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welcome news that we might push on; and accordingly we remounted, and again followed him up dry watercourses and over rocky paths to a village situated at the head of the valley, and embowered amid gigantic trees, a little beyond which we emerged upon a large green meadow surrounded by a paling, in the centre of which stood a group of cottages, and at the gate the stalwart and venerable person of our host.
The process of the evening before was repeated: the beds were spread and the sheep killed, and conversation carried on with our entertainer. Fortunately the sun had not yet set, and nothing could exceed the beauty of the scene as we sat at the door of the konak. We had attained an elevation of between four and five thousand feet above the sea, and from our lofty point of view looked over the intervening ranges to the level horizon line of the ocean. As the sun descended, lights and shadows played over the vast extent of mountain country which lay heaped in a confused mass before us. In wonderful and rapid variety we could watch the night creeping slowly over valley after valley; the bright tints upon the hill-tops became gradually circumscribed until they disappeared altogether, and the golden path upon the distant ocean vanished; but on the fantastic outline of the clouds was still painted a bright record of its departed glory, until at last that too melted away, and the long and eventful day was over. It was a worthy recompense for all our toil to revel in such a scene, and then to wait until the moon appeared above the highest mountain-peak, and to watch its silvery rays glancing into the dark recesses of the valleys at our feet, into which no traveller had ever penetrated; and to think how many curious nooks and crannies in this world of ours there are which have been illuminated for centuries by its calm, cold light, but which will remain for centuries to come unknown and unexplored. How long will it be before another party of Englishmen watch a sunset from that spot, or cross the range behind which the moon has just risen? And yet there is not a country in the world more full of attractions to the traveller;
every step he takes is over untrodden ground. Every village he passes through has remained heretofore unvisited. Almost every man he meets gazes with wonder for the first time in his life upon a stranger from the West. The hammer of the geologist has never tapped the rocky mountain sides; its luxuriant vegetation has never been subject to the scrutiny of the botanist. Its vegetable and mineral resources are alike unknown, and its inhabitants uncared for. They know indeed more of us than we do of them, for the more enterprising among them occasionally undertake journeys to Mecca, or go to Constantinople upon visits to their wives or daughters who are luxuriating in the harems of that city. There they often stay for some time, and become familiar with the appearance of Franks, and come to their highland villages with wonderful stories of the race that never visits them, and of which they know nothing more than that they are Giaours, and are for the most part called Anglia, and Frances, and that they hate the "Muscovs," and that therefore something is to be expected of them; and so they were not astonished when they saw our steamers upon the coast, though they may not have anticipated so rapid a result. That only inspired them with the more ardent hopes and notion of our prowess. But with the desire of freedom is mixed up a little suspicion of the purity of our motives in thus espousing their cause; and now that we have deserted it, the probable opinion in Circassia will be, that the English, after destroying the Russian forts, sent a party into Circassia to explore it, and see whether it was worth possessing; but finding it only a rocky and impracticable country, containing a very independent set of savages, they have relinquished the idea, and have no objection to Russia's expending her resources in the acquisition of this strip of mountains. Among many of the Circassians the idea exists, which is also common in Turkey, that the Sultan is the kingmaker-general throughout the world, and that the origin of this last war has been the contumacious conduct of one of his vassals, to wit, the Emperor
of Russia, who has attempted to throw off the authority of the Padisha. In order to punish this powerful rebel Turkey has called in her liege subjects the Emperor of France and Queen of England, who are bound to maintain "the integrity and independence of the Ottoman empire," of which Russia forms part, and they have in consequence been spending themselves in the good cause. The Circassians, who entertain the highest reverence for the head of their religion at Constantinople, would desire nothing better than to owe him that nominal allegiance which they suppose is professed by other nations, for then they think they would be protected. At present they regard themselves at the mercy of Russia, England, or any other voracious power who may manifest a desire to annex them. In order, therefore, to travel comfortably in Circassia it is necessary to be provided with a firman from the Sultan, which always commands the highest possible respect; while, on the other hand, a traveller without being thus accredited is always an object of suspicion and distrust.
The more bigoted the Mahometan the more unwilling he is to receive
him, and the Naib has behaved ungraciously to those who have visited him even though provided with a Sultan's firman. This feeling of antipathy to Giaours generally has been increasing a good deal lately under the influence of this man. In future it is not to be expected that Englishmen attempting to travel in Circassia will be received even as we were, for not only is the power of the Naib spreading, but our conduct in having allowed the Russians to re-establish their blockade will make us unpopular, while the difficulty of breaking through it will remain the same as it was before the war, Meantime the night air is getting chill, and the sounds of animated conversation which proceed from the konak warn me not to remain speculating any longer upon the neglected condition of the interior of Circassia, if I have any regard for the equally neglected condition of my own.
