shining train around
Of favourite nymphs for conquest most renown'd,
Then say what beauteous general wilt thou choose,
To lead the fair brigade against thy rebel foes?

Hughes. Cupid's Review.

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BRIGAND. etymology is brigade; (q.v.) and indeed, he adds, there is little difference between soldiers and robbers. Brigades, it may be added, were parties detached, broken away from the main body, partly for foraging and plundering. "In old time," says Cotgrave, "when those kind of soldiers marched, they held all to be good prize that they could purloin from the people; and thereupon this word now signifies alsoA thief, purse-taker, highway robber.' Brigandine and brigander,-armour worn by the brigands, consisting of many-jointed, scale-like plates, very pliant and easy for the body. Gower writes brigantaille.


Brigantin or brigandine,―a vessel used by the brigands or pirates; a low, long, and swift vessel.

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And at their comming, himself wt the Duke of Bukingha, stode harnesed in old ilfaring brigiders, such as no ma shold wene yt thei wold vouchsafe to haue put vpō their backes, except that some sodaine necessitie had cōstrained the.

Sir Thomas More. Workes, p. 55.

And so soon as Jak Cade had thus ouer comyn the Staffordes, he anone apparaylled hy with the knyghtes apparayll, and dyd on hym his bryganders set with gylt nayle, and hys salet and gylt sporis. Fabyan. Anno, 1548.

In stede of a scepter they haue a crosyers staffe: they haue theyr brigandyne, theyr souldiers girdle, and to be shorte, al that complete harnes which that valiaunt warriour Saincte Paule describeth vnto them in sondry places.

Udall. Preface to Mark.

Great Neptune grieued vnderneath the load
Of ships, hulkes, gallies, barks, and brigandines,
In all the mid-earth seas was left no road
Wherin the Pagan his bold sailes vntwines.

Fairfax. Godfrey of Boulogne, book i. st. 79.

He promysed with a fyue hundred speares, and a thousande brigans afote, to come into the fronter of Genes, and to passe ouer the ryuer, wheder their ennemyes wolde or natte.

Froissart. Crony cle, v. ii. C. 177.

[They] being better fitted to brigandize than open fight in the field, are weaponed with long pikes, and armed with habergeons made of shaved and smoothed hornes, which further-wise are wrought close into linnen jackes.

Holland. Ammianus, fol. 94.

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armed: which in time, through their idle habits, and domestic BRIGAND. distresses, draws them on to robbery and brigandage: nor to permit the populace, in towns and cities, to have, and cary arms BRIGHT. at their pleasure; which would give opportunity and encouragement to sedition and commotions. Warburton. Alliance between Church and State, book iii. ch. 3. BRIGHT, BRIGHTEN, BRIGHTLY, BRIGHTNESS, BRIGHTSOMENESS, BRIGHT-ARMED, BRIGHT-BURNING, BRIGHT-EYED, BRIGHT-HAIRED.

Goth. bairhts, bairhtyan ; A.S. beorht, beorhtian; manifestare, clarere, clarescere.

Evident, clear, manifest; luminous, shining, splendid, conspicuous, illustrious.

Att norp gate of London heo buryode pis gode knýzt
And buryde with hym in hys chest þat swerd þat was so brygt.
R. Gloucester, p. 50.

Corsede caýtyfs. knyght hode was it nevere
To bete a body ybounde. with eny brigth wepne.
Piers Plouhman, p. 344.

Therefore if al thi oody shal be bright, and haue no part derknessis it schal be al bright, and as a lanterne, of brightnesse it schal geue light to thee. Wiclif. Luke, ch. xi.

For yf all thy body shall be lyghte. But yet hauynge no parte darke then shall all be full of lyght, euen as when a candell doeth lyght the with his brightnes. Bible, 1551.

A brightnesse com fro heuen, & on Roberd light
pre tymes alle euen, þat alle sauh it with sight.

R. Brunne, p. 103.
And ich shal lette þis lorde. and hus light stoppe
Ac we porw bryghtnesse be blent.
Piers Plouhman, p. 354.

