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SO

than many people suppose between the conviviality of the lower orders of the present age and that of the higher in the preceding. Both are ruled and promoted by social superstitions and despotic customs. Holidays, anniversaries, comings of age, births, deaths, and marriages seized upon the aristocracy, and compelled them, under penalty of loss of caste and denunciation of meanness, to empty their purses and destroy their constitutions. The funeral feast in the Bride of Lammermoor is a fair specimen of such calamities. The working-man of the present day is under the same cial despotism. There is the begining or the end of an apprenticeship the reception into a guild or club-the beginning or the completion of some important job. The multifarious occasions on which, from such causes as these, the penalty of a debauch is levied on the working-man, are well described in Mr Dunlop's curious little book on drinking customs. There, too, that pride of hospitality which made the decayed gentleman pour forth the life-blood of his remaining fortunes in claret, ere he would confess his inability to entertain his friends according to the old usage of his house, is but too well exemplified in the artisan's disposition to count all surplus wages a drinking-fund for the use of his fellowworkmen. There is a kind of sensual disinterestedness in the use thus made of the funds which should accumulate in the savings' bank, to be laid out in a well-ordered house; and hence arises the unfortunate peculiarity so frequently noticed, that great wages do not improve the condition of working men, but rather deteriorate them, by putting at their command an enhanced drinking-fund. Well, the more we gee of similarity between the departed malpractices of the rich, and the existing malpractoos of the poor, the more thoroughly aco we convinced that the latter will be amended, if the right method of amondment be taken, and the issue pationtly awaited. Of one thing we Ato satisfied that the amendment will not be achieved by force. We lay it down as an axiom, that if a man destros liquor, and has money

to pay for it, he will get it, despite of justices of the peace, constables, committees of vigilance, and teetotal lecturers. There may be geographical or other conditions, it is true, in which the gratification is not possible. Let us mention one curious instance of this. We used to hold it rather remarkable that the Australian squatters and their followers-knowing the classes in the home country from which they are supplied-should be total abstainers-drinkers of tea only. Making inquiry about the matter of one who had personal experience in the country, he explained that it entirely arose from the impossibility of liquor finding its way to them. So deeply were all classes devoted to its absorption, that no ingenuity could conceal it from the skilful senses of the carriers, and no penalties or bribes would induce them to spare it. To get liquor through any man's hands was impossible-the soil was so absorbent of moisture, that none of it would penetrate to the interior. To get a drop of liquor, a man required to go to Sydney or Melbourne, and then he drank enough to make his journey worth while. Multitudes of these involuntary teetotallers have been known to sell their very cattle-runs for liquor.

The coercive methods of suppression, unfortunately too fashionable among us at present, are likely to raise very serious and distressing questions. As a minor evil, they give ground for totally false anticipations of successful results. With great pomp and form a dozen or two of public-houses are abolished in a large town, and innocent people believe that drinking is thus uprooted. To say that drinking is caused by the public-house keeper, is about as wise as to say that it is caused by the bottle-maker, or that horse-racing is the creation of saddlers. If there are five public-houses where there were ten before, the custom of the five will be doubled. If the ten public-houses are abolished, people will supply themselves from other sources, and will probably expend in an increased amount of liquor, the money they are charged for the accommodation of the public-house.

It is quite fair to make every man pay for his indulgences as much as can be extracted from him, for the State and other proper purposes. It is a good thing, too, that so dangerous a practice as drinking should be carried on as much as possible under the eye of the public. Hence the practice of taxing and licensing publichouses. Carrying out the same policy, we would, if possible, have the public-house keeper a conscientious, respectable man, who obeys the moral law and fears God, believing that such a one will use the influence of his position to restrain the excesses of his guests. The policy, however, of the ascetic agitators of the present day, is to make the tavernkeeper a blackguard. He is subjected to paltry humiliations which a respectable man will not endure. His property and trade are treated with a capricious recklessness, from which a substantial honest tradesman recoils. He is overwhelmed with foul language, and told by popular clergymen that he is doomed to the bottomless pit. Yet, if he be the person to stand all this, he is well paid for it; he gets the bite with the buffet, as a homely proverb says, for his enemies are bent on making him rich by putting down his rivals and giving him a monopoly.

