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at the English and American Hotel, and enter at once into a long discussion on the war, the Mosquito question, and "the domestic institution." The former we approve of; not from hatred to the Russians, but thinking it good for us as a chastisement for our obese prosperity; the next we know nothing about, but fancy from its name it must be sufficiently vexatious; and as to the third, we are not content to take it on Mrs Stowe's evidence alone. We are obliged to be patient listeners to arguments on the other side, which appear to us, indeed, to carry quite as much weight with them. There is a concert in the evening at a very fine music hall, called "Frascati," in which one of the performances is described in the bill as "Hout en Stroo," and consists in a man producing a number of treble notes by tapping a short wood-andrope ladder with a stick. This appeared to us more curious than beautiful, but was vociferously applauded notwithstanding. The King's palace is the most remarkable public building, though its office is nearly a sinecure, for the King is only said to inhabit it for eight days in the year. The white marble saloon is really grand, and its grandeur is enhanced by the thought of the cost at which its materials must have reached their present site. One of the lions of this palace is a painting which looks so like a medallion as entirely to deceive the eye. The Museum is rich, like those of the Hague and Rotterdam, in masters of the Dutch school; and this gallery contains many masters who are but little known elsewhere. We have really had quite enough of fine pictures by the old Dutch artists. There is certainly a tameness and a sameness in their excellency which wearies the eye, and makes one wonder why they did not attempt higher flights of fancy, and a wider range of interest. There is something refreshing in

passing from an ancient gallery to one where the moderns are represented, such as the Van der Hoop collection.

Old Masters are certainly venerable, but living artists have the freshness, though they have occasionally the awkwardness, of youth. So we enter with pleasure the gallery bequeathed by Mr Van der Hoop to the city of Amsterdam, because that gallery contains a large proportion of modern paintings. The names of Bakhuyzen, Berghem, Cuyp, Hobbima, Hoogstraaten, &c., occur again in connection with exquisitely wrought-out works. But we are sated with the company of these old friends. Pass we to the modern pictures. Among these are many that please at the time, though a record of them would be tedious, especially as most of the modern Dutchmen seem to follow in the wake of their fathers. But two of these pictures we cannot pass over; one, on account of its historical interest, the other because of its fidelity to nature. The former is by an artist named Doijer, representing Kenan Hasselaar on the ramparts of Haarlem. As the name scarcely indicates, to those unacquainted with Dutch, who this personage was, we may be allowed to explain that Kenan Hasselaar was a strapping young maiden who played the same heroic part at Haarlem which Joan of Arc did at Orleans, and the Maid of Zaragoza at the siege of that town. We are glad to conclude our view by paying homage to a female artist, Malle. Henriette Knip. Her picture is simply a mothercat and two kittens sitting at one of the ivied lattices common in Holland. The cat is tawny or lion-coloured, and her quiet affectionate look inimitable. The kittens look careless and playful. The subject is humble, but this is far from being low art, as it raises animal instincts to a certain human dignity. We shall long think of the cat and kittens of Mdlle. Knip.


by Utrecht and Rotterdam! Our associations with Holland are so far unsatisfactory that we were just too late for the skating, although more may

be expected now that we have left. We heard at Rotterdam that some Englishmen had been waiting in that harbour for a month in a yacht, till the

canal should be frozen up. We suppose this to be an exaggeration founded on the notorious eccentricities of our countrymen. We are not sorry to escape from the shoe-blacks of Amsterdam, who are the most persevering in pursuit of their calling we have ever met with. How unlike the humble" cirer, Monsieur" 8' of Paris. No matter if you had just sallied forth from your inn resplendent in Day and Martin, or even if you had on a pair of varnished boots, they still were anxious

66 -to paint the lily, To throw an odour on the violet."