Til whan the shadow is ouerpasst,
She is illumined agein as fast,
Through the brightnes of sonne beames,
That yeueth to her againe her lemes.

Chaucer. The Romant of the Rose, fol. 141.

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The ground thereof was all gold and the flowers were al of sattyn siluer so that by the brightsomeness of the gold, the flowers appeared so freshly that they semed as they were growyng in dede. Hall. The 19 Yere of Kyng Henry VIII. fol. 166

-In solitude

What happiness, who can enjoy alone,
Or all enjoying, what contentment find?
Thus I presumptious; and the vision bright,
As with a smile more bright'nd thus replied.
Milton. Paradise Lost, book viii. 1. 368.
Thus below

A well-joyn'd boord he laide it, and close by,
The brightly-headed shaft.

Chapman. Homer's Odyssey, book xxi. fol. 324.
But the cause why they shew lesse is their altitude: like as the
fixed starres, which by reason of the sunnes brightnesse are not
Holland. Plinie, v. i. fol. 9.
seene in the day time.
What foole hath added water to the sea?
Or brought a faggot to bright burning Troy?
Shakspeare. Titus Andronicus, fol. 40.

It happened to be a freezing night, which had purified the whole body of air into such a bright transparent æther as made every constellation visible; and at the same time gave such a particular glowing to the stars, that I thought it the richest sky I had ever seen. Tatler, No. 100.

Thus, through what path soe'er of life we rove,
Rage companies our hate and grief our love.
Vex'd with the present moment's heavy gloom,
Why seek we brightness from the years to come?
Prior. Power, book iii.

Then thus among the rout, with wondering look,
Some swain survey'd the bright-arm'd chiefs and spoke.
Fawkes. Rhodius, book i.

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BRIGHTHELMSTONE or BRIGHTON, a considerable town on the coast of the County of Sussex, much resorted to for sea bathing. Under the patronage of the present King, when Prince of Wales, who made it his favourite residence, it has rapidly increased within the last thirty years. The fishery plentifully supplies the London market, especially with mackarel. It was from Brighton that Charles II. finally embarked for France after the battle of Worcester. Captain Nicholas Tettersell, the master of a coal brig, safely conveyed the King to Fescamp in Normandy, after six weeks dangerous concealment. This loyal action is recorded on a tablet to the memory of Tettersell in the Parish church-yard. Population, in 1811, 12,012; in 1821, 24,429. Distant 54 miles south from London, 32 east from Chichester.


BRIGNOLLES, a town of France, in Lower Provence, and the department of Var, distinguished for the excellent prunes which are exported under its It is situated in a fertile and agreeable valley, among the mountains, about twenty miles north of Toulon, and contains a population of nearly 5300 individuals. It was formerly noted for its religious establishments, among which were the Augustines, Cordeliers, Capuchins, Ursulines, and Jesuits. It was also the birth-place of the elder Parroceli, a noted painter, who died at Paris in 1704; as well as of P. le Brun, the learned orator.

BRIHUEGA, a town of Spain, in the kingdom of New Castile, and province of Toledo, which was founded by Alonzo, King of Leon, in 1071, and has still a very ancient castle. Its chief manufacture consists of fine cloth, and its trade is principally in the excellent wool of the province. It was at this place that the English General, Stanhope, and the rear-guard of the allied army were made prisoners by the Duke of Vendôme, in 1710. The town is situated on the banks of the river Tajuna, about forty miles nearly north-east of Madrid, in lat. 40° 40′ N. and long. 3° 10 W.

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This snuff-box-on the hinge see brilliants shine!
This snuff-box will I stake; the prize is mine.

Pope. The Basset Table, An Eclogue.

Some in a brilliant buckle bind her waist,
Some round her neck a circling light display.

Gay. Araminta, An Elegy.

One of these is most brilliantly displayed, and charged with Adam and Eve, the serpent with a human shape to the middle, the tree of life, the holy lamb, and a variety of symbolical ornaWarton. History of English Poctry, vol. ii. p. 56.