I have, indeed, allowed myself a sufficiently long digression; since sunset the sheep has been caught, killed, and cooked, and there is absolutely the little round table even now being carried into the konak. So "revenons à nos moutons."
THE PORCH AND THE GARDEN: A DIALOGUE.
"Eudoxus held that pleasure was the chief good, because he saw that all things, both reasoning and unreasoning, aimed at it, and that in all the object of choice was by nature good,-so that whet was the prime object of choice was the best thing: but the fact that all things were bent upon the same object seemed to show that this object was the best of all; for that each thing was used to find by instinct that which was good for itself, in like manner as its proper food; therefore that which was good to all, and aimed at by all, must be the chief good."-ARISTOTLE'S Ethics, Book x., ch. 2.
SCENE.-The Rose Arbour.
IRENEUS, PROFESSOR NEBEL, REVEREND CELSUS COPE, TLEPOLEMUS.
IRENEUS.-Obliged as I am to you, Professor, for favouring me with this visit at all, considering my idleness and your occupations, I am especially obliged to you for crossing the sea at a season of the year when you are perhaps at your best, and we are at our worst. This is the first real day of Spring to us islanders. The east wind has swindled us out of all the rest; and of the little that remains before the midsummer heats we must make the most. It does not strike me that this pest of east wind was near so afflicting in our earlier years: perhaps we did not feel it, though it existed; but I have a kind of notion that it is connected with Free Trade, and is come to us without let or hindrance, and free of duty, to punish us for receiving with open arms everything, both bad and good, that comes from abroad. It seems now to have overborne and destroyed the mild winds which usually reigned at this time of year, just as the Norway rats have extirpated the more gentle, or rather the less ungentle, British species of those vermin, and just as the redlegged partridge, wherever its introduction is attempted, will beat out of the field the more valuable bird of our islands. Oh, that this tyrannous Eurus might be averted with sacrifice! I would willingly go to the expense of a calf or a pig to propitiate him.
NEBEL. You have killed the fatted calf for your friends, and therefore he is out of the question; but if I were to suggest a congenial animal, I should say a goose, for Eurus gives me a goose-skin whenever I confront him. You said, however, just now, that you supposed the east wind to
be imported from abroad. I hope
gave him a black eye with the corner of his own cap, thereby endangering his character for respectability. Surely it seemed as if the spirit of the east wind had got into that tavern sign and that college cap.
CELSUS.-I do not approve of applying terms of abuse to natural phenomena. The east wind is as much a part of the creation as the north or the south; in fact, I have read that he results from the polar wind meeting the equatorial, so that he is the child of Boreas and the south wind, which must therefore be feminine, and it is a mere accident of his birth that he was not the west wind, unless, indeed, he be a changeling. It does not follow that because he makes us uncomfortable he is bad in himself; indeed, I think if we could look into his real nature we should find him, like everything else made by the same hands, very good.
PLEPOLEMUS.-We all stand corrected; and it is better to acknowledge our thoughtlessness now than to argue the matter farther, else we may possibly hear it from your pulpit next Sunday, when we can neither retract nor refute. I always think that preaching at people for opinions known to have been broached on other occasions is a most unfair use to make of the pulpit, just as it is to preach at those against whom you may have a spite, as some clergymen have done in my hearing: not that you do it, Celsus. But of course I was only attempting to be pleasant at the expense of the east wind. My real opinion is, that everything may be made a best and a worst of, even the east wind, when he brings on his wings the noisome smoke of London, to overshadow your lovely garden, Irenæus, which otherwise might have been the model garden of Epicurus and his disciples.
CELSUS.-I had rather not be counted as one of the pigs from the herd of Epicurus, as Horace calls them, including himself.
TLEPOLEMUS.-I have a lurking suspicion that our friend Irenæus, if not exoterically, and before the world, at least esoterically, and in his closet, is a bit of an Epicurean, else he would not have been a mem
ber of the Peace Society in times past not very long ago.
CELSUS. I have also a kind of shadowy notion that love of pleasure is at the bottom of the principles of the Peace Association; but being no philosopher, as Professor Nebel is, I cannot clothe my notion in the fitting expressions.