In the year 1826, there appeared in the Edinburgh Review an article on the licensing of public-houses. We know it to have been from the pen of Sydney Smith, and are at a loss to know how it has been excluded from the collected edition of his works. It has, of course, but a partial reference to the present day, and it contains views with which our own are not precisely at one; yet its wit and sense, at once conveying evidence of its authorship, prompt us to cull from it the following passages :

"What the poor shall drink-how they shall drink it-in pint cups or quart mugs-hot or cold-in the morning or the evening-whether the Three Pigeons shall be shut up, and the Shoulder of Mutton be opened-whether the Black Horse shall continue to swing in the air -or the White Horse, with animated crest and tail, no longer portend spirits within all these great questions depend upon little clumps of squires and parsons gathered together in alehouses in the

month of September-so portentous to publicans and partridges, to sots and sportsmen, to guzzling and game.

"I am by no means a friend to the multiplication of public-houses,' says a plump perdricide gentleman in loose and brass buttons. Perhaps not; but mud-coloured gaiters, bottle-green jacket you are a friend to the multiplication of Inns. You are well aware, that in your journeys to Buxton, Harrowgate, and Bath, the competition of inns keeps down the price of your four post-horses, and secures for you and yours the most reverential awe, from Boots upwards, to the crafty proprietor himself of the house From what other of entertainment.

tumult at the Dragon? Why the agoncause the sudden and overwhelming ising cry of first inn? Why is cake and jelly pushed in at the window? Why are four eyeless, footless, legless horses, rapidly circumscribed by breeching and bearing-reins? Why are you whisked off, amid the smiles of sallow waiters, before the landlord has had time to communicate to you the sad state of turnips in the neighbourhood? Look down the main street, and you will benow a little to the right, as you proceed hold the sign of the Star and Garter. Make your bow to the landlord, for to him you are indebted for the gratification of your wishes, and the activity of your movements. His waiters are as sallow, his vertebræ are as flexible-his first turns as prompt and decisive. Woe to the Dragon if he slumbers and sleeps! Woe to the Star if it does not glitter! Each publican keeps the other in a state of vigilant civility; and the traveller rolls along to his journey's end, lolling on the cushion of competition! Why not therefore extend the benefit of this principle to the poor villager or the needy traveller-which produces so many comforts to the landed and substantial Justice?

"There are two alehouses in the village, the Red Horse and the Dun Cow. Is it common sense to suppose that these two publicans are not desirous of gaining customers from each other?-and that the means they take are not precisely the same as those of important inns,-by procuring good articles, and retailing them with civility and attention? We really do not mean to accuse English Magistrates of ill nature, for in general there is a good deal of kindness and consideration among them; but they do not drink ale, and are apt to forget the importance of ale to the common people. When wine-drinkers regulate the liquor and comfort of ale-drinkers, it is much

SO

than many people suppose between the conviviality of the lower orders of the present age and that of the higher in the preceding. Both are ruled and promoted by social superstitions and despotic customs. Holidays, anniversaries, comings of age, births, deaths, and marriages seized upon the aristocracy, and compelled them, under penalty of loss of caste and denunciation of meanness, to empty their purses and destroy their constitutions. The funeral feast in the Bride of Lammermoor is a fair specimen of such calamities. The working-man of the present day is under the same cial despotism. There is the begining or the end of an apprenticeship the reception into a guild or club-the beginning or the completion of some important job. The multifarious occasions on which, from such causes as these, the penalty of a debauch is levied on the working-man, are well described in Mr Dunlop's curious little book on drinking customs. There, too, that pride of hospitality which made the decayed gentleman pour forth the life-blood of his remaining fortunes in claret, ere he would confess his inability to entertain his friends according to the old usage of his house, is but too well exemplified in the artisan's disposition to count all surplus wages a drinking-fund for the use of his fellowworkmen. There is a kind of sensual disinterestedness in the use thus made of the funds which should accumulate in the savings' bank, to be laid out in a well-ordered house; and hence arises the unfortunate peculiarity so frequently noticed, that great wages do not improve the condition of working-men, but rather deteriorate them, by putting at their command an enhanced drinking-fund. Well, the more we see of similarity between the departed malpractices of the rich, and the existing malpractices of the poor, the more thoroughly are we convinced that the latter will be amended, if the right method of amendment be taken, and the issue patiently awaited. Of one thing we are satisfied-that the amendment will not be achieved by force. We lay it down as an axiom, that if a man desires liquor, and has money

to pay for it, he will get it, despite of justices of the peace, constables, committees of vigilance, and teetotal lecturers. There may be geographical or other conditions, it is true, in which the gratification is not pos sible. Let us mention one curious instance of this. We used to hold it rather remarkable that the Australian squatters and their followers-knowing the classes in the home country from which they are supplied-should be total abstainers-drinkers of tea only. Making inquiry about the matter of one who had personal experience in the country, he explained that it entirely arose from the impossibility of liquor finding its way to them. So deeply were all classes devoted to its absorption, that no ingenuity could conceal it from the skilful senses of the carriers, and no penalties or bribes would induce them to spare it. To get liquor through any man's hands was impossible-the soil was so absorbent of moisture, that none of it would penetrate to the interior. To get a drop of liquor, a man required to go to Sydney or Melbourne, and then he drank enough to make his journey worth while. Multitudes of these involuntary teetotallers have been known to sell their very cattle-runs for liquor.

