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The Thames by Moonlight

97

Saturn and his Rings

98

Phases of Saturn

100

Comparative Magnitude of the Planets 105

Initial o

108

Comet of 1456, as seen at Constantinople 116

Various Forms of Comets

117

Comet of 1744

119

Schroeter and Bessel's Comets

120

Comet of 1811, as seen at Winchester 121

Comet of 1811

123

Encke's Comet of 1795

123

Orbit of the Comet of 1832

125

Comet of 1843, as seen on the Essequibo 127

Initial F

130

Meteoric Shower in Greenland

138

at the Fall of Niagara 139

on Lake Niagara

140

Theory of Meteoric Showers

141

Initial W

143

Mouth of the Dardanelles

145

Banks of the Euphrates

145

The Constellations

149–152

Initial T

158

Herschel's Telescope

160

Milky Way

161

Initial w

166

Groups of Nebulæ

178

Nebulous Appearances

180—187

Tail-piece, Nebulæ

192

Physical Geography

193

Port of Sidon from the Sea

194

Map of the World

195

Leuctra and Cape Matapan

198

Mouth of the Bosphorus

199

Initial I

200

Mount Egmont, New Zealand

201

Peter Botte Mountain

202

Cotopaxi

211

Mount Etna, from Syracuse

213, 214

Initial I

215

Defile of the Darial

216

Glacier of the Rhone

218

Vale of Dovedale

220

Great Plain of the Caucasus

224

Lake of Mandia

226

Sand Storm in the Desert

227

Ruins of Palmyra from the Desert

Llanos of Badajoz

231

The Pyrenees from the Plain of Langue-

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237

Kirkdale Cave

238

Jorulla Mountain, Mexico

239

Cave of Fingal

241

Peveril of the Peak's Castle

243

Cupola Cave

244

Organ Blue John Cavern

249

Kirkdale Cave, Yorkshire

252

Kent's Cave, near Torquay

253

Gailenreuth

25+

Section of Gailenreuth Cave

255

Grotto del Cane

256

Caverns of Dudley Castle

257

Entrance to Odin's Mine

258

Fountain of Arethusa

259

Castalian Spring, Mount Parnassus

260

St. Winifred's Well

264

Intermittent Spring

265

Pool of Siloam

267

The Great Geyser, Iceland

273

Dripping Well, Knaresborough

277

Falls of Tivoli

278

The Susquehannah

The Rhine at Oberweisel

222

Katerskill Falls

PAGE

Sargent.

Falls of the Trolhetta

283

Falls of the Terni

286

Natural Bridge, Virginia

291

E. Weeden. Valley of the Concon, Chili

293

The Nile at the Pyramids

296

Meissonier. Source of the Angitus

300

Forrester. Natural Bridge of Ain-el-Leban

301

Sargent. Loch Katterine

309

Forrester. The Kandel Steig, Switzerland

310

Cascades in Mount Taurus

313

Sargent. The Dead Sea

314

Lake Saratoga

Lake Joanina

Cader Idris

Source of the Jordan

325

St. Helena

326

Fiords of Norway

332

Gale in the Pacific

335

Icefields

337

Icebergs

338

The Ægean Sea, from Ægina

346

Mouth of the Bosphorus

347

Weeden.

Cape Horn

Sargent. Initial T

Lancaster Sands

355

Port of Ægina

357

Solway Sands

Cronburg Castle, Cattegut

363

Sinope on the Black Sea

Straits of Gibraltar

Initial W.

370

Valley of Chamouni

372

Barren Island

Hotham Island

377

St. Eustatia, West Indies

Weeden. Blocks of Coral

Aurora Island

381

Dean's Island

381

Sargent. Banks of the Euphrates

385

Forrester. Whitby Abbey

386

Undercliff, Isle of Wight

Hob Hole, Whitby.