A circumstance intervened, during the pendency of this negociation, to set off the good faith of the company with an additional brilliancy, and to make it sparkle and glow with a variety of splendid faces. Burke. On Mr. Fox's East India Bill.

In ev'ry eye ten thousand brilliants blaze,
And living pearls the vast horizon gaze.

Brooks. Universal Beauty, book v.
Link'd in reins,

In traces brilliant overlaid with gems,
Eight horses more of that surpassing race
The precious burden drew.


Glover. The Athenaid, book iv.

A. S. ryman, be-ryman, dilatare, amplificare, extendere.

Brim (sc. be-rim) is the extent of the capacity of any vessel,-of any thing. See Tooke. It is applied generally to the edge, brink, or margin.

Whan hi bep fur from þe abbei,

Hi makip ham nakid for to plei,
And leip dune in to be brimme

And dop ham sleilick for to swimme.

An old Satirical Poem in Hickes, v. i. p. 233.

So losse of goodes shall neuer trouble me,
Since God which giues can take when pleaseth him;
But losse of fame or slaundred so to be,
That makes my wittes to break aboue their brimme,
And frettes my harte, and lames me every limme.
Gascoigne. The Fruits of Warre.

Then should I hereafter not once so much as dare to set pen to paper for feare of controlment and check, which howe greuous it is to a yong man nowe (as it were) but tasting with his lippe the brim of learnings fountaine, and saluting the Muses at the doore and thresholl, neyther is your Ladyship ignoraunt, and I my selfe presume to know. Turbervile. To Lady Warwick.

For there shal be poured in your lappes backe againe a good measure, a measure brimful, a measure turned and shaken together euery where, that all the lappe may be full, and no corner therof empty or voyde. Udall. Luke, ch. vi.

So are his branches seas, and in the rich Guiana,
A flood as proud as he, the broad-brim'd Orellana.
Drayton, Poly-olbion, Song xix.

Virgin, daughter of Locrine
Sprung of old Anchises line,
May thy brimmed waves for this
Their full tribute never miss

From a thousand petty rills,
That tremble down the snowy hills.

Milton. Comus, 1. 927.

Not to speake of the insulse, and ill-laid comparisons, this cited place lies upon the very brim of another corruption, which had they that quoted this passage, ventur'd to let us read, all men would have readily seen what grain the testimony had bin of, where it is said, that it is not lawful without a bishop to baptize, nor to offer, nor to do sacrifice.

Id. Of Prelatical Episcopacy.




A bright tinne dish most pleased him, which hee presently tooke vp and clapt it before his breast; and after made a hole in the brimme thereof and hung it about his necke, making signes that it would defend him against his enemies arrowes. Hakluyt. Voyage, &c. The First Voyage to Virginia, v. iii. p. 247. Also in cups that are filled brimful, the middle part in the top swell most. Holland. Plinie, v. i. fol. 31.

O thou undaunted daughter of desires!
By all thy pow'r of lights and fires;
By all thy brimfill'd bowls of fierce desire;
By thy last morning's draught of liquid fire;
By all the heav'ns thou hast in him
(Fair sister of the seraphim);
By all of him we have of thee;
Leave nothing of myself in me.

Crashaw. The Flaming Heart.

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I have heard my father say, that a broad brimm'd hat, short hair, and an unfolded hankerchief, were in his time absolutely necessary to denote a notable man. Spectator, No. 150.

Kneeling down upon the ground, he took up with his hat, which by cocking up the brims he turned into a kind of cup, such a proportion of water that he quenched his thirst with it. Boyle. Occasional Reflections, p. 100.

Before the world or any part of it had being, God was brimfull of glory, infinitely happy in the enjoyment of himself, being all joy and bliss, all honour and glory, yea, all things desireable to himself. Bp. Beveridge.

Fat Comus tost his brimmers o'er, And always got the most; Jocus took care to fill him more Whene'er he miss'd the tost.

Sermon, cxl.

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I wis I am not (beggerly): yeat that thou
Doest holde me in disdaine

Is brimme abroad, and made a gybe
To all that keepe this playne.