The coercive methods of suppression, unfortunately too fashionable among us at present, are likely to raise very serious and distressing questions. questions. As a minor evil, they give ground for totally false anticipations of successful results. With great pomp and form a dozen or two of public-houses are abolished in a large town, and innocent people believe that drinking is thus uprooted. To say that drinking is caused by the public-house keeper, is about as wise as to say that it is caused by the bottle-maker, or that horse-racing is the creation of saddlers. If there are five public-houses where there were ten before, the custom of the five will be doubled. If the ten public-houses are abolished, people will supply themselves from other sources, and will probably expend in an increased amount of liquor, the money they are charged for the accommodation of the public-house.

It is quite fair to make every man pay for his indulgences as much as can be extracted from him, for the State and other proper purposes. It is a good thing, too, that so dangerous a practice as drinking should be carried on as much as possible under the eye of the public. Hence the practice of taxing and licensing publichouses. Carrying out the same policy, we would, if possible, have the public-house keeper a conscientious, respectable man, who obeys the moral law and fears God, believing that such a one will use the influence of his position to restrain the excesses of his guests. The policy, however, of the ascetic agitators of the present day, is to make the tavernkeeper a blackguard. He is subjected to paltry humiliations which a respectable man will not endure. His property and trade are treated with a capricious recklessness, from which a substantial honest tradesman recoils. He is overwhelmed with foul language, and told by popular clergymen that he is doomed to the bottomless pit. Yet, if he be the person to stand all this, he is well paid for it; he gets the bite with the buffet, as a homely proverb says, for his enemies are bent on making him rich by putting down his rivals and giving him a monopoly. In the year 1826, there appeared in the Edinburgh Review an article on the licensing of public-houses. We know it to have been from the pen of Sydney Smith, and are at a loss to know how it has been excluded from the collected edition of his works. It has, of course, but a partial reference to the present day, and it contains views with which our own are not precisely at one; yet its wit and sense, at once conveying evidence of its authorship, prompt us to cull from it the following passages :—

"What the poor shall drink-how they shall drink it-in pint cups or quart mugs-hot or cold-in the morning or the evening-whether the Three Pigeons shall be shut up, and the Shoulder of Mutton be opened-whether the Black Horse shall continue to swing in the air -or the White Horse, with animated crest and tail, no longer portend spirits within all these great questions depend upon little clumps of squires and parsons gathered together in alehouses in the

month of September-so portentous to publicans and partridges, to sots and sportsmen, to guzzling and game.

"I am by no means a friend to the multiplication of public-houses,' says a plump perdricide gentleman in loose and brass buttons. Perhaps not; but mud-coloured gaiters, bottle-green jacket you are a friend to the multiplication of Inns. You are well aware, that in your journeys to Buxton, Harrowgate, and Bath, the competition of inns keeps down the price of your four post-horses, and secures for you and yours the most reverential awe, from Boots upwards, to the crafty proprietor himself of the house From what other of entertainment. cause the sudden and overwhelming

tumult at the Dragon ?-Why the agonising cry of first inn? Why is cake and jelly pushed in at the window? Why are four eyeless, footless, legless horses, rapidly circumscribed by breeching and bearing-reins? Why are you whisked off, amid the smiles of sallow waiters, before the landlord has had time to communicate to you the sad state of turnips in the neighbourhood? Look now a little to the right, as you proceed down the main street, and you will beMake your bow to the landlord, for to hold the sign of the Star and Garter. him you are indebted for the gratification of your wishes, and the activity of your movements. His waiters are as sallow, his vertebræ are as flexible-his first turns as prompt and decisive. Woe to the Dragon if he slumbers and sleeps! Woe to the Star if it does not glitter!

Each publican keeps the other in a state of vigilant civility; and the traveller rolls along to his journey's end, lolling on the cushion of competition! Why not therefore extend the benefit of this principle to the poor villager or the needy traveller-which produces so many comforts to the landed and substantial Justice?

