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Like other Goths, to ruin than to build,
• OH Learning! Learning! whatsoe'er thy boast,
• See grave Theology, when once she strays
Hail, modest Ignorance ! thou gnal and prize,
• THESE are the mild, the blest associates given
To him who doubts, and trusts in nought bụt Heaven!' The lines flow with ease, but do not tamely flow.
RELIGIOUS. Art 24. A Critical Essay on the ninth book of Bishop Warburton's
Divine Legation of Moses. Published in consequence of having gained the annual Prize, instituted by the late Rev. J. Hulse, A. M. of St. John's College. By John Norinan Pearson, Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. 8vo. Pp. 140. 48. sewed. Hatchard.
While we allow Bishop Warburton to be great, animated, and original,' we cannot think that his writings, notwithstanding their learning and elaborate research, have contributed in any extent to the elucidation of Scripture; or that his theological Odyssey, the Ninth Book of the Divine Legation, was now deserving of a Critical Essay. Mr. Pearson, however, regarding some of its positions as heterodox, has here made it his business formerly to combat them; and he be. gins with Dr. W's account of the original state of man, in which Adam is represented as capable of discovering the several parts of
Natural Religion by the unassisted efforts of the human understanding. This position the essayist dues not deny : but he argues that it is natural to suppose, from adverting to the processes of the divine dispensations, that Adaun derives his notions of Natural Religion by immediate inspiration.' When it is allowed that the Scriptures are silent concerning the manner in which Adam acquired a knowlege of his moral obligations, hypothesis may be set in array against hypothesis without the possibility of arriving at any definite copclusion : but we did not expeci that in the mathematical University, where the doctrine is, Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora, we should hear it maintained that God made man in his own image, capable of Natural Religion, and then communicated it by inspiration. Indeed, • Natural Religion communi. . cated by Inspiration' appears a complete solecism; for by the former is meant that religion to the discovery of which human reason is competent; and by the latter, knowlege afforded through supernatural means. The deductions of Geometry being within the scope of human reason, it would surely be strange to have them represented as the result of inspiration.
With no more success, in our opinion, does Mr. P. controvert Dr. W.'s notion of the efficacy of repentance under the dispensation of Natural Religion; and, to our surprise, he asserts that we are not authorized by the Sacred Writings, nor by any inference legitimately deduced from the facts stated in them, to conclude that repentance alone is available for the remission of sins. "What will Mr. P. make of the following scriptural declarations ? " A broken heart is a sacrifice God will not despise"--" the Lord saveth the contrite spirit”. “ Let the wicked forsake his way and the Lord will abundantly par. don'_«• Turn unto me, saith the Lord, and I will turn unto you ;" to say nothing of the parable of the returning prodigal. Farther on, it is asserted that nothing but an uniform course of uninterrupted obedience can entitle a creature to God's favour;' Mr. P. might have added, nor that either : but the question is not about what we are iuiled to receive, but respecting the measure of divine placability; and it is a representation of the justice of God which is not warranted by boly writ, to describe him as reluctant to forgive the imperfections of imperfect creatures, unless full satisfaction be made for them on the score of their being capable of uninterrupted obedience. It is time to consider this point more closely and with more boldness than are usual, and to explode a doctrine of which certain preachers are making a very indiscreet use. Satisfaction is no scripture-term ; and the idea which it is intended to convey is in a moral view an utter impossibility. Viewing the death of Christ through this medium, Mr. P. has rather perplexed than enlightened the subject.
We expected something of importance on the question relative to the origin of Sacrifices : but the writer does not appear to have satisfied his own mind; he very properly objects, however, to Bishop W.'s comment on the offering up of Isaac.
The view of Justification in the D. L. is fair ground for objection; and Mr. P., by endeavouring to unite Faith and Works, has given a better picture of Christianity than Dr. Warburton In the section on Miracles, the sentiment of the Bishop on De
monology is too hastily adopted; and Mr. Pearson makes a remark which would have better suited the 15th century than the present. • How far the spirits of darkness (says he) are still permitted to afflict haman creatures, either in their moral or physical nature, and whether they still retain any power of inducing bodily distempers, or exciting other natural evils, we are not able to determine.' "What an air of wisdom does this profound ignorance assume?
Mr. P. does not altogether agree with Dr. Warburton on the subject of Prophecy; and he with reason objects to the Prelate's comment on 2 Pet. i. 19.
As a prize-essay, this tract may at present be favourably contemplated by the writer : but we venture to prophecy that nine years hence he will not think more highly of it than we do; who are perhaps nine years older than he is. Art. 25. Two Discourses on the Origin of Evil, founded on the His
tory of Cain and Abel, and on the Reply of Jesus Christ relative, to the Man born blind. By T. Drummond. 8vo. pp. 37. Is. 6d. Johnson. 1809.
That nothing sinful exists in the constitution of human nature ; that all the evils of which we complain in the dealings of mankind with each other are the offspring of unsubdued passions ; that Abel, though descended from the same parents with Cain, was pure and holy; and that, as our Lord, in reply to the question relative to the man who was born blind, did not refer to the offence of our first parents as the source of human aMictions, so therefore corruption of nature cannot be obtained by inheritance; are the positions maintained in these sermons. The preacher, however, is rather diffuse and declamatory; and though he cou bats the doctrine of Original Sin on the true ground, he has embarrassed his reasoning by a loose and rambling style. Had he compressed his argument, it would have had more effect; and the matter of these two discourses might well have been contained in a single sermon. Art. 26. Two Sermons, preached on the 1st Day of January, 1809.
ac Hanover-street Chapel ; and on the 8th of the same Month, at Worship street Chapel By Joseph Nightingale, Author of a “ Portraiture of Methodism," &c. &c. Published by Request Svo. PP. 47: 18. 6d. Longman and Co.