One of the peculiarities of Holland we thought worth recollecting, was the pervading smell of turf in all the towns, a savour by no means unpleasant; and one of the oddities which most struck us in a country where all was odd, was the signs of the inns and taverns. One of these was "De Rodde Kat" The Red Cat; another "In de Gekroonde Oliefant "The Sign of the Crowned Elephant; another, where we stayed when at Haarlem, "De Leeuwerke," -The Lark. If we had penetrated farther to the north, the costumes would have been more curious; as it was, we had the opportunity of com

paring the gold head-plates of the North Holland women (making them look as if their skulls had been fractured, and made good with gold), and the golden corkscrews of the people about Dort. The same style of domestic architecture prevails through Holland-the brick house and Flemish gable-the windows opening, not as in Germany and France, but with sashes as in England. Perhaps it is not universally known that the native name of Holland, derived, no doubt, from the Batavi, is Buitenland. Our name of Dutch is of course a corruption of Deutsch, this nation being the German people with whom, in ancient times, we were best acquainted. In fact, the word Dutch is used indifferently for German by our old writers, the High Dutch language signifying what we now call German, and the Low Dutch what we now call Dutch or the language of Holland, which is the most important member of the Low German family of languages. We found that a mixture of broad English and narrow German, in almost equal proportions, was a far better medium of communication in Holland than the French language, which is only understood in the dress circle.


"A tous leurs detracteurs les universités anglaises peuvent répondre triomphalement en montrant leurs produit, c'est a dire, la nation anglaise représentée par ses chefs et ses classes dirigeantes. Elles ont été instituées, selon une belle parole du docteur Pusey, pour faire des hommes et non des livres. Tout observation impartial conviendra qu'elles ont merveilleusement rempli leur mission."MONTALEMBERT, Avenir Politique de l'Angleterre.

THE reason why experience has a tendency to create a distrust in change, and to alter Radicals into Tories, through the intermediate stages of Conservative Liberalism, and Liberal Conservatism, as they advance in years, is principally to be found in the fact that, in the illusion of the prospective advantages which attend each new system, as compared with the old, men are apt to be blind to counterbalancing disadvantages, which only come into sight when the change has already been made, and when a return to the old system is impossible. It is with all young theorists as with all young

poets. Reading over their compositions to themselves or to a flattering friend, and dressing them as they please in all the finery of intonation and emphasis, they have no eyes for their imperfections; but when they see the first unfavourable critique in a review, they are apt to undergo a revulsion of feeling in proportion to their first enthusiasm ; they wonder how they could have overlooked such a multitude of glaring weaknesses and damning defects; and, in the first agony of disappointment, are eager to make a holocaust of every existing copy. It seems to be a rule of all human affairs, that to all

changes, even to those seemingly the
least objectionable, the most inno-
cent, and the most urgently de-
manded by the necessities of the
times, certain unforeseen inconve
niences are appended, which sooner
or later tend to diminish the self-
gratulation of their authors. As an
instance of this, we may remark, that
no innovation could be imagined less
likely to be attended with deduc-
tions from its usefulness than the
change in the computation of the
calendar, commonly known by the
name of the change from the Old to
the New Style, which was effected
with us in the last century. It
is well known that the Russians
still doggedly observe the old sys-
tem,-probably with a view of test-
ing for some hundred years the new
system by the experiences of others
before they venture on it themselves.
No one will question that, considered
in all its bearings, the change has
worked well for us; and yet it has
brought things to pass which any
satirist of our day, possessing the
talent of Aristophanes, might turn to
good account. The Athenian come-
dian showed how, through a similar
change which took place in his day,
the fasts and the festivals were de-
plorably disarranged, and how unplea-
sant were its effects on the lives of
the gods in particular, who, dwelling
as they did out of the world, were of
course far behind the march of the
age. The savour of the sacrifices, on
which they were supposed to live,
came up to them either when they
were asleep or not hungry, and was
withheld at those regular hours at
which they were accustomed to break
their fasts; so that, if it had not
been for a store of nectar and am-
brosia reserved for special emergen-
cies, their immortality during the
time of initiation into the new sys-
tem ran the risk of being quenched
by their vulgar starvation.