393

Sargent. The Needles, Isle of Wight

Bonner. Bay of Alexandria

397

Sargent. Coast of Asia Minor, from the Isle of Samos 398

Gulf of Trieste

399

Coast of Puzzioli

Plains of Kosova.

406

Forrester. Initial A. .

407

The Righi Pass

409

Valley of the Adige

413

Sargent. Rhymer's Hill

417

Forrester. White Mountains, Alleghany

419

Sargent. Plains of Thebes

422

Valley of the Catecucaumene

430

Fissures of Polistena.

432

Circular Hollows, ditto

433

Volcanic Mountain of Orizaba

434

Forrester Initial I.

435

Sargent. A Calm at Sea

438

Monsoon.

443

Vesuvius from St. Elmo

445

Hurricane in the Tropics

451

Waterspout in the Mediterranean

457

Duncan. Tail-piece, Man overboard

460

Sargent. Ignis Fatuus

461

Loch Achray

465

Durrenstein, on the Danube

466

A Thunder Storm.

469

A Snow Storm

479

Castle of the Seven Towers

483

Initial W

Plains of Beloochistan

485

Harvey. Mount Ararat

488

Gorge of the Tyrolese Alps

490

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PAGE Sargent. Alleghany Mountains.

494 The Andes

496 Cape of Good Hope

503 Theodomer and his Army crossing the Danube

509 Fair on the river Thames

512 Boiling Mud, Iceland Tower of St. Mark, Venice

521 Aurora Borealis, Loch Leven

524 Hudson's Bay

526 Parhelia .

531 Rainbow, Rosamond's Bower

533 Lunar Rainbow

534 Mirage in the Desert

536 Atmospheric Illusion

537 Prior. Fata Morgana at Reggio

538 Sargent. Spectre of the Brocken

541 Refraction in the Polar Seas

543 Ignis Faluus

544 Anon. The Ortler Spitz

547 Sargent. A Pine Forest

553 Forrester. The Banian Tree

554 Sargent. A Palm Forest

557 Cedars

559 dnon. Shell of the Sea Urchin

572 Sargent. Group of Fish

577 Boa Constrictor, and Rattlesnake

579 Groups of Birds.

581 Group of Animals

585 Esquimaux Hut.

597 Classical Heads

603 Groups of Physiognomical Portraits, 603, 604.

606. South Sea Islanders

610 Restoration of Antediluvian Animals 611 M. Stanley, Limestone Rocks in the Gulf of Corinth · 612 Sargent. Land Slip

613 Major Irton. Castalian Fall

614 Sargent. Coast of Arcadia

618 Meissonier. Rocks of Meteora in Albania

621

.

Cave of Jupiter, Ægina.
Crick Hill, Derbyshire
Lurly on the Rhine
Ben Lomond, from the Lake
Arquille de Dru
The Needle Rocks, Isle of Wight
The Taygetus Range
Skiddaw Mountain
The Bone Hill, Ludlow
The Brecon Mountains
Vale of the Towy
The Stiper Stones
Old Lincoln Quarry Iron Bridge
The Palmer's Cairn
Trap Dyke at Brockhill
Caverns under Nottingham Castle
Nottingham Castle
Mountain Ridge at Leuctra
Restoration of the Saurians
Iguano Cornuto
Initial T
Mount Parnassus
Alum Bay, Isle of Wight
Cerithium Giganteum
Animals of the Paris basin
Chain of the Mont du Dôme
Erratic Blocks, Massachussets
Monument Mountain
Sand Drift near Cape Cod
Rocking Stone, Fall River

Cornwall
Diluvial Formations near Athens
Cyclopean Remains
Plains of Mantinea

Vizitelly. Sargent. Vizitelly. Harvey Anon. Sargent. Vizitelly. Sargent. Forrester. Anon.

707 710 717 724 729 731 737 742

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These Maps have been constructed to show the sidereal hemisphere visible on the parallel of Greenwich, and being also adapted to the meridian of Greenwich, they are drawn on the plane of that horizon. To insure the greatest amount of accuracy, the stereographic projection has been made use of, because of all projections that occasions the least possible disarrangement of the relative position of the stars and of the angles they form one with another.