IRENEUS.-You seem, all of you, determined, if possible, to give me no peace in my own paradise. I do not know that I am ready to father the principles which you attribute to me; but if you will guarantee that the argument shall be carried on only to such an extent as to give a fillip to digestion
IRENEUS.-I do not object to undertake the case as advocate, providing Professor Nebel will be on my side. In England, Professor, we like fair play, not three upon one.
NEBEL-And yet you were three, no, four upon one, in your war with Russia!
IRENEUS.-He had me there. If you Germans had joined, Nebel, in keeping the peace, there would have been no war at all. But I strongly object to politics after dinner, so I will accept your invitation to a friendly argument; and here goes my gauntlet into the arena. Happiness, according to all philosophers, is the chief good, and happiness, according to my view, consists in pleasure.
NEBEL. — Philosophical nevertheless, and, at all events, fairly admitting of discussion.
IRENEUS. Thanks, Hegelian, thou hast backed me right well! Now, Aristotle, that great Grecian sage, when he wished to consider a question fully, used to begin by stating what was the opinion of the multitude about it, and then by observing how far that opinion was corroborated by the select and educated few. Now there is no doubt that the multitude consider happiness to consist in pleasure, for a man is popularly said to be happy when he is intoxicated, and pleasure, in the opinion of the vernacular multitude, is nearly synonymous with intoxica
tion; but the doctors, I must admit, differ about it considerably. The stoics of old, for instance, and the medieval ascetics, considered pleasure as entirely evil in its nature, which supposing to be the case, pain, its opposite, would be entirely good, not relatively or accidentally good, just as the cold-water system may be good to the individual, but absolutely good in its own nature, which is a manifest absurdity, and contrary, as Aristotle might say, to the opinions* both of the Poll + and the Peer, both of the Gents and the Gentlemen. The Epicureans, on the other hand, like our friend Eudoxus, who was older than Epicurus, considered pleasure as identical with happiness; and their opinion, as we have seen, is supported not only by that of the herd of men, but of all the herds of beasts, and all the flights of birds in the creation, and, in any case, must be allowed to rest on the broadest basis of all possible. Those who held that truth was a mean between extremes, namely, Aristotle and his followers, without ignoring that pleasure was of itself a good, and pain an evil, recognised a higher independent motive peculiar to man, as distinguishing him from the brutes, namely, duty; and held that happiness consisted in doing one's duty; and that, if one did one's duty, pleasure would follow as a matter of course, without any intention on the part of the agent; so that, in fact, pleasure is not to be pursued, but towed behind, and, like the wife of Orpheus, after he had rescued her from the shades, will vanish if looked back upon. In fact, Aristotle's method of persuasion is something like a hint to an independent elector of a reformed burgh, that, if he gives his vote according to his conscience, unbiassed and unbribed, a five-pound note may be expected to follow the exercise of his privilege as a free Briton. With that other motive of Aristotle, utility, I have nothing to do. He himself considers it as merely a subordinate motive, sometimes being subsidiary to pleasure, and some
* Ταῖς δόξαις ἐνάντιον.
times to duty. Thus between the school who consider happiness to consist in sacrifice, whom, though I bow to with all respect, I consider utterly eccentric and unpractical, and those who consider it to consist in pleasure, are placed the Aristotelian waverers, who, to my thinking, are a somewhat hypocritical school, as they professed to be guided by motives which cannot stand alone, or indeed bear the test of examination. I confess I can see no motive in duty distinct from the pleasure its performance brings, either directly or indirectly.
CELSUS.-And yet it seems to me that when Nelson said " England expects every man to do his duty," he meant just the reverse of "England expects every man to do his pleasure."
TLEPOLEMUS.—I do not know that; the special duty of brave men being to quit themselves bravely in battle, their duty would be the same as their pleasure, assuming them to be brave; for, according to Aristotle, none can be brave but those who take pleasure in being so. Nelson was not speaking of your duty, Celsus, which some of your cloth expect every man to do for them, but of the warrior's duty.
IRENEUS.-All gentlemen who are my guests will be so good as to recollect that the cloth is removed; even if it were not, I do not wish it to be besmirched or rumpled. But, Celsus, I throw my shield over you on this express condition, that you meet my arguments, not as a clergyman, which, of course, you can easily do, but as an ancient philosopher. It would not be fair to use the Minié rifle in conflict with bows and
CELSUS. Of course not. So suppose me Cato the Censor, or that tough old sage who was pounded in a mortar by a tyrant, and boasted, during the operation, that, although his outer-bag might be damaged, his soul was perfectly free. Regulus was a favourite illustration of ours. If Regulus did what was right when he went back to Carthage, he was
+ Cambridge for i éλan.