Even so it must be a matter of congratulation to us that those terrible Teutonic gods, in whose honours some of our national festivals were instituted, have passed away, or we cannot tell what might be the consequences of their wrath. Let us take only the case of May-day. The first of May comes now some dozen

days or so earlier than it used to come, and this at a time of year in which a dozen days make a marked difference. We are assured that, in the days of Queen Elizabeth, every village-green was gay with a Maypole, round which the young people used to dance, while the elder sat on the ground and watched them. It is quite certain that, if the same ceremonies were observed now, most of the elder, and some of the young people, would never live to see another May-day; and the untimely fate of Tennyson's May-Queen becomes perfectly intelligible by a reference to the New Style. But nowhere is this anachronism more apparent than in the ancient city of Oxford. There on the morning of May-day, precisely as the clock strikes five, a hymn is heard to proceed from the top of the tower of Magdalen College, chanted in the open air by the choristers of that society, and immediately afterwards the bells ring out a merry peal. Some suppose that the chant was intended to have the effect of an exorcism on the hosts of evil spirits who were imagined to be abroad on that morning, and whose presence is still symbolised by the people of the town who, round the base of the tower, endeavour by a horrid concert of penny trumpets to drown the celestial melody above. This ceremony ought certainly to be postponed to the old May-day, as at present it is liable to be performed in a cold north-east wind, with flakes of snow mocking the whiteness of the poor boys' surplices, and flitting like sparks which "burn frore" into their open mouths; and supposing the evil spirits to exist, and to adhere, as is most probable, to the old computation, the benefit of the exorcism is lost upon them, and when they do come abroad some days later, they are able to keep their witches' Sabbath without let or hindrance. To ascend from particulars to generals, the change from the Old to the New Style has produced a great disarrangement of the seasons, and this disarrangement is enhanced, if the fact be true, as some natural philosophers suppose, that our climate has really changed. March used to be considered the first month of Spring; we

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should now almost flatter April by placing it in that position; while at the beginning of December, that Indian summer with which we have been blest of late years as a compensation for the loss of spring, is scarcely yet over. We do not wish to dwell longer on this topic, else we shall be exalting into a prominent subject of our article what we intended only as an illustration or a simile. We pass from the effects of the change of style in the calendar on the customs of the City of Oxford, to the effects of a change of style in the constitution of the University of Oxford, on the life of that University and its members. Every one who takes interest in such matters is aware that, in the year 1852, a large Blue-book appeared, purporting to be the Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners appointed to inquire into the State, Discipline, Studies, and Revenues of the University and Colleges of Oxford," and containing also the independent evidence on which this report was founded. As an assistance to the memory in recollecting the date, we may mention the death of the Duke of Wellington, and the fact reported of him that, brave and conscientious to the last, he was engaged in mastering the contents of this book in his capacity of Chancellor of the University when death overtook him. It is also well known that this report gave rise to a Parliamentary movement, the result of which has been, that certain important changes have since taken place in the constitution of the University. The all-engrossing war in which we have been so lately engaged is a sufficient reason why less public attention than the subject itself seems to deserve has probably been bestowed on those changes; but now that the war is over, it would seem, in the absence of more exciting matter, to open an interesting field for discussion. All the changes which have hitherto been effected appear to us to be of subordinate importance as compared with those which have taken place in the nature of the public examinations, and which at the present moment appear to be as it were on their trial in the University. It is to be remarked that the present state