There is a difficulty in reducing a concave surface to a plane without distortion taking place somewhere, and in the projection here adopted a little compression will be found, gradually increasing from the horizon to the centre of the map. The constellations when at or near the zenith, will be found to be somewhat smaller than when at the extremities of the projection or near the horizon. Three, four, or five stars may appear in the heavens so as to form a group, and present to the observer the appearance of a triangle, a rhomboid, trapezium, or parallelogram, which figures are more correctly preserved by this projection than by any other which might have been made use of.

The difference between celestial and terrestrial maps should not be lost sight of. When a comparative observation is made between one of these maps and the heavens at any of the times given on the next page, the map should be held up in a vertical position, placing that part of the map downwards towards which the observer is directing his attention. For instance, if the stars in the south are to be examined, the person's face must be turned that way, with the south or bottom of the map downwards; if for the north, the map must be reversed, with the north or top of the map downwards, when a complete view of the heavens in either of those directions will be obtained. If for the east and west, the sides of the map are to be similarly held, corresponding with the aspect required.

The centre of each map represents the zenith, that part of the heavens which is exactly over the observer's head, and will answer equally well for any other place upon the same parallel of latitude, making the allowance of four minutes for each degree, east or west, sooner or later; which shows that all persons living on the same parallel of latitude bave in succession the same view of the starry concave. Another appearance would be presented if the observer were at either of the poles. Supposing there were inhabitants at the Nortli Pole, to them one half of the firmament would never set, and the other half would never rise. The polar star would be their zenith, and appear quite stationary, with all the other stars in view revolving round it in circles. To such inhabitants the equator would be the horizon, and at whatever elevation a star was first seen in their winter, there it would remain, and appear to complete a circle at that elevation once in every twenty-four hours.

If there were inhabitants at the South Pole, they would be similarly situated with regard to stars in the southern hemisphere; they would never see the stars on the north side of the equator or northern hemisphere, nor would those in the southern hemisphere ever set to them.

To the inhabitants of the equator, the whole of the stars from pole to pole, rise and set perpendicularly to their horizon once in every twenty-four hours. As the equator has no parallel of latitude, so bas its zenith no declination, because the celestial equator passes immediately over it in a line from east to west. If an observer moves towards either pole from the equator ; for every degree of his progress his zenith will have just so many degrees of declination, and as many degrees can he see beyond the pole towards which he is advancing, and he will lose sight of the pole from which he is receding in the same proportion. For example, as the inhabitants of London are situated 511° from the equator northwards, their zenith is 511° elevated above the celestial equator. As 511° is the distance from the zenith to the equator, it follows that 38° must be seen by an inhabitant of London below the equator to make up the complement of the quadrant, or 90°. Between the zenith and the pole will be found 381°, requiring 514° beyond the pole to complete the other quadrant of 90°, thus together completing the hemisphere of 180°.

With these preliminary explanations a few words will explain the use of the maps.
Each map may be supposed to represent the heavens at the hours named. The dotted circle crossing

xii

DESCRIPTION AND USE OF THE SIDEREAL MAPS.

the graduated meridian line at 41°, is the circle of perpetual apparition, the stars within that circle being visible at all times from the meridian of Greenwich.

The maps may, by a little calculation, be made to represent the aspect of the heavens at other times than is named; for instance, reckoning backwards, and allowing a difference of about twenty minutes for every five days, or four minutes for every twenty-four hours, we find that on the 21st of January at 40 minutes past 1 o'clock in the morning, the stars will appear as they are represented in the map for March, and so on for every other month, following the same reckoning for every day in the year.

TABLE SHOWING THE HOUR AND DAY WHEN THE STARS OCCUPY THE

POSITION INDICATED IN THE MAP.

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