We

"There are two alehouses in the village, the Red Horse and the Dun Cow. Is it common sense to suppose that these two publicans are not desirous of gaining customers from each other?-and that the means they take are not precisely the same as those of important inns,-by procuring good articles, and retailing them with civility and attention? really do not mean to accuse English Magistrates of ill nature, for in general there is a good deal of kindness and consideration among them; but they do not drink ale, and are apt to forget the importance of ale to the common people. When wine-drinkers regulate the liquor and comfort of ale-drinkers, it is much

as if carnivorous animals should regulate the food of graminivorous animals-as if a lion should cater for an ox, or a coach-horse order dinner for a leopard. There is no natural capacity or incitement to do the thing well-no power in the lion to distinguish between clover and cow-thistles-no disposition in the coach-horse to discriminate between the succulence of a young kid, and the distressing dryness of a superannuated cow. The want of sympathy is a source of inattention, and a cause of evil.

"The immense importance of a pint of ale to a common person should never be overlooked; nor should a good-natured Justice forget that he is acting for Liliputians, whose pains and pleasures lie in a very narrow compass, and are but too apt to be treated with neglect and contempt by their superiors. About ten or eleven o'clock in the morning, perhaps, the first faint, shadowy vision of a future pint of beer dawns on the fancy of the ploughman. Far, very far is it from being fully developed. Sometimes the idea is rejected, sometimes it is fostered. At one time he is almost fixed on the Red Horse; but the blazing fire and sedulous kindness of the landlady of the Dun Cow shake him, and his soul labours! Heavy is the ploughed land-dark, dreary, and wet the day. His purpose is at last fixed for beer! Threepence is put down for the vigour of ale, one penny for the stupefaction of tobacco !and these are the joys and holidays of millions, the greatest pleasure and relaxation which it is in the power of fortune to bestow; and these are the amusements and holidays which a wise and parental Legislature should not despise or hastily extinguish, but, on the contrary, protect with every regulation which prudence and morality would in any degree permit. We must beg leave to go into the Dun Cow with the poor man; and we beg our readers to come in for a moment with us. Hodge finds a very good fire, a very good-natured landlady, who has some obliging expressions for everybody, a clean bench, and some very good ale-and all this produced by the competition with the opposite alehouse; but for which, he must have put up with any treatment, and any refreshment the unopposed landlord might have chosen to place before him. Is Hodge not sensible that his landlady is obliging, and his ale good? How can it be supposed that the common people have not the same distinctions and niceties in their homely pleasures as the upper classes have in their luxuries? Why should they not have? Why

should they not be indulged in it? Why should they be debarred from all benefit of that principle of competition, which is the only method by which such advantages are secured, or can ever be secured, to any class of mankind?—the method to which the upper classes, wherever their own pleasures are concerned, always have recourse. licensers of public-houses are so sensible of this, that, where there is only one inn, nothing is more common than to substitute, and make exertions to set up another, and this by gentlemen who are by no means friendly to the multiplication of alehouses."

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The

"Public-houses are not only the inns of the travelling poor, but they are the cellars and parlours of the stationary poor. A gentleman has his own publichouse, locked up in square brick bins. London Particular — Chalier 1802Carbonell 1803-Sir John's present of Hock at my marriage: bought at the Duke's sale-East India Madeira - LafitteNoyau-Mareschino. Such are the domestic resources of him who is to regulate the potations of the labourer. And away goes this subterraneous bacchanalian, greedy of the grape, with his feet wrapped up in flannel, to increase, on the licensing day, the difficulties of obtaining a pot of beer to the lower orders of mankind!-and believes, as all men do when they are deciding upon other persons' pleasures, that he is actuated by the highest sense of duty, and the deepest consideration for the welfare of the lower orders."

"In an advanced state of civilisation there must be also an advanced state of misery. In the low public-houses of great cities, very wretched and very criminal persons are huddled together in great masses. But is a man to die supperless in a ditch because he is not rich, or even because he is not innocent? A pauper or a felon is not to be driven into despair, and turned into a wild beast. Such men must be; and such men must eat and sleep; and if laws are wise, and police vigilant, we do not conceive it to be any evil that the haunts of such men are known, and in some degree subject to inspection. What is meant by respectable public-houses, are houses where all the customers are rich and opulent. But who will take in the refuse of mankind, if monopoly allows him to choose better customers? There is no end to this mischievous meddling with the natural arrangements of society. It would be just as wise to set Magistrates to

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