Warner. Albion's England, book iv

They stand lightly to the first brimming, but by reason that they are subject to cast their piggs they had need to be brimmed a second time. Holland. Plinie, i. fol. 230.

And for the same reason they take the sow to be a prophane and unclean beast for that ordinarily she goeth a brimming and admitteth the bore, when the moon is past the full and look how many drink of her milk, they break out into a kinde of leaprosie or dry skirf all over their bodies.

Holland. Plutarch, fol. 1050. Brynston, as written by Piers Plouhman." Sulphur, q. d. brenneburning stone; a stone that burns. Sulfur is also so called, quia igne accenditur. Sce Vossius.

BRIMSTONE, BRIMSTONY. stone, lapis ardens:"

Brynston boilaunt brenning. ont castep hit

Al hot in here hevedes. þat entren in ný þe walles.

Piers Plouhman, p. 354.

Loke how that fire of smal glades, that ben almost ded under the ashen, wol quicken aven whan they ben touched with brimstone, right so ire wol evermore quicken ayen, whan it is touched with pride that is covered in mannes herte.

Chaucer. The Persones Tale, v. ii. p. 388.

And hereupon it is (as I take it) that brimstone taketh the name in Greek @etov for the resemblance of that smell which those things yeeld that have been smitten with lightning: which no doubt have a fiery and piercing scent.

Holland. Plutarch, fol. 578.

DOL. And so we may arrive by Talmud skill,
And profane Grecke, to raise the building up
Of Helen's house, against the Ismaelite,
King of Thogarma, and his Habergions
Brimstony, blue, and fiery.

Ben Jonson. The Alchemist, act iv. sc. 5.

Most readers, I believe, are more charmed with Milton's description of Paradise, than of Hell; they are both, perhaps, equally perfect in their kind, but in the one the brimstone and sulphur are not so refreshing to the imagination, as the beds of flowers and the wilderness of sweets in the other. Spectator, No. 418.

BRINDED, is not in our older lexicographers: probably it is brenned, or browned; marked or streaked with brown.

1. W. Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd.

Shakspeare. Macbeth, act iv. sc. 1. fol. 143.
Now half appear'd

The tawnie lion, pawing to get free
His hinder parts, then springs as broke from bonds,
And rampant shakes his brinded main.

Milton. Paradise Lost, book vii. 1. 466. The cattle in her homestead were three sows, An ewe called Mallie, and three brinded cows. Dryden. The Cock and the Fox. BRINDISI, an ancient and celebrated seaport in the kingdom of Naples, near the entrance of the Gulf of Venice. It was the ancient Brundusium, and from the recollections which it excites, and its vestiges of former magnificence the traveller feels great interest in approaching this town; but a short residence is sufficient to dissipate the illusion. Its port, for which it was so renowned in ancient times, and which was so minutely described by Strabo and other writers of antiquity, still retains its shape and capacity, but time has rendered its entrance shallow, by the accumulation of sand which the waves have deposited. The situation of the town and territory, which is low, and encompassed with a belt of stagnant waters, is