Mr. N. has here presented us with two interesting and impressive discourses, on the Efects of Time on the Condition of Man, and on Grateful Recollections of Divine Mercy and Goodness. In the first, he has affectingly, glanced at the changes which have occarred and are occurring in the political world, as well as in the private and domestic relations of life ; and in the latter he draws a picture of our blessings as inhabitants of this highly favoured country, and as living under the British Constitution. The accuracy of his representation must be strongly felt at the present moment, when the nations of the Continent have lost their independence, and experience all the ravages and unspeakable
. Our collector remarked, with a smile, that he had often heard of this Publisher, Mr. Request, but could never find where he resided.
horrors of war. Throughout these sermons, he shew's a mind at once serious and enlightened ; and which, without bigotry and narrowness, is nobly alive to the interests of that Christianity, the essence of which is love to God and love to man.
POLITICS. Art. 27. An impartial Examination of Sir Francis Burdeti's Plan of
Parliamentary Reform. Svo. Bone and Horne. 1809. The Baronet's plan was to make property the basis of political right ; to allow house-holders, and others who were subject to direct taxation in support of the poor, the church, and the state, as well as forty-shilling freeholders, to have a vote in returning members to parliament ; to have the elections taken in the several parishes ; and to restrict the duration of parliament to three years. – Respecting this plan, the author of the present Examination suggests two distinct questions ; viz. • Are the regulations which, at a more convenient opportunity, Sir. Francis means to propose, calcu. lated to obtain the end in view ? and would this end, if attained, benefit the country ??-Both these interrogatories are decided in the affirmative. It is contended that, hy this extension of the elective franchise, the people would regain their due influence in the state ; that public spirit would increase ; that merit would have fair play; and that the public burdens would be diminished. That such acquisitions would be blessings, it is needless to prove : but at present we see little prospect of realizing these splendid visions, howmuchsoever they may be demanded by the perilous circumstances of the country. The connection which subsists between a general feeling of public spirit and patriotic energy, between fair representation and moderate taxation, is here illustrated ; and it is contended that, if the people enjoyed their full rights, the force of the country would be so greatly multiplied that the King might make peace with safety. If this be true, Bonaparte is the only man in Europe who ought to oppose our Parliamentary Reforın. Art. 28. Letters on the Affairs of Spain, and Spanish America ; with Observations on the Revolution of the Continent. By Sydney.
C. and R. Baldwin. 1809. With no bright anticipations of the result of what is called the cause of the Spanish Patriots, this writer is solicitous to direct the views of our Government to the emancipation of Spanish America ; and thus to form an Independent Empire, which would at once operate as a check on the United States, and open to us a market of an incalcalable extent. According to him, all our exertions for Old Spain will be worse than thrown away. Our interference is pronounced to be wild and improvident ; and the independence of the peninsula is considered to be impracticable in the present state of Europe. He would persuade us that, in a few months, Spain must be added to the list of revolutionized states under the influence of France ; and the Spaniards are described as languid in their own : cause, and incapable of the efforts of enlightened patriotism : but, when he attempts to explain the reasons which may induce the
Spaniards to wish to be revolutionized by Bonaparte, he assigns to them wishes and sentiments which exist only among an enlightened people. We are not sure, however, that the views of Sydney respect. ing the New World have not more sound policy in them, than those which this country has adopted in favour of Old Spain ; and that the emancipation of Spanish America is not of more importance, than the preservation of the Mother Country from the grasp of Bonaparte.
MISCELLANEOUS. Art. 29. Narrative of the Siege of Zaragoza. By Charles Richard
Vaughan, M B. Fellow of All-Souls College, Oxford, and one of Dr. Radcliff's Travelling Fellows from that University. The sixth Edition. Svo 28. 6d. Ridgway,
Though the modern Zaragoza has not displayed that unconquer. able spirit which has rendered antient Numantia so celebrated in the page of history, the heroism and steady perseverance of the inhabitants of the capital of Arragon, in defending themselves against the French, are highly creditable to their military reputation. It is therefore a source of extreme lamentation to reflect, when we are perusing these interesting pages, that, after the instances of personal valour and patriotic enthusiasm in both sexes, which they record, this city should fall into the hands of the enemy, and that its smoaking ruins should be quoted by them with exultation and triumph.
The population of Zaragoza is stated to have been about 60,000 when the siege commenced : but Mr. V. does not inform us of the multitude who perished during its continuance ; nor does he extend his narrative to the melancholy catastrophe of its fall. From this evidence alone we should have been led to conclude that the in, habitants of Zaragoza were successful in repelling their invaders. Alas! poor city! Art. 30. Arndt's Spirit of the Times. Translated from the German
by the Rev. P. W., being the Work for the Publication of which the unfortunate Palm of Erlangen was sacrificed by Napoleon, the Destroyer ; containing Historical and Political Sketches, with Prognostics, relative to Spain and Portugal, Sweden, Russia, Turkey, Austria, France, and Bonaparte. Svo, - Thiselton. 1808.
M. Arndt's work on the Spirit of the Times was noticed in the Appendix to our 520 volume. The translator has given only selected passages from it; justly considering a great part of the original as too partial and local in its interest in deserve the labour of a version, which was rendered difficult by an intricate style, and by what he chuses to call the unintelligible jargon of the critical philosophy. We cannot doubt that the British public will thank him for having conveyed to them the sentiments of an intelligent, and, as far as we can conclude, sincere foreigner, on subjects with which he had possessed opportunities of becoming intimately acquainted: but we are convinced, that the Reverend gentleman was misinformed as to M. Arndt's work having occasioned the death of the bookseller Palm ; and we much regret that he should have considered it as