of the examinations at Oxford is not altogether attributable to the pressure of the Commission. Those most averse to Royal, which is now only another name for Parliamentary interference, argue, with much show of truth at any rate, that the University, even under the old constitution of its governing body, has long been engaged in the work of self-regeneration; and although opponents may say, with much plausibility, that this work has been stimulated by the vision of this heavy blue volume, hanging like the sword of Damocles, or rather like the stone of Pirithous (ever and anon on the point of giving way, and exactly like one in the act of falling), over the Heads of Houses, yet they may point to the history of the University since the beginning of the present century, and show that the Hebdomadal Board, however oligarchical and Venetian an institution, never at any time lost sight of the principle that reform and renovation, if not innovation, were from time to time necessary to the health and security of the University structure. All our readers may not be quite au fait of the change which has taken place in the nature of the governing body of the University. The government was formerly administered chiefly by the Hebdomadal Board (so called from its weekly meetings), and composed of the Heads of colleges and halls, presided over by the Vice-Chancellor for the time being, with the Proctors for the time being as assessors watching over the interests of the body of the graduates, of whom they are supposed to be the acting representatives. This body has now been superseded by the Hebdomadal Council, which is made up of a certain number of the Heads of Houses, professors, and college tutors, elected by Congregation; which latter assembly has been restored from its obsolete condition of a merely formal element in the University, corresponding to the state into which the Convocation of the clergy has lapsed, to its ancient activity and importance. Congregation had fallen into the condition into which the House of Lords would inevitably fall if it were left to the tender mercies of the Manchester school; it now stands between the popular assembly

of Convocation, or the whole body of Masters with their names on the books, and the executive Hebdomadal Council, which, in the constitution of the University, represents the Crown and its ministers in the constitution of the State.

The principal reason given for changing the nature of the Hebdomadal Cabinet was the presumed advisability of introducing a more intellectual element into the executive. The Heads of Houses are elected to their positions as heads, not only on account of superior learning and general intellectual eminence, but from a variety of other considerations, amongst which might be mentioned high character, general habits of business, practical good sense, amiability, devotion to the interests of their respective societies, and last, but not least, a proneness to hospitality and social life in general. Some may be of opinion, that those qualities which recommended them to their particular colleges were a sufficient guarantee for their ability in the general government of the University. Others may think that the government of a learned body demanded a stronger element of literary and scientific accomplishment than was considered necessary by the electors of the respective colleges. This opinion, whether well founded or not, appears to have prevailed. The council of Heads of Houses has been obliged to give place to a council in which, perhaps, the chief power resides with the Heads of Faculties. The Dons are superseded by the Professors, for even those who are associated with the latter body are quasiprofessors, being, if not teachers themselves, considered chiefly as the directors of bodies of teachers. The council of Practical Men is superseded by a council of Notables. Some may fear that the advantages the University may gain from this change in the promotion of its learning, will be compensated by a deficiency in the conduct of its business; and this, it must be owned, will be the result, if it be true that men of learning and men of business are two incompatible classes. We will not presume to judge in this, to us, delicate matter; we will only endeavour to

form an estimate of the weight and extent of the fact, and its bearing on the general character of the University.

We must revert to the words of Doctor Pusey, quoted by M. de Montalembert in the heading of this article, which, ignorant of the occasion on which they were used, we give on the authority of that eminent Frenchman: "The English universities were founded, not to make books, but men." Whatever was the purpose of their first foundation, such a result of their existence has been in time past universally appreciated. It is borne out by popular phraseology, which, it must be admitted on all hands, is no despicable evidence as to matter of fact. While the members of other universities seem to change their nature as soon as their studies are completed, and to be confounded with the world at large, Oxford and Cambridge seem to set a stamp on a man for the whole of life. We speak of Oxford men and Cambridge men much more emphatically than of Leipzig and Göttingen men. In common talk we divide the members of a German or French university into students and professors-we divide, or rather we used to divide, the members of the University of Oxford into men and Dons, the Don being a man and something more. The body of Dons are, or rather used to be, the hereditary peerage of Oxford; hereditary not by the usual manner of hatching, but born of Alma-Mater in a sublime and exceptional manner, as Minerva was produced perfect in growth and cap-à-pie from the head of Jupiter. The body of Dons was formerly considered to consist par excellence of the Heads of Colleges and Halls, the Canons of Christchurch, the Doctors and senior Professors absolutely, relatively to the junior members of all those amongst the senior men who assimilated to the incontrovertible Dons in character, or at least in carriage. From this it would appear that no exact definition has been formed as to what does and what does not constitute a Don, although a great many definitions have doubtless been attempted.

Among other tests which have

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