supposed to be insalubrious, which with the decay of BRINDLE its commerce has reduced its population to about 6000 individuals. The castle, which overlooks the town, is one of the most beautiful structures of the kind in Italy, and stands about a mile from the place. The high ridge which extends between the fortress and the bridge, is covered with trees and gardens ; and the view of this picturesque castle, emerging from these groves, and reflected in the still surface of an immense sheet of water, with the buildings of Brindisi itself in the distance, form a very impressive picture. This castle was once the citadel of the town, but is now appropriated to the reception of felons. The most important remnant of antiquity at Brindisi, was a marble column nearly fifty feet high, including the pedestal and capital. Various conjectures have been hazarded respecting the original design of the monument; and from the nature of the sculpture it bore, some antiquaries have supposed that it was intended as a pharos or light-house. The pedestal and base of this pillar are still to be seen in their original position, but its column fell in 1528, and was afterwards removed to Lecce, and reerected for the purpose of supporting a statue of St. Oronzio. Brindisi is the See of an Archbishop, and contains two churches and two convents. It cannot now be easily ascertained by whom the ancient Brundusium was founded, or who were its first inhabitants. Strabo says they were Cretans who landed here with Theseus from Gnossus; but other ancient authors think it was founded by the Japyges. The Romans conceiving it an important place for facilitating their enterprises among the nations beyond the Adriatic, sent a colony thither A. v. c. 509. In this city, Pompey sought an asylum before he fled to Greece; and here likewise Octavianus first assumed the title of Cæsar, and concluded one of his treaties of peace with Antony. Brundusium was celebrated as the birth-place of the tragic poet Pacuvius, and not less so on account of the death of Virgil, which took place there in the year 19 B. C. When the Roman Empire fell a prey to the barbarians who ravaged all its provinces with such eager rapacity, it was not to be expected that a city so rich and flourishing as the ancient Brundusium should escape their depredations; and accordingly the Saracens consummated its ruin in 835. The Greek Emperors attempted to restore this city to its former splendour, when it became a point of contest between them and the Normans, who were finally successful under William I. The Crusades also formed a distinguished period in the history of Brundusium; for while these enthusiastic enterprises impoverished other countries, they tended to enrich this city, which was one of the ports of embarkation. The residence of the Emperor Frederick, who fixed upon this as the place of rendezvous for his numerous armaments to the Holy Land, also contributed to the restoration of its ancient prosperity. At length the loss of Jerusalem, the fall of the Grecian Empire, and the final conquest of these eastern regions by the Turks, which destroyed the Levant trade, plunged this city into that state of torpor from which it has not yet been able to recover. Brundusium is about 180 miles east of Naples, in lat. 40° 48′ N. and in long. 17° 40′ E. BRINDLE, Probably the diminutive of brinded, BRINDLED.

q. v.


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Churchill. The Duellist, book ii.

Dutch, bryn; A. S. bryne. Skinner thinks from brym the salt sea. Junius

says, perhaps so called, quasi pyrine,

T8 Tνроs; quia nimia salsugo os instar ignis adurat. It may be so called because it burns or brens; and the A. S. brennan; Old English, bren or brin; present an obvious etymology.

Thus day and night ytost with churlish gale
Of sighes, in sea of surging brine I bide,
Not knowing how to scape the scouring tide.

Turbervile. To his absent Friend, &c.

And sighing so, he sate in solitarie wise,
Conueying flouds of brynish teares, by conduct of his eyes.
Gascoigne. The Complaint of the Green Knight.

Hee was besmeared and berayed all over with the brine and pickle of the beforesaid salt fish, which made him both hideous to see to, and also to stinke withall most strongly.

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The flying navy Lydia so beheld,
Her eyes with tears, her heart with passion swell'd,
In sighs to these she gave continual vent
And those in brinish streams profusely spent.
Sherburne. Forsaken Lydia.

And in the fountaine shall we gaze so long,
Till the fresh taste be taken from that cleereness,
And made a brine pit with our bitter teares.
Shakspeare. Titus Andronicus, act iii. sc. 1. fol. 41.
Through the black night that sits immense around,
Lash'd into foam, the fierce conflicting brine
Seems o'er a thousand raging waves to burn.

Thomson. Winter.

His ribs, his fins, his whalebone, his blubber, the very spiracles through which he spouts a torrent of brine against his origin, and covers me all over with the spray,-every thing of him and about him is from the throne.

Burke. A Letter to a noble Lord.

BRING, Goth. briggan; A. S. bringan; Dutch, BRINGER, brenghen; Ger. bringen; Swed. bringa. BRINGING.. To remove, or cause the removal of, any thing from one place to another, either by bearing or carrying, leading or drawing. It is equivalent. to the Latin ferre, vehere, trahere, ducere, as, to bring or bear, to bring or carry, to bring or draw, to bring or lead. With English prepositions subjoined it is equivalent also to the compounds of those Latin words, many of which, particularly of the verb duco, we have adopted in our own language. As

To abduce, to bring or lead from.
To adduce, to bring or lead to.

To conduce, or conduct, to bring or lead with.
To deduce, to bring or lead down from.
To educe, and to educate, to bring or lead out.


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